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    Tutorial.07(1) Tutorial.07(1) Presentation Transcript

    • Tutorial 7: Wireless Networking
    • • Session 7.1 – Explore the history of wireless networks – Learn about Wi-Fi, MiFi, and wireless mesh networks – Investigate technologies used in personal area networks – Learn about wireless wide area networks – Investigate WiMAX and LTE networks – Investigate wireless devices and wireless broadband services New Perspectives on the Internet, 9th Edition Objectives 2
    • Objectives • Session7.2 – Investigate security concerns of wireless networks – Evaluate different wireless encryption methods – Understand some common security concerns of wireless devices – Learn about the different types of attacks on wireless devices – Learn how to protect the data stored on a wireless device New Perspectives on the Internet, 9th Edition 3
    • Session 7.1 Visual Overview Wireless Devices Timeline New Perspectives on the Internet, 9th Edition 4
    • The Evolution of Wireless Networks • A wired connection is one in which a device and the Internet service provider are connected using a cable • A wireless connection occurs when data is transferred to another location without the use of any wires • 1G (first generation) wireless networks were the first wireless technology (1978); an analog cellular network for voice only • Text messages contain only alphanumeric characters • 2G wireless or second-generation wireless is used primarily for voice conversations and text messages New Perspectives on the Internet, 9th Edition 5
    • The Evolution of Wireless Networks • In 1994, carriers created digital networks, or Personal Communication Service (PCS), on which data was transmitted in bits at a rate of up to 14.4 Kbps • A personal digital assistant (PDA) is a handheld computer that can send and receive wireless telephone and fax calls, act as a personal organizer, perform calculations, store notes, and display Web pages • 3G or third-generation wireless networks offer data transfer rates of up to 2 Mbps and constant connections New Perspectives on the Internet, 9th Edition 6
    • The Evolution of Wireless Networks New Perspectives on the Internet, 9th Edition • Mobile devices that combine the functionality of a cell phone with an operating system are usually called smartphones 7
    • The Evolution of Wireless Networks • Many carriers have transformed and upgraded their existing networks by creating 2.5G wireless networks that deliver faster transfer speeds and allow you to send files and access the Internet • A wireless device might automatically connect to a 2.5G network when a 3G network is unavailable • 3.5G wireless networks or mobile broadband provide very fast network connections • 3.5G wireless networks already exist in many countries and are being planned and tested in other countries New Perspectives on the Internet, 9th Edition 8
    • The Evolution of Wireless Networks • Some carriers now offer limited fourth-generation wireless networks (4G wireless) – Provides very fast network connection speeds – Delivers high-quality audio and video – Makes it possible to: • Move between wireless networks without losing signal • Perform multiple tasks on 4G devices (i.e., talking on the phone and browsing the Web) • The ability to process many tasks at the same time is called simultaneous support New Perspectives on the Internet, 9th Edition 9
    • Wireless Local Area Networking • A wireless local area network (WLAN) is a network on which devices use high-frequency radio waves instead of wires to communicate with a base station, which is connected to the Internet • Wi-Fi or wireless fidelity is the trademarked name of the Wi-Fi Alliance that specifies the interface between a wireless client and a base station, or between two wireless clients to create a hotspot • A hotspot is an area of network coverage New Perspectives on the Internet, 9th Edition 10
    • Wireless Local Area Networking New Perspectives on the Internet, 9th Edition 11
    • Wireless Local Area Networking • The transfer rate of data is the speed at which data is transmitted from an access point to a wireless device • An access point is a hardware device with one or more antennae that permits communication between wired and wireless networks so wireless clients can send and receive data • The range is the physical distance between the access point and the wireless device • A device called a dual band access point makes it possible to connect devices configured with two different Wi-Fi standards to the same access point New Perspectives on the Internet, 9th Edition 12
    • Wireless Local Area Networking • A multiple band access point makes it possible to connect any wireless device to the same access point • New notebook computers and other wireless devices are manufactured with Wi-Fi compatible hardware installed in them and software that locates Wi-Fi signals and automatically initiates the connection to the network • Citywide wireless networks are often called municipal broadband, Muni Wi-Fi, or Muni-Fi networks • MiFi is a small wireless router that provides a battery-operated, mobile, personal hotspot for connecting Wi-Fi devices to the Internet New Perspectives on the Internet, 9th Edition 13
    • Wireless Local Area Networking: Wireless Mesh Networks • Another type of wireless local area network is a wireless mesh network, which is commonly used to extend the reach of Wi-Fi hotspots to an enterprise New Perspectives on the Internet, 9th Edition 14
