Eastern edge of the Indochinese Peninsula Jungle conditions, swamp, lush land along the deltas. Slightly larger than New Mexico Temperature: August: 91o F January: 70oF Precipitation: August: 13.5 inches January: 8 inches
America involvement: 1950-1973—money, weapons, and military advisors 1965-1973—American combat troops on the ground 2nd longest military engagement Afghan war is now the longest American Fatalities: 37,393 MIA: 2,000 South Vietnam Fatalities Military: 266,000 Civilian: 843,000 North Vietnam Fatalities: Military: 251,000 Civilian: 182,000
1. Summarize Vietnam’s history as a French colony and its struggle for independence. 2. Examine how the United States became involved in the Vietnam conflict. 3. Describe the expansion of U.S. military involvement under President Johnson.
The Vietnamese had been striving for independence for years* Vietnam declared Independence on September 2, 1945 from French colonial rule* A friendship between the U.S. and Vietnam began, which later turned into war
Communist Leader of the Vietminh: Vietnamese Nationalist Force Founded in 1941 Purpose: to drive the French out Goals: land reform and an independent unified Vietnam Was actually trained by OSS forces around 1945
French did not want to give up their colony of Vietnam November 1946: War between French and the Vietminh begins 1950: French appeal to U.S. for help U.S. did not want to lose France as an ally China became Communist in 1949 (puts the pressure on us) Containment: U.S. policy that opposes Communism and where it does it exist, it “ contained” U.S. agreed to send military aid to France
Ike takes office in ‘53. By ‘56 we were paying for 80% of the 1st Indochina War 1956: The French surrender France and Vietnam meet in Geneva to work out a peace agreement between the countries – The Geneva Accords Vietnam was to be temporarily divided along the 17th parallel To Be reunited after 1956 National Vietnamese elections Ike refused to sign it due to the domino theory If one country fell to communism, those in the area would fall to communism.
South Vietnam was in chaos after colonialism and war Ngo Dinh Diem (groomed by the U.S.) Was an anti-Communist and nationalist Refused to take part in the ‘56 elections as spelled out in the Geneva Accords 1954-1961: U.S. sent $1 billion to South Vietnam Had little in common with his people Rigged elections so he would win, refused to hold real elections
Vietcong Vietcong: In South Vietnam, but oppose Diem and support North Vietnam Promised economic reform, reunification, and used terror extensively Tied to Ho Chi Minh government Vietcong supported by North Vietnam, China, and the Soviet Union The Ho Chi Minh Trail* Network of paths thru Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia. Used to move goods and most importantly provide for guerilla warfare.
1963: Buddhists protested Diem regime, which persecuted Buddhists Plan to overthrow Diem, with U.S./JFK support- November 1, 1963* Diem was “accidentally” killed in the process* Kennedy was assassinated Thich Quang Duc* Nov. 22, 1963 and the Vietnam conflict was turned over to Johnson
Believed Vietnam was important to a Cold War victory By 1964, U.S. aid was still the only thing keeping South Vietnam from collapsing Johnson wanted to expand U.S. involvement to ensure a non-communist victory Advised by Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara
August 1964: Tonkin Gulf Incident Johnson announced two U.S. destroyers were attacked off the coast of North Vietnam (it is now known that this incident never really happened, the government made it up so that Americans would support expansion in Vietnam) Congress passed the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution: Did not declare war, but it widened the war (gave Johnson more military powers in wartime than any President before him)
1. Explain the reasons for the escalation of U.S. involvement in Vietnam. 2. Describe the military tactics and weapons used by U.S. forces and the Vietcong. 3. Explain the impact of the war on American society.
Increased Involvement ‘65 and every year after, Johnson continued to escalate the # of troops in Vietnam to support South Vietnam(Americans supported it) American’s fought along side the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnamese)…fought against the Vietcong and North Vietnam. U.S. hoped to destroy the Vietcong’s will through bombing and combat Bombing: Operation Rolling Thunder—bombing of North Vietnam Ground War: Search and Destroy Missions (controversial) Vietcong appealed to peasants Vietcong could be anyone Use of napalm and agent orange – know what these are Guerrilla Warfare: (Vietcong) Small groups of fighters to annoy U.S. troops, avoid open fighting Strategic Hamlet Program: (U.S.) Uproot villages and force people to move to cities or refugee camps Bottom Line: Fighting the Vietcong was a nightmare…!!!
*By the end of ‘65 the govt. had sent almost 200,000 Americans to Vietnam. *General Westmoreland Commander of U.S. troops in Vietnam Asked Johnson to send troops in March 1965 Nov. 21, 1967: Westmoreland states the end is near- 10 weeks later we get the Tet Offensive Felt that the Vietnamese could not withstand our troop support.. By ‘67 – 500,000 troops!!
America’s first “Living Room War” Combat footage appeared on the nightly news The news seemed to counter the Governments portrayal of what was happening over there The govt came back with body count stats of how many Vietcong were dying in combat versus how many Americans were dying A credibility gap was growing Government was saying one thing, but the American people were seeing something different on TV. Journalist Walter Cronkite
1. Explain the draft polices that led to the Vietnam War becoming a working-class war. 2. Trace the roots of opposition to the war. 3. Describe the antiwar movement and the growing divisions in U.S. public opinion about the war.
