Taking Science Beyond Borders:
 Global EHS Issues of Nanotechnology
     Kristen M. Kulinowski, PhD | kk@rice.edu
(Especially in the summer.)
Global EHS Issues of Nanotechnology
                   Nanomaterials
Nanomaterials
Materials
 • Carbons
    – e.g., Fullerenes, nanotubes
 • Oxides
    – e.g., TiO2, ZnO, SiO2, CeO2, Fe3O4
 • Metals
    – ...
Nanomaterial Variability




                     Credit: Zhong Lin Wang
Size
Small Size → Large Surface Area
 Each side = 1 meter   Each side = ¼ meter   Each side = 1 nanometer




                 ...
Size-Dependent Properties
 Fe3O4, Magnetite (4 nm)   CdSe (8 nm)   Gold (~ 10 nm)




      Magnetism             Emission...
Beneficial Interactions


 Cancer Therapy   Tumor Detection   Water Treatment




     J. West          R. Drezek         ...
If there is an interaction…




   Cure cancer?               Cause cancer?
   Clean up environment?      Pollute environm...
Potential Targets of Risk


    Workers      Consumers   Environment
Addressing Applications & Implications
Research and Education
                  The Center for Biological & Environmental ...
International Council on Nanotechnology

INCLUSIVE                                   GLOBAL
 Multistakeholder cooperation ...
ICON’s Reach
Virtual Journal of NanoEHS
Database of citations to peer-reviewed nanoEHS papers

                             • Monthly u...
EHS Publication Pace is Increasing
                     NanoEHS Papers
 600

 500

 400

 300

 200

 100

  0
       2002...
Hazard Data Outstrip Exposure Data
                Papers on Hazard vs. Exposure
300
                                     ...
Hazard Studies


  Cytotoxicity   Ecotoxicity   Mammalian Toxicity
BUT…


 Dose         Dose metrics              Standards



   Validating assays         Characterization


           Bat...
Occupational Research Limited
                     EHS Publications             All   Occupational
 600

 500

 400

 300
...
Key Questions for People Working with
Nanomaterials

 • What are you doing now?
 • What do you need to know to do the best...
Workers: Survey of Current Handling Practices
    First comprehensive, international survey of handling
             pract...
Some Resources for Handling Nano
US                        Canada       Europe




DOE NSRC        NIOSH         IRSST    ...
Common Messages

• Nanomaterial behavior may differ from that
  of non-nanoscale analogs
• Some nanomaterials may pose hea...
Barriers to
Information
  Sharing
How do we get
           Timely
          Practical
        High-quality
       information out
to ALL the target populati...
Introducing the GoodNanoGuide




•   Protected Internet site on occupational practices for the safe handling of nanomater...
What is a Wiki?
A Wiki is central, shared repository of online information

 Anyone can edit the pages                    ...
Why a Wiki for Nano Handling Practices?

 Features                        Guidance Document   Research Paper   Wiki Entry
...
Wiki Generates Global Interest

                                                       Australia
                         ...
Interacting with the GoodNanoGuide

             No Registration Required
   VIEW


             Register as a User

 COMM...
Implementation Committee


                Dr. Michael Riediker             Mr. Bruce Stockmeier                  Dr. Kris...
Screenshot for Providers




                           36
A Sample Protocol




                    37
Contribute & Edit using Familiar Tools



                 Format text     Symbols
                          Hyperlink  In...
Conclusions

 • Nanomaterials pose many complex challenges
   to the occupational safety professional
 • There are good re...
Acknowledgments

•   ICON “GoodWiki” project planning team
•   GoodNanoGuide Implementation Committee
•   Survey Responden...
GoodNanoGuide Sponsors
  Now available at http://goodnanoguide.org




                                          ♥
       ...
20090603AIHceKeynoteKulinowski
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20090603AIHceKeynoteKulinowski

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A keynote address delivered at AIHce in Toronto on June 3, 2009 describing challenges posed by nanomaterials to occupational safety professionals and introducing the GoodNanoGuide wiki.