    • Personal Area Networking • Personal area networking (PAN) refers to the wireless network that connects personal devices to each other • There are two major types of PANs: – Using infrared technology you can wirelessly beam information from one device to another – Bluetooth provides short-range radio links between electronic devices • The Infrared Data Association (IrDA) is a group dedicated to developing low-cost, high speed wireless connectivity solutions New Perspectives on the Internet, 9th Edition 15
    • Personal Area Networking • A collection of devices connected in a personal area network using Bluetooth technology is called a piconet; it can connect two to eight devices at a time New Perspectives on the Internet, 9th Edition 16
    • Personal Area Networking New Perspectives on the Internet, 9th Edition 17
    • Wireless Wide Area Networking • Wireless wide area networking (WWAN) makes it possible to access the Internet from anywhere within the boundaries of the WWAN • A WWAN is a wireless network that provides network coverage to a large geographical area • To access the Internet using a WWAN, you need a WWAN PC card for the device you want to use and an account with the cellular carrier that operates the network New Perspectives on the Internet, 9th Edition 18
    • Metropolitan Area Networking • A metropolitan area network (MAN) provides wireless broadband Internet service to large geographical areas – Usually in hotspots of several square miles each – Connects these hotspots using technology similar to cellular service to create a very large area of network coverage. • Two competing MAN standards, both promising 4G networks around the world: – Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) – Long Term Evolution (LTE) New Perspectives on the Internet, 9th Edition 19
    • Metropolitan Area Networking: WiMAX • WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) is similar to Wi-Fi but it operates in a different radio spectrum and using a different network standard • Creates a connected area of network coverage, but in a much larger area than a Wi-Fi hotspot (up to 10 or more square miles) New Perspectives on the Internet, 9th Edition 20
    • Metropolitan Area Networking: WiMAX • WiMAX uses the 802.16 standards defined by the IEEE for metropolitan area networks, and broadcasts in the 2 to 11 GHz and 10 to 66 GHz radio spectrum • Since 2005, WiMAX has operated in numerous major metropolitan markets, including New York City • Because WiMAX can support many types of data transmissions, it is also used for VoIP, or Voice over Internet Protocol, which converts audio signals to digital packets so that you can use a broadband wired or wireless Internet connection to make local and long-distance telephone calls New Perspectives on the Internet, 9th Edition 21
    • Metropolitan Area Network: LTE • Long Term Evolution (LTE) provides 4G wireless broadband connections at very fast speeds to large geographical areas • In the United States, LTE is being developed primarily for mobile devices • A femtocell is a base station that uses minimal power to transmit the LTE signal from a wired connection, such as a cable or DSL modem, to LTE devices within its range to increase their speed New Perspectives on the Internet, 9th Edition 22
    • Using Wireless Devices to Access the Internet • The best way to begin a search for wireless solutions is to begin with an exploration of the network you’ll use • Most carriers offer specific products to work on their wireless networks • Some networks, such as those found in airports and hotels, let you pay a daily fee to use the network; other networks require a monthly fee for using the network New Perspectives on the Internet, 9th Edition 23
    • Session 7.2 Visual Overview: Wireless Security Concerns New Perspectives on the Internet, 9th Edition 24
    • Security Concerns for Wireless Networks • Ensuring the security of the data sent over a wireless network presents many challenges • Some of the security challenges are the same between wired and wireless networks • Protecting a wireless network is complicated by the fact that a wireless network sends its data through the air using radio signals that are subject to interception • The most basic security threat for wireless devices is the theft of the device itself New Perspectives on the Internet, 9th Edition 25
    • Methods for Securing Wireless Networks: Wireless Encryption Methods • Encryption is the process of coding information so that it is not readable by devices or people who do not have the secret key used to return the information back to its original, readable state • Most wireless networks are unsecured • There are many wireless encryption methods that provide different levels of protection for wireless networks • Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) is a security protocol for wireless LANs that works by encrypting data sent over the network New Perspectives on the Internet, 9th Edition 26
    • Methods for Securing Wireless Networks: Wireless Encryption Methods • When WEP is enabled, it encrypts the data sent over the network with a key, or passphrase, that is entered by the user New Perspectives on the Internet, 9th Edition 27
    • Methods for Securing Wireless Networks: Wireless Encryption Methods • Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) is a standard that was developed by the Wi-Fi Alliance to address some of the inherent weaknesses in WEP • WPA provides better encryption than WEP because WPA uses a preshared key to encrypt data and individual data packets are encrypted with different keys • Although WPA provides good protection, one drawback is that all devices in the network need to use WPA New Perspectives on the Internet, 9th Edition 28