The Draft Use of the Selective Service System (18-26 years of age) As doubts grew, men found ways to avoid the draft Medical exemptions College exemptions (most common) This often left the working class to fight the war… African Americans Made up a disproportionate # of soldiers… 1969 – instituted a draft lottery Women – could not serve in combat 10,000 served as nurses, many more in the red cross and the USO
The New Left Youth movement demanding sweeping changes SDS – Students for a Democratic Society Corporations are taking over America Called for civil disobedience @ selective service centers By ‘70 had chapters on 400 college campuses Free Speech Movement Colleges were a breeding ground for all of these groups… Protests quickly changed to resistance “burn cards, not people” “hell, no, we won’t go” Doves (for peace) vs. Hawks (for war) Even with all the resistance Johnson stays the course.
22.4 Objectives Describe the Tet offensive and its effect on the American public. Explain the domestic turbulence of 1968. Describe the 1968 presidential election.
The Tet Offensive On the eve of the Vietnamese New Year (Tet) the Vietcong attacked 100 towns and 12 U.S. air bases in South Vietnam. They even attacked the U.S. embassy in Saigon. Continued for about a month. Result America and South Vietnam able to regain control. Showed the Vietcong not close to surrendering. What effect did it have on public opinion? Walter Cronkite Clark Clifford Hawks vs. Doves How was the democratic party “a house divided” in 1968? Johnson announced that we would seek negotiations to end the war, then he announced he would no longer be running for president.
Democrat Hubert Humphrey Loyal Supporter of LBJ People were afraid that I wouldn’t end the war I was the Democrat’s nominee for president in 1968 I lost the presidency in the 1968 general election to my Republican opponent
I was a member of the Eugene McCarthy Democrat Party I was a Senator from Minnesota I decided to run for president even when LBJ was still running I was an anti-war supporter I did not earn the Democrat nomination for President
I was a member of the Robert Kennedy Democrat Party I was a Senator from New York I wanted to end the war I was assassinated
I was a member of the George Wallace American Independent Party I was once the governor of Alabama I supported school segregation and states’ rights I lost the presidency in the general election, but I took votes away from Hubert Humphrey
I was a member of the Richard Nixon Republican Party I was V.P. under Eisenhower I promised to restore law and order I won the Presidency in 1968
Martin Luther King Assassinated April 4th, 1968 Robert Kennedy Decided to run because of Johnson’s weakness at the polls June 4th he won the California primary June 5th he was assassinated Protests on college campuses skyrocketed
‘68 Democratic National Convention Humphrey was going to win the nomination Why did this upset anti-war voters? Around 10,000 protestors met in Chicago Some came to voice their displeasure over Humphrey Some to provoke violence (the Yippies) Mayor Richard Daley “there will be law and order” Mobilized 12,000 police officers and 5,000 National Guard Riots broke out Democratic party problems was seen by millions of Americans. Nixon wins the election Promised to restore law and order, and to end the war in Vietnam Appealed to the Silent Majority
1. Describe Nixon’s policy of Vietnamization. 2. Explain the public’s reaction to the Vietnam War during Nixon’s presidency. 3. Describe the end of the U.S. involvement and the final outcome in Vietnam. 4. Examine the war’s painful legacy in the United States and Southeast Asia.
Nixon and Vietnamization Began troop withdrawal in early 1969 But he continued the war against North Vietnam Kissinger (national security advisor) and Nixon came up with vietnamization Gradual withdrawal of troops from Vietnam The S. Vietnamese would take a more active role in combat By ‘72 troop #’s dropped from 500,000 to 25,000. “Peace with Honor” Preserve our clout at the negotiation table Ordering of massive bombing campaigns in N. Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia. The enemy needs to fear us.
The My Lai Massacre What happened at this incident? Cambodian Invasion To clear out N. Vietnamese and Vietcong supply centers. Kent State Shootings Students were protesting the bombings in Cambodia So what happened??? The Pentagon Papers Papers drawn up by Robert McNamara, leaked by Daniel Ellsberg that detailed our true plan for the war in Vietnam.
March 1972 – NVA launch the largest attack since Tet Nixon orders to lay more mines and this halted the attack and he terrible stalemate continued. October 26th, 1972 – “Peace is at Hand” – Henry Kissinger Nixon is re-elected in ‘72 Christmas bombings – U.S. dropped 100,000 lbs. of bombs on the 2 largest cities of Vietnam Jan 27, ’73 – Agreement to end the war and restore peace March 29, ‘73 – the last U.S. combat troops left for home March of ‘75 – The North Vietnamese led a full scale attack on South Vietnam. By April 30th, tanks rolled in and captured Saigon. (how did the U.S. react??)
In the U.S. 58,000 Americans were killed – 303,000 were wounded How many Vietnamese died??? Change of attitude Many now look more cautiously at foreign affairs, and more cynical toward their government. How did many Americans treat their fellow Americans coming home from Vietnam? 15% of the returning soldiers developed post-traumatic stress disorder (????) In Asia The N. Vietnamese began to “Nationalize” the country, imprisoning 400,000 in “reeducation” camps. 1.5 million fled the country in the mid 70’s. Khmer Rouge, led by Pol Pot, took over Cambodia Killed at least a million of his own people.
What were the hawks vs. doves arguments after the war??? Major policy changes Abolished the draft War Powers Act of ‘73 The President must inform Congress within 48 hours of sending troops into a hostile area without a declaration of war. The troops may remain there no longer than 90 days unless Congress approves the actions or declares war. How did the war alter our views on foreign policy? Overall Legacy People generally do not trust their govt. as much as they did before the war. Do you feel it that we won the Vietnam War or that we lost the Vietnam War? Why?