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  • Especially in the summer
  • Covering this topic since 2004Special symposiaWebinars, seminars, workshopsHot topic
  • What are they?
  • Diversity of nanomaterial compositionTake the periodic table. If you can make it, you can probably make it at the nanoscaleImpossible to generalize about this vast diversity of substances
  • In addition to compositional variety, there is structural variety. All these pictures have features at the nanoscale yet are made from the same substance: ZnO
  • ALL OF CHEMISTRY IS NOT NANOTECHNOLOGYAtoms are governed by quantum physicsColloidal particles and larger are governed by the familiar macroscopic realm of Newtonian mechanicsNano happens in the transitory regime between these two. So new features emerge and things change as size changes
  • Is it not possible that this leads to special biological and environmental properties as well?
  • Of course it does and lots of people are exploiting these properties to make advances in medicine and environmental remediation
  • However, special can be good or bad and we need to understand how to balance benefits and risks
  • We think about risk broadlyWhat unites all of these is water
  • Mailing list of over 1000 people in places where we didn’t even know there was much nano going on.But all these dots represent locales where we have had a substantial interaction or held a meeting
  • One of our key projects is a knowledge base of info relating to EHS of nanomaterialsDon’t let people tell you “we have no information” about nano riskThe problem is not no data, but what are the data telling us?
  • If we do a simple search of the ICON database for peer-reviewed papers (because we also collect reports, reviews and news items), we find that the pace of knowledge creation is rapidly increasingThis is goodThis means that there is a growing community of people around the world being funded to do work in this area. That’s a far cry from 2001 (founding of CBEN) when there was almost no work in this area.
  • HOWEVER if we dig a little deeper we’ll find that the vast majority of the papers address hazards with very limited exposure data. (I use “exposure” in the broadest sense to include e.g. papers that model environmental releases of nanomaterials from consumer products, not just human exposure assessments, in which case the numbers would be much lower.)This inequity between hazard and exposure indicates that we do not have enough information to complete a full risk equation and are therefore still operating in a climate of uncertainty with respect to risk assessment and management.
  • Digging into the hazard data a little we see that research has been published on just about every type of nanoparticle out there. (Some of this data is buried in medical applications papers)And that the preponderance of research has been done in cell culture. Cytotox is of course valuable as a first stage screen for more sophisticated toxicological experiments but its relevance to human health is limited. Highly relevant research is practically non-existent.Still there’s a lot out there already
  • HOWEVER the quality of the research is spotty and is hampered by lack of standards for research practice in a number of areas including the ones listed here.For example, research has shown that nanoscale carbons can react with the dyes used in some common assays resulting in false positive or false negative results. So we need validation of our traditional techniques.AND quality control issues in nanoparticle samples further complicate the story.ALL of this makes it difficult to establish structure-activity relationships that could help reduce the complexity and provide some prediction of nanomaterial properties.OECD/ISO/ASTM are working on some of these issues but it will take some time to sort out.
  • The picture gets even bleaker when we look for research of high relevance to occupational practice. While there are a handful of studies that have assessed PPE, for example, the body of work is highly limited. So we have some serious knowledge gaps to overcome
  • 20090603AIHceKeynoteKulinowski