    • Methods for Securing Wireless Networks: MAC Address Filtering • Each manufacturer of network interface cards adds a unique number, called a Media Access Control address (MAC address) to identify the device • A wireless network can be protected by designating the devices allowed to connect to the network • The MAC address for detachable network interface cards is usually printed on the card or USB device • A MAC address appears in the format 00:00:00:0A:0B:0C, as a combination of digits and letters New Perspectives on the Internet, 9th Edition 29
    • Methods for Securing Wireless Networks: Disabling the SSID Broadcast • When a wireless router or access point sends out its signal, it also broadcasts its service set identifier (SSID) as a way of identifying the network’s name • The SSID makes it possible for roaming devices to discover the network and enables you to log in to the correct network • Wardriving is a malicious activity that involves driving through a neighborhood with a wireless- enabled notebook computer with the goal of locating homes and businesses that have wireless networks in order to gain access to them New Perspectives on the Internet, 9th Edition 30
    • Methods for Securing Wireless Networks: Changing the Default Login • One of the most serious mistakes that home users make when installing a wireless network is the failure to change the default login for a device • This makes it possible for anyone who already knows the manufacturer’s generic default login information to access the wireless network • When you install a wireless network, make it a priority to change the default login and password • Keep your login in a safe place New Perspectives on the Internet, 9th Edition 31
    • Methods for Securing Wireless Networks: Changing the Default Login New Perspectives on the Internet, 9th Edition 32
    • Methods for Securing Wireless Networks: Using Software to Protect Wireless Networks • Larger wireless networks with many different devices connecting to them can supply an additional layer of security by running software that: – Prevents unauthorized network use – Protects against different kinds of security threats – Monitors the network for other types of problems that might affect the network’s reliability and performance New Perspectives on the Internet, 9th Edition 33
    • Understanding Security Threats to Wireless Devices • Wireless devices are subject to over-the-shoulder attacks, in which an unauthorized person uses his or her physical proximity to your device to attempt to get your login information, passwords, or other sensitive data while you’re working • When working in public places, be aware of where other people are located in proximity to you and your device • Most security experts advise against activities such as online banking, checking email, and online shopping in public places New Perspectives on the Internet, 9th Edition 34
    • Understanding Security Threats to Wireless Devices • An evil twin attack or café latte attack is when a hacker gathers information about an access point and then uses that information to set up his own computer to impersonate the access point • When you use a free public hotspot, the data you send is not usually encrypted or secure and so it is subject to hackers using sniffer programs • A man-in-the-middle attack (MITM attack) occurs when transmissions that are being sent between two devices are intercepted by a third party New Perspectives on the Internet, 9th Edition 35
    • Understanding Security Threats to Wireless Devices Security Concerns for Bluetooth-Enabled Devices • Bluejacking occurs when an anonymous message in the form of a phone contact displays as a text message to a Bluetooth device • Bluesnarfing occurs when a hacker with special software is able to detect the signal from a Bluetooth device and gain access to its data • Bluebugging occurs when a hacker gains access to the Bluetooth device and its functions New Perspectives on the Internet, 9th Edition 36
    • Understanding Security Threats to Wireless Devices • To protect a Bluetooth device from an attack, you can disable the device’s Bluetooth feature so that its signal is invisible or in undiscoverable mode Security Risks with Smartphone Applications • Smartphones have an operating system that can run programs, also called applications or apps • The predominant operating systems for smartphones are Apple iOS, Windows Mobile, BlackBerry OS, and Google Android New Perspectives on the Internet, 9th Edition 37
    • Understanding Security Threats to Wireless Devices • An app might contain malware or other security threats that seek to gain access to the user’s device, or perform other tasks that might somehow compromise the security of the device • Smartphone users should be especially careful when installing apps that require login information • Jailbreaking (on an Apple device) or rooting (on an Android device) is unlocking the operating system on a device in order to disable the device so it can run apps from other providers New Perspectives on the Internet, 9th Edition 38
    • Methods for Securing Wireless Devices • Make sure that the operating system installed on the device is always current • Check usage statistics to look for unauthorized usage • Lock your device with a password and set the device to lock after its use • Disable the autoconnect feature for connecting to Wi-Fi networks; this prevents an unknown network from connecting to the device without permission • Avoid storing login information and passwords on the device New Perspectives on the Internet, 9th Edition 39