Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
13   effects on oceans - updated
13   effects on oceans - updated
13   effects on oceans - updated
13   effects on oceans - updated
13   effects on oceans - updated
13   effects on oceans - updated
13   effects on oceans - updated
13   effects on oceans - updated
13   effects on oceans - updated
13   effects on oceans - updated
13   effects on oceans - updated
13   effects on oceans - updated
13   effects on oceans - updated
13   effects on oceans - updated
13   effects on oceans - updated
13   effects on oceans - updated
13   effects on oceans - updated
13   effects on oceans - updated
13   effects on oceans - updated
13   effects on oceans - updated
13   effects on oceans - updated
13   effects on oceans - updated
13   effects on oceans - updated
13   effects on oceans - updated
13   effects on oceans - updated
13   effects on oceans - updated
13   effects on oceans - updated
13   effects on oceans - updated
13   effects on oceans - updated
13   effects on oceans - updated
13   effects on oceans - updated
13   effects on oceans - updated
13   effects on oceans - updated
13   effects on oceans - updated
13   effects on oceans - updated
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

13 effects on oceans - updated

351

Published on

0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
351
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
8
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Climate Change Effects on Marine Systems
  • 2. Effects on Marine Systems - Circulation <ul><li>The “Achilles’ Heel” of the climate system. </li></ul>
  • 3. Effects on Marine Systems - Circulation
  • 4. Effects on Marine Systems - Circulation <ul><li>The Gulf Stream brings warm, salty water to the north – it’s an oceanic heat pump. </li></ul><ul><li>The loss of this heat would cool the North Atlantic region by 3-5° C. </li></ul><ul><li>A critical component of this is the sinking limb of the conveyor which is driven by density. </li></ul>
  • 5. Effects on Marine Systems - Circulation
  • 6. Effects on Marine Systems - Circulation
  • 7. Effects on Marine Systems - Circulation <ul><li>The scientific community does not expect the conveyor to shut off as a result of global warming! </li></ul><ul><li>What is more likely is that existing Arctic ice will melt at a rate that buffers the warming at high latitudes. </li></ul><ul><li>But once that ice is gone … </li></ul>
  • 8. Effects on Marine Systems - Circulation <ul><li>Another circulation system that could be affected by global change is the El Niño – Southern Oscillation. </li></ul>
  • 9. Effects on Marine Systems - Circulation <ul><li>A typical El Niño event causes between 2 and 7 billion dollars in economic damage. </li></ul><ul><li>Usually due to some combination of drought, flooding, and storm damage. </li></ul>
  • 10. Effects on Marine Systems - Circulation <ul><li>Trade winds blowing from east to west pile up warm water in the western Pacific (Western Warm Pool). Pool of warm water generates a lot of precipitation for this region (Indonesia, Philippines, etc. ) </li></ul>
  • 11. Effects on Marine Systems - Circulation <ul><li>Trade winds greatly weaken or even reverse direction allowing Warm Pool waters to “slosh” back towards the east. </li></ul>
  • 12. Effects on Marine Systems - Circulation <ul><li>First observed by South American fishermen – the anchovies would vanish around December. </li></ul>
  • 13. Normal El Niño Effects on Marine Systems - Circulation
  • 14. Effects on Marine Systems - Circulation
  • 15. Effects on Marine Systems - Circulation <ul><li>Less intense hurricane season in the Atlantic. </li></ul><ul><li>More intense hurricane season in the Pacific. </li></ul>
  • 16. Effects on Marine Systems - Circulation <ul><li>Essentially an enhancement of “normal” conditions. Results in weather anomalies that are basically the opposite of those caused by El Niño. </li></ul>
  • 17. La Ni ña Normal El Niño Effects on Marine Systems - Circulation
  • 18. Effects on Marine Systems - Circulation
  • 19. Effects on Marine Systems - Circulation <ul><li>El Niños used to occur every 4-7 years. </li></ul><ul><li>But since the early-1970’s they have occurred every 2-5 years. </li></ul><ul><li>A lot of research on whether that change in frequency is related to human impact on climate. </li></ul>
  • 20. Effects on Marine Systems - Ecosystems <ul><li>El Niños also have a strong effect on ecosystems. </li></ul><ul><li>Warm water where they are normally cooler cause organisms to move deeper to cooler temperatures. </li></ul>El Niño
  • 21. Effects on Marine Systems - Ecosystems <ul><li>Many fish move deeper, resulting in massive sea bird mortality during El Niño events due to starvation. </li></ul>
  • 22. Effects on Marine Systems - Ecosystems http://video.nationalgeographic.com/video/player/environment/environment-natural-disasters/landslides-and-more/el-nino.html
  • 23. Effects on Marine Systems - Ecosystems <ul><li>Increased temperature (not just due to El Niño) a problem for many marine ecosystems. </li></ul><ul><li>Similar to freshwater ecosystems, warmer temperatures impact organism distribution, metabolism, and gender ratios. </li></ul>Effects on Marine Systems - Ecosystems
  • 24. <ul><li>Temperature and coral reefs - “coral bleaching.” </li></ul>Effects on Marine Systems - Ecosystems <ul><li>Temperature and coral reefs - “coral bleaching.” </li></ul>Effects on Marine Systems - Ecosystems
  • 25. Effects on Marine Systems - Ecosystems <ul><li>Corals are small animals that secrete a calcium carbonate skeleton. </li></ul><ul><li>Many coral species have symbiotic algae living in their tissue called zooxanthellae. </li></ul>Effects on Marine Systems - Ecosystems <ul><li>Corals are small animals that secrete a calcium carbonate skeleton. </li></ul><ul><li>Many coral species have symbiotic algae living in their tissue called zooxanthellae. </li></ul>
  • 26. Effects on Marine Systems - Ecosystems <ul><li>Zooxanthellae produce organic compounds that the coral relies on for food. </li></ul><ul><li>When temperatures rise, the corals expel the zooxanthellae – makes them look white, or “bleached.” </li></ul>
  • 27. Effects on Marine Systems - Ecosystems <ul><li>Without the symbiotic zooxanthellae, the coral loses 90-95% of its food supply, and usually dies within months. </li></ul>
  • 28. <ul><li>Once the coral is dead macro algae takes over, smothering the reef. </li></ul>Effects on Marine Systems - Ecosystems
  • 29. Effects on Marine Systems - Ecosystems (green – no bleaching , blue – low bleaching , yellow – medium bleaching , red – high bleaching )
  • 30. Effects on Marine Systems - Ecosystems <ul><li>Temperature effects are expected to be greater for the Arctic. </li></ul>
  • 31. Effects on Marine Systems - Ecosystems <ul><li>Less sea ice means less area for seals to reproduce, less area for polar bears to hunt. </li></ul>
  • 32. <ul><li>The other big concern is ocean acidification. </li></ul><ul><li>When CO 2 dissolves in water it produces carbonic acid – makes the oceans more acidic. </li></ul>Effects on Marine Systems - Ecosystems
  • 33. <ul><li>Lots of organisms make their skeletons out of calcium carbonate. </li></ul>Effects on Marine Systems - Ecosystems
  • 34. Effects on Marine Systems - Ecosystems
  • 35. <ul><li>Will have drastic consequences not just on the carbonate organisms themselves, but all the way up the food chain that feeds on those organisms. </li></ul>Effects on Marine Systems - Ecosystems

×