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Road to constitution

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    Road to constitution Road to constitution Presentation Transcript

    • Road
      To the
      Constitution
    • Failure of Articles of Confederation
      State governments too powerful:
      • Power to tax:
      • Power to regulate trade:
      • Power to dictate policy to national government:
      • Power to raise militia:
    • Need For a Stronger National Government
      • Great Britain was waiting for the United States to fail:
      • Large states taking advantage of small states:
      • Jealousy kept states from working together:
      • U-N-I-T-E-D STATES was not united:
    • solution
      “Constitutional
      Convention”
    • Government officials realized after Shays’ Rebellion that a change was needed
      A convention of representatives from each state were called to Philadelphia in 1787
    • DELEGATES TO THE
      CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION
    • STATEHOUSE IN PHILADELPHIA
      SITE OF THE CONVENTION
    • INSIDE OF STATEHOUSE (TODAY)
      SITE OF THE CONVENTION
    • There were 74 men asked to come to Philadelphia but only delegates arrived in Philadelphia
      55
    • CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION
    • AGE:
      The average age of a delegate was 44 years old
    • BEN FRANKLIN (Pennsylvania) was the oldest at age 81
      JONATHAN DAYTON (New Jersey) was the youngest at age 26
    • POLITICAL EXPERIENCE:
      Most had some experience as politicians in their home states
    • 40 of the delegates had been members of the Continental Congress
    • PROFESSION:
      34 of the 55 were lawyers
      Also included soldiers, planters, educators, ministers, physicians, financiers, and merchants
    • ECONOMIC STATUS:
      Most were very wealthy and many owned slaves
    • RACE:
      All the delegates were white men
    • LEFT OUT:
      None of the delegates were African-Americans, Hispanic, women, poor
    • Guidelines for the Convention
      • Work of the Convention would remain a secret:
      • White, highly educated, successful men with political experience would be sent:
      • A majority vote was required on an issue:
      • George Washington would preside over the Convention:
    • Problems at the convention
      • Small States and Large State cannot agree on representation;
      • Northern States and Southern States cannot agree on the issue of slavery;
      • Federalist and Anti-Federalist cannot agree on the power of the National Government:
    • Virginia Plan:
      Proposed by:
      Edmund Randolf
      Bicameral Legislature (Two – houses)
      Both houses will base representation on population with equal number of representatives in each house
      Will have a president, legislature, and court system—Three Branches of Government!
      Chief executive chosen by legislature and court system
    • Unicameral Legislature (One – house)
      Representation in legislature will be the same for all states
      Congress could tax and regulate trade
      New Jersey Plan:
      Proposed by:
      William Patterson
    • Great Compromise
      AKA Connecticut Plan:
      Proposed by:
      Roger Sherman
      Resolved Virginia and New Jersey Plans
      Bicameral legislature (Two – houses)
      Representation in one house (the House of Representatives) will be determined by population (representative elected by the people)
      Representation in the other house (the Senate) will be the same for each state (two per state, elected by the state legislature)
    • How to deal with problems with
      Commerce and slavery…
    • Commerce compromise
      Fixing problems with commerce and trade
      Congress was allowed to regulate interstate and foreign trade.
      Congress could tax imports, but not exports
      Congress was forbidden to restrict the importation of slaves for 20 years, but could levy a tax, for every imported slave as much as $10.
      Slaves were not considered free if they ran away to a free state, but rather had to be returned if caught.
    • Slavery compromise:
      Three-Fifths Compromise
      Counted every 5 slaves as 3 free persons for taxation and representation purposes in Congress.
    • How do will we elect our president?
      Elected by Congress??
      Elected by the people??
      Compromise: The Electoral College
    • What problems did the “framers” of the Constitution face AFTER the Constitutional Convention?
      Anti-Federalists disapproved
      Federalists fought against Anti-Federalists
    • The
      end