• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
13   effects on oceans - updated
 

13 effects on oceans - updated

on

  • 466 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
466
Views on SlideShare
466
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
1
Downloads
6
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    13   effects on oceans - updated 13 effects on oceans - updated Presentation Transcript

    • Climate Change Effects on Marine Systems
    • Effects on Marine Systems - Circulation
      • The “Achilles’ Heel” of the climate system.
    • Effects on Marine Systems - Circulation
    • Effects on Marine Systems - Circulation
      • The Gulf Stream brings warm, salty water to the north – it’s an oceanic heat pump.
      • The loss of this heat would cool the North Atlantic region by 3-5° C.
      • A critical component of this is the sinking limb of the conveyor which is driven by density.
    • Effects on Marine Systems - Circulation
    • Effects on Marine Systems - Circulation
    • Effects on Marine Systems - Circulation
      • The scientific community does not expect the conveyor to shut off as a result of global warming!
      • What is more likely is that existing Arctic ice will melt at a rate that buffers the warming at high latitudes.
      • But once that ice is gone …
    • Effects on Marine Systems - Circulation
      • Another circulation system that could be affected by global change is the El Niño – Southern Oscillation.
    • Effects on Marine Systems - Circulation
      • A typical El Niño event causes between 2 and 7 billion dollars in economic damage.
      • Usually due to some combination of drought, flooding, and storm damage.
    • Effects on Marine Systems - Circulation
      • Trade winds blowing from east to west pile up warm water in the western Pacific (Western Warm Pool). Pool of warm water generates a lot of precipitation for this region (Indonesia, Philippines, etc. )
    • Effects on Marine Systems - Circulation
      • Trade winds greatly weaken or even reverse direction allowing Warm Pool waters to “slosh” back towards the east.
    • Effects on Marine Systems - Circulation
      • First observed by South American fishermen – the anchovies would vanish around December.
    • Normal El Niño Effects on Marine Systems - Circulation
    • Effects on Marine Systems - Circulation
    • Effects on Marine Systems - Circulation
      • Less intense hurricane season in the Atlantic.
      • More intense hurricane season in the Pacific.
    • Effects on Marine Systems - Circulation
      • Essentially an enhancement of “normal” conditions. Results in weather anomalies that are basically the opposite of those caused by El Niño.
    • La Ni ña Normal El Niño Effects on Marine Systems - Circulation
    • Effects on Marine Systems - Circulation
    • Effects on Marine Systems - Circulation
      • El Niños used to occur every 4-7 years.
      • But since the early-1970’s they have occurred every 2-5 years.
      • A lot of research on whether that change in frequency is related to human impact on climate.
    • Effects on Marine Systems - Ecosystems
      • El Niños also have a strong effect on ecosystems.
      • Warm water where they are normally cooler cause organisms to move deeper to cooler temperatures.
      El Niño
    • Effects on Marine Systems - Ecosystems
      • Many fish move deeper, resulting in massive sea bird mortality during El Niño events due to starvation.
    • Effects on Marine Systems - Ecosystems http://video.nationalgeographic.com/video/player/environment/environment-natural-disasters/landslides-and-more/el-nino.html
    • Effects on Marine Systems - Ecosystems
      • Increased temperature (not just due to El Niño) a problem for many marine ecosystems.
      • Similar to freshwater ecosystems, warmer temperatures impact organism distribution, metabolism, and gender ratios.
      Effects on Marine Systems - Ecosystems
      • Temperature and coral reefs - “coral bleaching.”
      Effects on Marine Systems - Ecosystems
      • Temperature and coral reefs - “coral bleaching.”
      Effects on Marine Systems - Ecosystems
    • Effects on Marine Systems - Ecosystems
      • Corals are small animals that secrete a calcium carbonate skeleton.
      • Many coral species have symbiotic algae living in their tissue called zooxanthellae.
      Effects on Marine Systems - Ecosystems
      • Corals are small animals that secrete a calcium carbonate skeleton.
      • Many coral species have symbiotic algae living in their tissue called zooxanthellae.
    • Effects on Marine Systems - Ecosystems
      • Zooxanthellae produce organic compounds that the coral relies on for food.
      • When temperatures rise, the corals expel the zooxanthellae – makes them look white, or “bleached.”
    • Effects on Marine Systems - Ecosystems
      • Without the symbiotic zooxanthellae, the coral loses 90-95% of its food supply, and usually dies within months.
      • Once the coral is dead macro algae takes over, smothering the reef.
      Effects on Marine Systems - Ecosystems
    • Effects on Marine Systems - Ecosystems (green – no bleaching , blue – low bleaching , yellow – medium bleaching , red – high bleaching )
    • Effects on Marine Systems - Ecosystems
      • Temperature effects are expected to be greater for the Arctic.
    • Effects on Marine Systems - Ecosystems
      • Less sea ice means less area for seals to reproduce, less area for polar bears to hunt.
      • The other big concern is ocean acidification.
      • When CO 2 dissolves in water it produces carbonic acid – makes the oceans more acidic.
      Effects on Marine Systems - Ecosystems
      • Lots of organisms make their skeletons out of calcium carbonate.
      Effects on Marine Systems - Ecosystems
    • Effects on Marine Systems - Ecosystems
      • Will have drastic consequences not just on the carbonate organisms themselves, but all the way up the food chain that feeds on those organisms.
      Effects on Marine Systems - Ecosystems