    1. 1. Taking Science Beyond Borders: Global EHS Issues of Nanotechnology Kristen M. Kulinowski, PhD | kk@rice.edu
    2. 2. (Especially in the summer.)
    3. 3. Global EHS Issues of Nanotechnology Nanomaterials
    4. 4. Nanomaterials
    5. 5. Materials • Carbons – e.g., Fullerenes, nanotubes • Oxides – e.g., TiO2, ZnO, SiO2, CeO2, Fe3O4 • Metals – e.g., Ag, Fe, Al, Si, Zn, Cu, Ni • Semiconductors – e.g., CdSe, CdS, InAs, InP • Polymers/organics – e.g., liposomes, dendrimers • Hybrids – e.g., nanoshells
    6. 6. Nanomaterial Variability Credit: Zhong Lin Wang
    7. 7. Size
    8. 8. Small Size → Large Surface Area Each side = 1 meter Each side = ¼ meter Each side = 1 nanometer ¼m Gold 1 m Mass ≈ 43,000 lb Mass ≈ 43,000 lb Mass ≈ 43,000 lb SA = 6 m2 SA = 24 m2 SA ≈ 6 billion m2 ≈ 2500 sq miles ≈ 8 ft x 8 ft room State of Delaware: < 2000 sq miles
    9. 9. Size-Dependent Properties Fe3O4, Magnetite (4 nm) CdSe (8 nm) Gold (~ 10 nm) Magnetism Emission Reactivity
    10. 10. Beneficial Interactions Cancer Therapy Tumor Detection Water Treatment J. West R. Drezek V. Colvin
    11. 11. If there is an interaction… Cure cancer? Cause cancer? Clean up environment? Pollute environment?
    12. 12. Potential Targets of Risk Workers Consumers Environment
    13. 13. Addressing Applications & Implications Research and Education The Center for Biological & Environmental Nanotechnology An NSF center of excellence in nanotechnology research & education cben.rice.edu Information and Community-Building The International Council on Nanotechnology A multi-stakeholder forum for addressing nanotechnology’s potential risks icon.rice.edu
    14. 14. International Council on Nanotechnology INCLUSIVE GLOBAL Multistakeholder cooperation International perspective TECHNICAL PROACTIVE Grounded in science Stewards for sustainability Developing and communicating information regarding potential environmental and health risks of nanotechnology to foster risk reduction and maximize societal benefit.
    15. 15. ICON’s Reach
    16. 16. Virtual Journal of NanoEHS Database of citations to peer-reviewed nanoEHS papers • Monthly updates • Over 3100 records • Backgrounders on key literature  [out of five] “This paper makes a major contribution to the literature …” http://icon.rice.edu/virtualjournal.cfm
    17. 17. EHS Publication Pace is Increasing NanoEHS Papers 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Source: http://icon.rice.edu/report.cfm
    18. 18. Hazard Data Outstrip Exposure Data Papers on Hazard vs. Exposure 300 Hazard Exposure 250 200 150 100 50 0 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Source: http://icon.rice.edu/report.cfm
    19. 19. Hazard Studies Cytotoxicity Ecotoxicity Mammalian Toxicity
    20. 20. BUT… Dose Dose metrics Standards Validating assays Characterization Batch-to-batch variability
    21. 21. Occupational Research Limited EHS Publications All Occupational 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Source: http://icon.rice.edu/report.cfm
    22. 22. Key Questions for People Working with Nanomaterials • What are you doing now? • What do you need to know to do the best job? • Where are you going for information?
    23. 23. Workers: Survey of Current Handling Practices First comprehensive, international survey of handling practices in the nanotech workplace Key findings • Nano-specific EHS programs and training are widely reported • Actual practices do not depart from conventional chemical safety practices • Active interest in additional information • Main impediment: Lack of information and guidance http://tinyurl.com/ICONSurvey and Environ. Sci. Technol. 2008, 42, 3155-3162
    24. 24. Some Resources for Handling Nano US Canada Europe DOE NSRC NIOSH IRSST NanoSafe2 BAUA E2535-07 ISO/TR 12885 PD 6699-2:2007
    25. 25. Common Messages • Nanomaterial behavior may differ from that of non-nanoscale analogs • Some nanomaterials may pose health risks if exposure is present • Hazard and exposure data do not yet provide a clear picture of risk MINIMIZING EXPOSURE IS PRUDENT
    26. 26. Barriers to Information Sharing
    27. 27. How do we get Timely Practical High-quality information out to ALL the target populations?
    28. 28. Introducing the GoodNanoGuide • Protected Internet site on occupational practices for the safe handling of nanomaterials • Multiple stakeholders contribute, share and discuss information • Modern, interactive, up-to-date http://GoodNanoGuide.org
    29. 29. What is a Wiki? A Wiki is central, shared repository of online information Anyone can edit the pages Wikis for Dummies Editing is easy and requires no special tools Formatting is simple Changes are easily tracked
    30. 30. Why a Wiki for Nano Handling Practices? Features Guidance Document Research Paper Wiki Entry Describes a specific practice No Maybe YES Written by practitioners Maybe Maybe YES Written for practitioners Maybe No YES Engages global community No Maybe YES Provides a forum for dialog No No YES Easily accessed YES No YES
    31. 31. Wiki Generates Global Interest Australia Belgium Brazil Canada Denmark France Germany India New Zealand South Africa Switzerland USA UK Admin Co-chairs Planners Testers Global locations of current participants
    32. 32. Interacting with the GoodNanoGuide No Registration Required VIEW Register as a User COMMENT Register as a Provider CONTRIBUTE
    33. 33. Implementation Committee Dr. Michael Riediker Mr. Bruce Stockmeier Dr. Kristen Kulinowski Institute for Work and Health Argonne National Lab Rice University Gary Albach Dr. Paul-Émile Boileau Mr. Steve Brown Ms. Ilise Feitshans Dr. Charles Geraci nanoAlberta IRSST Intel International Labour Organization NIOSH Dr. Steve Hankin Dr. Mark Hoover Mr. Matthew Jaffe Mr. Victor Jones SafeNano NIOSH Crowell & Moring NanoTechBC
    34. 34. Screenshot for Providers 36
    35. 35. A Sample Protocol 37
    36. 36. Contribute & Edit using Familiar Tools Format text Symbols Hyperlink Insert picture or flash
    37. 37. Conclusions • Nanomaterials pose many complex challenges to the occupational safety professional • There are good resources out there already • New knowledge is evolving rapidly and from many corners of the globe Let’s pool our knowledge for the benefit of all
    38. 38. Acknowledgments • ICON “GoodWiki” project planning team • GoodNanoGuide Implementation Committee • Survey Respondents • Kathryn Cavender (Rice Univ) • NIOSH • AIHA Nanotechnology Working Group
    39. 39. GoodNanoGuide Sponsors Now available at http://goodnanoguide.org ♥ 41

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