Evan Pugh, Chemical Education, and the Fight for Pennsylvania's Land Grant Designation


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Presentation for the 2012 Biennial Conference on Chemical Education, held in University Park, PA, and the 2012 American Chemical Society fall national meeting in Philadelphia, PA. Part of a symposium on "Celebrating the Sesquicentennial of the Land Grant College Act." This talk on Penn State's first president and chemist, Evan Pugh, focused on his advocacy for chemical and agricultural education and his ability to communicate the value of chemistry to the public.

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Evan Pugh, Chemical Education, and the Fight for Pennsylvania's Land Grant Designation

  1. “The almost desperate struggle… of attempting to place a new idea beforeindifferent and unprepared minds.” Dr. A. L. Elwyn, 1864
  2. CHEMICAL EDUCATION Justus von Liebig’s laboratory at Giessen, ca. 1840 (German History in Documents and Images)
  3. EVAN PUGH, PH.D. Portrait of Evan Pugh at the age of 21, in 1848 (Penn State University Archives)
  4. CHEMICAL CAREER Evan Pugh’s student identification card, ca. 1855 (Penn State University Archives) Evan Pugh’s dissertation, as printed in 1856 (Penn State University Archives)
  5. CHEMICAL CAREER Lawes Testimonial Laboratory, Rothamsted (Penn State University Archives) On the Sources of Nitrogen in Vegetables, 1860 (Penn State University Archives)
  6. CHEMICAL CAREER Chart used by Dr. Pugh to present his findings to the Royal Society of London (Penn State University Archives)
  7. SAMUEL W. JOHNSON Samuel W. Johnson, 1857 (Yale University Manuscripts & Archives)
  8. FARMERS’HIGH SCHOOL FEBRUARY 1855 Farmers High School of Pennsylvania, 1861 (Penn State University Archives)
  9. “I felt sure 3 years ago FARMERS’ when I suggested yourHIGH SCHOOL name to Dr. Elwyn FEBRUARY 1855 as the man for the Pa. Farmers High School that you were the man & am now glad that you are the man.” Samuel W. Johnson, October 18, 1859
  10. CHALLENGES Old Main and Farmers, 1860 (Penn State University Archives)
  11. CHALLENGES Farmers High School students, 1860 (Penn State University Archives)
  12. CHALLENGES Chemical lecture room at the Agricultural College of Pennsylvania, ca. 1862 (Penn State University Archives)
  13. CHALLENGES Old Main in 1863 (Penn State University Archives)
  14. CHALLENGES 110th Pennsylvania Infantry (Library of Congress)
  15. ADVANTAGES “sinewy” “broad-shouldered” “manly” “giant in stature” Evan Pugh (Penn State University Archives)
  16. NETWORK George C. Caldwell (Penn State University Archives) William H. Brewer (Calisphere) Charles F. Chandler (National Library of Medicine) Charles A. Goessman (University of Massachusetts-Amherst)
  17. MODELS Schloss Hohenheim, 1845 (Baden und Württemberg im Zeitalter Napoleons)
  18. COMMUNICATION Farmer and Gardener, December 1860 (Penn State University Archives) “What Science Has Done and May Do for Agriculture,” 1860 (Penn State University Archives)
  19. STRATEGY “The corner-stone of this college was educated labor… it was the distinctive feature, it was in this that they differed from other colleges.” John Hamilton, 1871 Students at work (Penn State University Archives)
  20. THEMES “The land wants artificial manure!” Evan Pugh, 1860
  21. THEMES “The land is worn out… it is well for us that we have new land. The time will come when the land must find rest by letting the people starve.” Evan Pugh, 1860
  22. THEMES “Quite recently, at the Farm School, I analyzed a manure… at $30.00 per ton… it proved to be not worth $5.00 per ton.” Evan Pugh, 1860
  23. THEMES “We must do it! We must do it in Pennsylvania! And I think, gentlemen, that we will do it.” Evan Pugh, 1860
  24. THE LAND GRANT Old Main, near completion, taken in 1863 by Evan Pugh with the assistance of a student (Penn State University Archives)
  25. THE LAND GRANTThe Penn State Seal
  26. THE LAND GRANT “The Agricultural College of Pennsylvania,” 1862 (Penn State University Archives)
  27. THE LAND GRANT A. C. Mullin in a letter to H. N. McAllister, April 10, 1863 (Penn State University Archives)
  28. THE LAND GRANT “A struggle… to prevent the rapacious greed of a swarm of secular colleges throughout the State from robbing the institution of the endowment...” C. Alfred Smith, 1890
  29. THE LAND GRANT “A Report Upon a Plan for the Organization of Colleges for Agriculture and the Mechanic Arts,” 1864 (Penn State University Archives)
  30. “I AM TIRED…” Evan Pugh’s last work, 1864 (Penn State University Archives)
  31. DEATHAPRIL 29, 1864
  32. LEGACY “Strange transmutations” (C. Alfred Smith) “Evil days” (W. F. Dunaway) “Era of drift” (Michael Bezilla) “Period of dormancy” (1955 Centennial brochure) “Poverty-induced aimlessness” (Margaret Tschan Riley)
  33. LEGACY George W. Atherton George Gilbert Pond (Penn State University Archives) (Penn State University Archives)
  34. LEGACY “May that face ever look down upon your deliberations with approval…” C. Alfred Smith, 1890
  35. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Roy Olofson Roger Egolf Jackie Esposito and the staff of the Eberly Family Special Collections Library