Chapter 1 Vocabulary

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  • 1.
  • 2. science
  • 3. science
    organized way of using evidence to learn about the natural world; also, the body of knowledge that scientists have built up after years of using this process
  • 4.
  • 5. observation
  • 6. observation
    use of one or more of the senses—sight, hearing, touch, smell, and sometimes taste—to gather information
  • 7.
  • 8. data
  • 9. data
    evidence; information gathered from observations
  • 10.
  • 11. inference
  • 12. inference
    logical interpretation based on prior knowledge and experience
  • 13.
  • 14. hypothesis
  • 15. hypothesis
    possible explanation for a set of observations or possible answer to a scientific question
    OR
    an educated guess
  • 16.
  • 17. Spontaneous generation
  • 18. Spontaneous generation
    hypothesis (disproven) stating that life could arise from nonliving matter
  • 19.
  • 20. controlled experiment
  • 21. controlled experiment
    a test of the effect of a single variable by changing it while keeping all other variables the same
  • 22.
  • 23. manipulated variable
  • 24. manipulated variable
    factor in an experiment that a scientist purposely changes; also known as independent variable
  • 25.
  • 26. responding
    variable
  • 27. responding
    variable
    factor in an experiment that a scientist wants to observe, which may change in response to the manipulated variable; also known as a dependent variable
  • 28.
  • 29. theory
  • 30. theory
    well-tested explanation that unifies a broad range of observations
  • 31.
  • 32. biology
  • 33. biology
    science that seeks to understand the living world
  • 34.
  • 35. cell
  • 36. cell
    collection of living matter enclosed by a barrier that separates the cell from its surroundings; basic unit of all forms of life
  • 37.
  • 38. sexual reproduction
  • 39. sexual reproduction
    process by which cells from two different parents unite to produce the first cell of a new organism
  • 40.
  • 41. asexual reproduction
  • 42. asexual reproduction
    process by which a single parent reproduces by itself
  • 43.
  • 44. metabolism
  • 45. metabolism
    set of chemical reactions through which an organism builds up or breaks down materials as it carries out its life processes
  • 46.
  • 47. stimulus
  • 48. stimulus
    a signal to which an organism responds
  • 49.
  • 50. homeostasis
  • 51. homeostasis
    process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal environment
  • 52. ml
  • 53. metric system
    ml
  • 54. metric system
    decimal system of measurement based on certain physical standards and scaled on multiples of 10
    ml
  • 55.
  • 56. microscope
  • 57. microscope
    device that produces magnified images of structures that are too small to see with the unaided eye
  • 58.
  • 59. compound light microscope
  • 60. compound light microscope
    microscope that allows light to pass through a specimen and uses two lenses to form an image
  • 61.
  • 62. Electron microscope
  • 63. Electron microscope
    microscope that forms an image by focusing beams of electrons onto a specimen
  • 64.
  • 65. cell culture
  • 66. cell culture
    group of cells grown in a nutrient solution from a single original cell
  • 67.
  • 68. cell fractionation
  • 69. cell fractionation
    technique in which cells are broken into pieces and the different cell parts are separated