Effects on Freshwater Ecosystems <ul><li>Freshwater ecosystems are particularly vulnerable to change because they tend to ...
Freshwater Ecosystems – Temp. <ul><li>Temperature changes can influence freshwater ecosystems in many different ways. </li...
<ul><li>Warming climate influences not just the organism itself, but also it’s prey and predators. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus ...
Freshwater Ecosystems – Temp. <ul><li>If temperature changes, organisms will migrate towards their preferred temperature –...
Freshwater Ecosystems – Temp. <ul><li>With warming, organisms will migrate upstream towards higher elevations (cooler). </...
Freshwater Ecosystems – Temp. <ul><li>With warming, organisms will migrate deeper (cooler). </li></ul><ul><li>Less habitat...
Freshwater Ecosystems – Temp. <ul><li>Decreased habitat results in unhappy fish – they don’t reproduce as much. </li></ul>...
Freshwater Ecosystems – Temp. <ul><li>For organisms that can’t migrate, increased temperature causes increased metabolism....
Freshwater Ecosystems – Temp. <ul><li>For organisms that can’t migrate, increased temperature causes increased metabolism....
Freshwater Ecosystems – Temp. <ul><li>Increased metabolism comes with other demands – food! </li></ul>
Freshwater Ecosystems – Temp. <ul><li>Changing water temperatures can also change the sex ratio of reptiles, amphibians, f...
Freshwater Ecosystems – Temp. <ul><li>Increased metabolism increases the uptake of toxins that bioaccumulate. </li></ul>
 
Freshwater Ecosystems – Temp. <ul><li>Temperature changes can cause indirect biologic effects as well. </li></ul><ul><li>E...
Freshwater Ecosystems – Temp. <ul><li>Surface warming causes surface water to become less dense – harder to mix downward. ...
Freshwater Ecosystems – Stream Flow <ul><li>Warmer temperatures will increase transpiration causing plants to uptake and r...
Freshwater Ecosystems – Stream Flow <ul><li>Even though precipitation is expected to increase at mid-latitudes, it is thou...
Freshwater Ecosystems – Stream Flow <ul><li>More runoff at high latitudes as more precipitation as rain than snow. </li></...
Freshwater Ecosystems – Stream Flow <ul><li>Increased fluvial erosion at high latitudes. </li></ul>
Freshwater Ecosystems – Stream Flow <ul><li>Mid- and low-latitude streams and lakes likely to have less available water. <...
Freshwater Ecosystems – Sea Level <ul><li>Sea level rise will stress coastal wetlands. </li></ul>
Freshwater Ecosystems – Sea Level
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09 effects on freshwater systems-1

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09 effects on freshwater systems-1

  1. 1. Effects on Freshwater Ecosystems <ul><li>Freshwater ecosystems are particularly vulnerable to change because they tend to be individually small, and relatively isolated. </li></ul><ul><li>Affected in several ways, but primarily through temperature and stream flow. </li></ul>
  2. 2. Freshwater Ecosystems – Temp. <ul><li>Temperature changes can influence freshwater ecosystems in many different ways. </li></ul><ul><li>All organisms have a preferred temperature range. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Warming climate influences not just the organism itself, but also it’s prey and predators. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus entire food web dynamics are affected. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Freshwater Ecosystems – Temp. <ul><li>If temperature changes, organisms will migrate towards their preferred temperature – if they can . </li></ul>
  5. 5. Freshwater Ecosystems – Temp. <ul><li>With warming, organisms will migrate upstream towards higher elevations (cooler). </li></ul><ul><li>Less habitat area upstream! </li></ul>
  6. 6. Freshwater Ecosystems – Temp. <ul><li>With warming, organisms will migrate deeper (cooler). </li></ul><ul><li>Less habitat area at depth! </li></ul>
  7. 7. Freshwater Ecosystems – Temp. <ul><li>Decreased habitat results in unhappy fish – they don’t reproduce as much. </li></ul><ul><li>Trout habitat could shrink 30-40%, and for some species of salmon by as much as 50%. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Freshwater Ecosystems – Temp. <ul><li>For organisms that can’t migrate, increased temperature causes increased metabolism. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Freshwater Ecosystems – Temp. <ul><li>For organisms that can’t migrate, increased temperature causes increased metabolism. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Freshwater Ecosystems – Temp. <ul><li>Increased metabolism comes with other demands – food! </li></ul>
  11. 11. Freshwater Ecosystems – Temp. <ul><li>Changing water temperatures can also change the sex ratio of reptiles, amphibians, fish, and insects. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Freshwater Ecosystems – Temp. <ul><li>Increased metabolism increases the uptake of toxins that bioaccumulate. </li></ul>
  13. 14. Freshwater Ecosystems – Temp. <ul><li>Temperature changes can cause indirect biologic effects as well. </li></ul><ul><li>Eutrophication. </li></ul>
  14. 15. Freshwater Ecosystems – Temp. <ul><li>Surface warming causes surface water to become less dense – harder to mix downward. </li></ul><ul><li>Warmer water also holds less dissolved oxygen to begin with. </li></ul>
  15. 16. Freshwater Ecosystems – Stream Flow <ul><li>Warmer temperatures will increase transpiration causing plants to uptake and release more water. </li></ul><ul><li>Less is available for runoff or groundwater input to lakes and streams. </li></ul>
  16. 17. Freshwater Ecosystems – Stream Flow <ul><li>Even though precipitation is expected to increase at mid-latitudes, it is thought that increased transpiration due to warming may offset the increase. </li></ul>
  17. 18. Freshwater Ecosystems – Stream Flow <ul><li>More runoff at high latitudes as more precipitation as rain than snow. </li></ul><ul><li>Remobilization of sediments. </li></ul>
  18. 19. Freshwater Ecosystems – Stream Flow <ul><li>Increased fluvial erosion at high latitudes. </li></ul>
  19. 20. Freshwater Ecosystems – Stream Flow <ul><li>Mid- and low-latitude streams and lakes likely to have less available water. </li></ul><ul><li>- more winter precipitation as rain (more will runoff than be stored). </li></ul><ul><li>- less precipitation and/or greater evaporation during summer result in lower water levels. </li></ul><ul><li>- altering of lake chemistry by ion concentration. </li></ul>
  20. 21. Freshwater Ecosystems – Sea Level <ul><li>Sea level rise will stress coastal wetlands. </li></ul>
  21. 22. Freshwater Ecosystems – Sea Level
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