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  • 1. Evora, Maria Kristina Cassanda R. Mam Agnes Arellano /ProfessorBlk.. 3 / BSED-3 Unit VI Techniques Used in Guidance Process Education and guidance cannot succeed without evaluation of the individual pupiland it said that pupil progress was measured on the basis of the learning content. It was stated that teachers evaluate how much knowledge has been acquired whetherskills have been developed or what attitude have been changed. Some are phases ofprogress can easily be measured and interpreted objectively. Other aspects are sosubjective in nature that they require correct interpretation of available data andinformation made by not only one but two or more experts. Here are different techniques presently used for purposes of pupil or individualevaluation. First is the observation which is said to be the basic guidance techniques. It measuredthe behavior and personality of an individual in terms of what he says or does. Second is the autobiographical sketches that talks about the individual’s life story-routine behavior, attitudes, interests, ideals-written by himself. Third is the biographical sketches which can be written as assignment. Students canbe asking to write a diary or a record of their daily activities. Fourth is the autobiographies that help the counselor to understand the pupils in formof therapeutic treatment. Fifth is the anecdotal record which is short description of a significant event orincident of a pupil’s overt behavior. Sixth is the recording data which is just a necessary and important as gathering datathat should be recorded that they can be used in when and where they are needed. Seventh is the interview which is considered the heart of the counseling processwhich is not just a casual conversation between counselee and counselor, although it canoften become the basis for the need for an interview. And the last is the test and testing which is most commonly used specializedtechnique in guidance and counseling which is said to be no limitations and subjective. For me, these techniques that are being used in the guidance process are effectiveenough to help the person who is in the middle of problem and frustrations. In here, wecan easily know a person, know his strengths and weaknesses and know the right andbetter help that they need in order for them to be guided in the right way of life.
  • 2. Evora, Maria Kristina Cassanda R. Mam Agnes Arellano / ProfessorBlk.. 3 / BSED-3 Unit VII Educational Guidance This chapter distinguished from other areas or aspects of guidance and it is alsoconcern with the assistance given to pupils in their choices and adjustment in relation toschool. They said education is life; any help given by our parents during our younger years athome start from kindergarten in even in adult life is covered by educational guidance. In our pre-school age our mother helps us on proper eating, sleeping and cleanliness.Our parents guide us as well in handling simple interesting but appropriate playthings andputting them away. In the nursery and kindergarten school should serve as a supplement to, never assubstitute for, parental guidance in the home. The teacher accepts the child’s dependenceupon her and serves us parents’ substitutes in giving the child a sense of security andaffection, so that the change from home to school may have no adverse results. In elementary, guidance is administered indirectly through participation inassemblies, programs, projects, and other activities. Some aims of elementary school is tohelp the child understand social relationship, discover desirable attitudes, develop thehabit of critical thinking and others. In highschool, there is now a common general curriculum for the first and secondyears and differentiated curricula in the third and fourth years leading to a college careeror technical vocational course. In adolescents stage wherein it is considered as a period oftransition, exploration and experimentation characterized by new interest and newoutlook in life which guidance has a great function in guiding those behaviors. Some areadjustment to a new school, learning problems, school attendance, emotional problemsphysical needs and others. In college, guidance program should have the sincere and active cooperation on themajority of the college or university personnel. One of the activities of guidance is toorient students to college and university life throughout the Philippines. They are able tohelp students through interpreting and making known institutional objectives andopportunities to prospective students and parents as well as to the secondary schools,selecting and admitting students in cooperation with secondary schools, orientingstudents to each new phase of college life and others. In adult education, it is adult of all ages especially those who had no formal schoolingneed guidance in achieving self realization and adjustment to their life activities. Sometypes of problem that might bring up and for which the counselor should be prepared are“how can a newcomer to a neighborhood belong?, what recreational activities areappropriate? and other things to consider.
  • 3. Evora, Maria Kristina Cassanda R. Mam Agnes Arellano / ProfessorBlk.. 3 / BSED-3 Unit VIII Vocational Guidance For me, it is systems of scientifically based measures that help young people choose avocation, while taking into account individual aptitudes and the needs of the nationaleconomy. The system of vocational guidance also helps young people find suitable jobs. Vocational guidance familiarizes young people with the branches of the nationaleconomy, types of vocational training; the national economy’s needs, and jobopportunities. It also helps define vocational aims and provides direct assistance in theselection of a vocation and job placement. The most important function of vocationalguidance is to interest young people in particular types of work. Vocational selection andadaptation are closely related to vocational guidance.Vocational guidance conforms to the republic and oblast systems for admittingsecondary-school students to vocational-technical schools and to higher and specializedsecondary educational institutions. The leading role in the vocational guidance ofstudents is played by the secondary general-education school, whose curriculum includesvocational guidance.The curriculum also includes basic subjects, polytechnic subjects, and manual training.Vocational guidance is not a mere technical process by which a person can be fitted insome vocation. Also he is not born for some vocation. The persons having normalintelligence can be adjusted in various vocations.Schools are aided in the work of vocational guidance by industry and by vocational-technical, specialized secondary, and higher educational institutions, through open-housedays, clubs, and competitions. Also assisting in the work of vocational guidance arespecialized establishments, usually existing within the public education system, job-placement commissions for young people, and commissions within the executivecommittees of soviets of people’s deputies that deal with the affairs of minors.In vocational guidance, a person is evaluated with regard to his capacities, capabilitiesand the changed conditions in the vocational areas and needs. In the vocational guidancethe help is included in order to solve various problems related to the selection of avocation, which is provided keeping in view the expected capabilities.
