Climate Change Effects on Marine Systems
Effects on Marine Systems - Circulation <ul><li>The “Achilles’ Heel” of the climate system. </li></ul>
Effects on Marine Systems - Circulation
Effects on Marine Systems - Circulation <ul><li>The Gulf Stream brings warm, salty water to the north – it’s an oceanic he...
Effects on Marine Systems - Circulation
Effects on Marine Systems - Circulation
Effects on Marine Systems - Circulation <ul><li>The scientific community does not expect the conveyor to shut off as a res...
Effects on Marine Systems - Circulation <ul><li>Another circulation system that could be affected by global change is the ...
Effects on Marine Systems - Circulation <ul><li>A typical El Niño event causes between 2 and 7 billion dollars in economic...
Effects on Marine Systems - Circulation <ul><li>Trade winds blowing from east to west pile up warm water in the western Pa...
Effects on Marine Systems - Circulation <ul><li>Trade winds greatly weaken or even  reverse  direction allowing Warm Pool ...
Effects on Marine Systems - Circulation <ul><li>First observed by South American fishermen – the anchovies would vanish ar...
Normal El Niño Effects on Marine Systems - Circulation
Effects on Marine Systems - Circulation
Effects on Marine Systems - Circulation <ul><li>Less intense hurricane season in the Atlantic. </li></ul><ul><li>More inte...
Effects on Marine Systems - Circulation <ul><li>Essentially an enhancement of “normal” conditions.  Results in weather ano...
La Ni ña Normal El Niño Effects on Marine Systems - Circulation
Effects on Marine Systems - Circulation
Effects on Marine Systems - Circulation <ul><li>El Niños used to occur every 4-7 years. </li></ul><ul><li>But since the ea...
Effects on Marine Systems - Ecosystems <ul><li>El Niños also have a strong effect on ecosystems. </li></ul><ul><li>Warm wa...
Effects on Marine Systems - Ecosystems <ul><li>Many fish move deeper, resulting in massive sea bird mortality during El Ni...
Effects on Marine Systems - Ecosystems http://video.nationalgeographic.com/video/player/environment/environment-natural-di...
Effects on Marine Systems - Ecosystems <ul><li>Increased temperature (not just due to El Niño) a problem for many marine e...
<ul><li>Temperature and coral reefs - “coral bleaching.” </li></ul>Effects on Marine Systems - Ecosystems <ul><li>Temperat...
Effects on Marine Systems - Ecosystems <ul><li>Corals are small animals that secrete a calcium carbonate skeleton. </li></...
Effects on Marine Systems - Ecosystems <ul><li>Zooxanthellae produce organic compounds that the coral relies on for food. ...
Effects on Marine Systems - Ecosystems <ul><li>Without the symbiotic zooxanthellae, the coral loses 90-95% of its food sup...
<ul><li>Once the coral is dead macro algae takes over, smothering the reef. </li></ul>Effects on Marine Systems - Ecosystems
Effects on Marine Systems - Ecosystems (green – no bleaching ,  blue – low bleaching ,  yellow – medium bleaching ,  red –...
Effects on Marine Systems - Ecosystems <ul><li>Temperature effects are expected to be greater for the Arctic. </li></ul>
Effects on Marine Systems - Ecosystems <ul><li>Less sea ice means less area for seals to reproduce, less area for polar be...
<ul><li>The other big concern is ocean acidification. </li></ul><ul><li>When CO 2  dissolves in water it produces carbonic...
<ul><li>Lots of organisms make their skeletons out of calcium carbonate. </li></ul>Effects on Marine Systems - Ecosystems
Effects on Marine Systems - Ecosystems
<ul><li>Will have drastic consequences not just on the carbonate organisms themselves, but all the way up the food chain t...