  • 4. Evora, Maria Kristina Cassanda R. Mam Agnes Arellano / ProfessorBlk.. 3 / BSED-3 Unit IX Problems of GuidanceCounselors can help a great deal in regulating student activities.c) Cheating- it is said that, today cheating seems to have become a way of life among students. They do it in the open, apparently without a sense ofguilt. Some teachers do some strategies to minimize cheating. Like the example that wasstated on the book about a high school teacher who discovered that she could minimizecheating by appointing weekly reporters, usually those who have excess energy, arerestless and the cause of complaint by some teachers.Reporters- made a consolidated report of the number of times a classmate had cheated and if the number exceed eleven times, the student suffered a five percent deduction for the particular grading period. Most of her test was dictated to the class to give students no time to get help fromseatmates.Time of Fr. Delaney- the students practiced the “honor system” whereby the students where left alone by the instructor during tests and quizzes. If the students did cheat, he raised his hand and said “I had cheated, Father Delaney”.Students were thus guided against cheating.d) Change sense of values- students of yesterday entered their class with only one purpose- to learn but today students go to theirclassroom with only one purpose-to pass whichguidance gave attention as well.Example: A highschool teacher taking graduate subjects in a teacher’s institution was taking the final examination in Advanced Tests and Measurements.She noticed that the first pages of her answer sheets were missing. Shefound out that they had been taken by her classmates, among whowere teachers, principals and supervisors.
  • 5. 3) Problems in the student discipline- in an ideal guidance program, it is the administrator who enforces regulations and discipline among students who violate school rules andregulations.Counselor- serve as consultant n helping a student evaluate his behavior and distinguish the right from the wrong.Guidance- cannot be take charge of disciplinary action on violations of school rules and regulations because the students might shy away from the guidance clinic and from the counselors.However, counselor can deal with disciplinary problems such as: 1) truancy 2) cutting classes 3) stealing 4) cheating 5) misbehaving outside and inside the classrooms 6) insubordination 7) violation of school rules and regulations - If they will only exercise tact, patience, sincerity, and “I am here to help you” attitude.Friendly interview - helps teacher and counselor to better understood other forms of anti- social behavior.4) Social maladjustment- when an individual is in harmony between himself and has environment, he is said to be mentally healthy. He isable to adapt himself to others and to the community inwhich he lives.According to the book of Educational Psychology:Social adjustment- more than just making changes in the behavior of an individual in order to fit himself into community in which he lives.Mental health or adjustment- should be to make “those changes in conduct or behavior of an individual in order to fit himself into thecommunity in which he must lives!” According to Dr. Estefania Aldaba Lim, mental health is better understood byknowing what mental health is not.She said that:
  • 6. 1) Having health is not an adjustment in all respect. To disagree, to come out of ones shell and protest against a harmful tradition orpolicy, is a surer sign of mental health.2) Mental health is not always freedom form anxiety and freedom. Anxiety is often a prerequisite of creativity and self-preservation.3) Neither is mental health freedom from dissatisfaction. Dissatisfaction can be a blessing in disguise because it can stimulate invention andprogress.4) Mental health is not conformity. What a mentally healthy individual can do is to assume an attitude of permissivenessand acceptance of people against whom he has biases.5) Mental health is not constant happiness. Experiments do not always succeed, but most of them in turn stimulate others.6) Mental is not the absence of personal idiosyncrasies. Education, guidance and human relations temper and modify one’s idiosyncrasies, butthey remain inside him wherever he goes.7) Mental health is not the undermining of authority. People obey and respect authority but it is normal to rebel, to object or to protest,especially if the object of protest is unjust dishonest, untrue harmful, oppressive, far tooauthoritative.8) Mental health is not an opposition to religious values. We have freedom of worship even there is a separation of church and state, but theycan work in harmony with each other in administering the welfare of the community andthe people.Home- maladjustment can be caused by overprotection, rejection by parent, over- affection, poverty or an unhappy life.School- it can be due to an unsuitable curriculum, poor and ineffective teaching methods, wrong attitude on the part of the teacher, over restriction and ineffective methods of handling undesirable behavior.
  • 7. All these can be revealed through interviews between the teacher and counselor, andthe latter can always assist a student to know himself and help him overcome the causesof his feeling of insecurity.5) The problem of the superior student. A move was started among civic- minded Filipino to form an association so thatgifted and talented children could be given better attention and help. The foundation forgifted children has become a reality since December 1959. Valedictorians andsalutatorians of all schools are given scholarships in the form of free tuition. Guidance maybe given to all students who need it, concerning participation instimulating activities which challenge their leadership- dramatics, public speaking, andjournalistic writing.Awards- in the form of cash, certificates, medals or awards in kind are granted as marks of distinction, thus encouraging the students to excel others in variousfields.6) Dropouts- in spite of compulsory education, only 46 percent of children who should be in school are accommodated. According to the First National Conference on Student Mental Health held in BaguioCity in October, 1959, the causes of non-continuance of schooling among Filipinocollege students are:Lack of personal disciplineInsufficient academic preparationPoor study habitsVocational misfitsInadequate financesPoor housing facilitiesEmotional disturbanceSchool policies The number of dropouts and failures in school can be minimizing if a guidanceprogram can be set up in every public and private school in the Philippines. - Those who have stop schooling because of poverty can be better prepared for a vocation. - Those who are able to continue can be guided in preparing for college education or for a vocational course.
  • 8. REPORT In Guidance and Counseling OfEvora, Maria Kristina Cassanda R.BLK. 3 / BSED-3Mam Agnes Arellano (Professor)
  • 9. Reflection In Guidance and Counseling OfEvora, Maria Kristina Cassanda R.BLK. - 3 / BSED - 3Mam Agnes Arellano (Professor)