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Transcript of "13 effects on oceans - updated"

  1. 1. Climate Change Effects on Marine Systems
  2. 2. Effects on Marine Systems - Circulation <ul><li>The “Achilles’ Heel” of the climate system. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Effects on Marine Systems - Circulation
  4. 4. Effects on Marine Systems - Circulation <ul><li>The Gulf Stream brings warm, salty water to the north – it’s an oceanic heat pump. </li></ul><ul><li>The loss of this heat would cool the North Atlantic region by 3-5° C. </li></ul><ul><li>A critical component of this is the sinking limb of the conveyor which is driven by density. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Effects on Marine Systems - Circulation
  6. 6. Effects on Marine Systems - Circulation
  7. 7. Effects on Marine Systems - Circulation <ul><li>The scientific community does not expect the conveyor to shut off as a result of global warming! </li></ul><ul><li>What is more likely is that existing Arctic ice will melt at a rate that buffers the warming at high latitudes. </li></ul><ul><li>But once that ice is gone … </li></ul>
  8. 8. Effects on Marine Systems - Circulation <ul><li>Another circulation system that could be affected by global change is the El Niño – Southern Oscillation. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Effects on Marine Systems - Circulation <ul><li>A typical El Niño event causes between 2 and 7 billion dollars in economic damage. </li></ul><ul><li>Usually due to some combination of drought, flooding, and storm damage. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Effects on Marine Systems - Circulation <ul><li>Trade winds blowing from east to west pile up warm water in the western Pacific (Western Warm Pool). Pool of warm water generates a lot of precipitation for this region (Indonesia, Philippines, etc. ) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Effects on Marine Systems - Circulation <ul><li>Trade winds greatly weaken or even reverse direction allowing Warm Pool waters to “slosh” back towards the east. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Effects on Marine Systems - Circulation <ul><li>First observed by South American fishermen – the anchovies would vanish around December. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Normal El Niño Effects on Marine Systems - Circulation
  14. 14. Effects on Marine Systems - Circulation
  15. 15. Effects on Marine Systems - Circulation <ul><li>Less intense hurricane season in the Atlantic. </li></ul><ul><li>More intense hurricane season in the Pacific. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Effects on Marine Systems - Circulation <ul><li>Essentially an enhancement of “normal” conditions. Results in weather anomalies that are basically the opposite of those caused by El Niño. </li></ul>
  17. 17. La Ni ña Normal El Niño Effects on Marine Systems - Circulation
  18. 18. Effects on Marine Systems - Circulation
  19. 19. Effects on Marine Systems - Circulation <ul><li>El Niños used to occur every 4-7 years. </li></ul><ul><li>But since the early-1970’s they have occurred every 2-5 years. </li></ul><ul><li>A lot of research on whether that change in frequency is related to human impact on climate. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Effects on Marine Systems - Ecosystems <ul><li>El Niños also have a strong effect on ecosystems. </li></ul><ul><li>Warm water where they are normally cooler cause organisms to move deeper to cooler temperatures. </li></ul>El Niño
  21. 21. Effects on Marine Systems - Ecosystems <ul><li>Many fish move deeper, resulting in massive sea bird mortality during El Niño events due to starvation. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Effects on Marine Systems - Ecosystems http://video.nationalgeographic.com/video/player/environment/environment-natural-disasters/landslides-and-more/el-nino.html
  23. 23. Effects on Marine Systems - Ecosystems <ul><li>Increased temperature (not just due to El Niño) a problem for many marine ecosystems. </li></ul><ul><li>Similar to freshwater ecosystems, warmer temperatures impact organism distribution, metabolism, and gender ratios. </li></ul>Effects on Marine Systems - Ecosystems
  24. 24. <ul><li>Temperature and coral reefs - “coral bleaching.” </li></ul>Effects on Marine Systems - Ecosystems <ul><li>Temperature and coral reefs - “coral bleaching.” </li></ul>Effects on Marine Systems - Ecosystems
  25. 25. Effects on Marine Systems - Ecosystems <ul><li>Corals are small animals that secrete a calcium carbonate skeleton. </li></ul><ul><li>Many coral species have symbiotic algae living in their tissue called zooxanthellae. </li></ul>Effects on Marine Systems - Ecosystems <ul><li>Corals are small animals that secrete a calcium carbonate skeleton. </li></ul><ul><li>Many coral species have symbiotic algae living in their tissue called zooxanthellae. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Effects on Marine Systems - Ecosystems <ul><li>Zooxanthellae produce organic compounds that the coral relies on for food. </li></ul><ul><li>When temperatures rise, the corals expel the zooxanthellae – makes them look white, or “bleached.” </li></ul>
  27. 27. Effects on Marine Systems - Ecosystems <ul><li>Without the symbiotic zooxanthellae, the coral loses 90-95% of its food supply, and usually dies within months. </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>Once the coral is dead macro algae takes over, smothering the reef. </li></ul>Effects on Marine Systems - Ecosystems
  29. 29. Effects on Marine Systems - Ecosystems (green – no bleaching , blue – low bleaching , yellow – medium bleaching , red – high bleaching )
  30. 30. Effects on Marine Systems - Ecosystems <ul><li>Temperature effects are expected to be greater for the Arctic. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Effects on Marine Systems - Ecosystems <ul><li>Less sea ice means less area for seals to reproduce, less area for polar bears to hunt. </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>The other big concern is ocean acidification. </li></ul><ul><li>When CO 2 dissolves in water it produces carbonic acid – makes the oceans more acidic. </li></ul>Effects on Marine Systems - Ecosystems
  33. 33. <ul><li>Lots of organisms make their skeletons out of calcium carbonate. </li></ul>Effects on Marine Systems - Ecosystems
  34. 34. Effects on Marine Systems - Ecosystems
  35. 35. <ul><li>Will have drastic consequences not just on the carbonate organisms themselves, but all the way up the food chain that feeds on those organisms. </li></ul>Effects on Marine Systems - Ecosystems
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