There are many different reasons why hazing occurs. Lipkins,(2006) suggests that hazing is related to:
basic internal desires of control
promoting team cohesion
developmental need s
Separation from Family
After a certain age, children are expected to take care of themselves. When these changes occur, both parents and kids are put to the test. Individuals must push the limits and challenge authority figures. Hazing is a coping strategy when searching for their identity, and sometimes children act out in dangerous ways.
Acceptance into a Group
Individuals trust that the group will not really harm them, and that it is in their own self interest to go along with the hazing
The “membership” to the group would be provided, for their identity, security and protection
Social Loafing - Responsibilities and consequences lie among all members of a team, a sense of belonging is subconsciously taken into account along with the actions
One large part of the hazing process is extreme consumption of alcohol and other drugs.
82% of deaths from hazing involve alcohol and it is not only a problem in colleges
1.5 million high school students are hazed each year
47% of high school graduates had already having experienced hazing.
Although it is seen as an initiation that supposedly paves the way for new comers’ acceptance into a new group.
Case: (Lee 2008)
Ontario, 2008. A junior B hockey player was found guilty of an assault because he was part of a group of senior team members who forced “rookies” to masturbate on the back of the team bus.
Promotes a selfish desire which takes advantage of an individual, exploits their pornographic and erotic interests
Encourages dominance, and internal desires of control
False Belief- Many think that hazing is part of team tradition and is actually a team bonding experience (Hoffer, 1999; Weir, 2003; Wertheim, 2003 )
Hazing has been described as promoting team cohesion, increasing social attraction to the team and its members, and enhancing the ability of teams to work together effectively to attain team goals
Campo et al., (2005) suggest that hazing was negatively related to task cohesiveness, whereas appropriate team building was positively related to social cohesiveness
The History of Hazing
Hazing, the initiation of a disciplinary activity involving horseplay, practical jokes, and humiliating activities, started in 1850 as a tradition in American universities It was thought to have arisen from the crude behaviour of 19 th century “cowboy” towns on the frontier (the zone of transition where explorers, pioneers and settlers were arriving) As pioneers moved into the frontier, they were changed significantly by the encounter and were pressured to become more “American” Hazing later came about in the form of military discipline imposed in boot camps or training Although medieval Europe and British prep schools did perform practices similar to hazing in the 1700’s, they disappeared centuries before the American version was developed
What Would You Do?
ABC’s What Would You Do is a show that exposes people’s reactions to shocking situations.
Follow the link and scroll down to the March 10 th episodes titled Public Hazing : part 1, and part 2.
Public hazing in sororities and fraternities is a serious issue that can lead to death in some instances. As you can see the differences in the hazing practices are quite different based on gender. The girls focus almost solely on attacking the ego, and making each other feel worthless. It’s shocking to see the reactions of some people. One man in the female situation just sits down and watches it all happen without saying anything at all.
There are no official laws prohibiting hazing in Canada or the United States.There are obvious differences between Canadian and American fraternities and sororities. The United States has a long history of hazing rituals within their fraternities and sororities, wheres Canada generally frowns upon this ritualistic practice. s Along with other information about fraternities and sororities, the website http://www.canadiangreeks.com/gogreek/note.html, states the following :
The Greek system has taken a firm stance on hazing. It is not permitted or tolerated. Hazing is the degrading or humiliating treatment of non-initiated members by initiated ones. Though hazing has long been a part of military and athletic team initiations, Greeks have received arguably the most attention in regards to hazing. It is absolutely not allowed and any instances should be reported immediately to Greek advisors and campus administration. Most Canadian campuses have anti-hazing support networks including hotlines and seminars. These have mainly been due to the leadership of Fraternity and Sorority men and women. Friends are not won by intimidation. Greek men and women continue to work hard to remove all aspects of hazing from Canadian campuses.
According to http://www.stophazing.org/laws.html, the United States have a slightly different policy. Most of the fraternities in the U.S. have anti hazing laws. The Arizona House and Senate recently passed a bill that would outlaw hazing. 44 States have hazing laws. Alaska, Hawaii, Montana, New Mexico, South Dakota, and Wyoming, do not have anti hazing laws.
Should we be scared for todays youth?
What started out as something relatively private, such as nexopia,myspace, and facebook, where only your “friends” could see content, has progressed into something much much worse. Websites such as thedirty.com and antiduckface.com attack people on a personal level, laid out on the internet for the world to see.
Thedirty is a website where you can find “the dirtiest people,” listed by city.
People post pictures and ask the creator Nik Richie, would you? meaning: would you sleep with this girl?
Nik Richie rips people to shreds, and says no to virtually everyone. Some of the girls posted are flawless, and he always finds a way to find fault in them. Some of his favorite remarks for girls he can’t find anything wrong with are that her arms are fat or that her beak (nose) is to large, long, pointy etc.
This disgraceful website is a threat to todays youth.
Did you know this about facebook?
"By posting User Content to any part of the Site, you automatically grant... an irrevocable, perpetual, non-exclusive, transferable, fully paid, worldwide license... to use, copy, publicly perform, publicly display ... such User Content for any purpose..."
MEANING once you post pictures or any information on facebook, it’e there fore employers, family members, friends, acquaintances, or anyone in the WORLD to see. This also means if someone has any sort of grudge or reason to attack you, they now have the ability to post your pictures on any website they see fit.
Nik’s response to this post was:
I am having so much girl drama today it is insane. If anyone knows Pria, especially her family can you please help her. She is not seeing the light. She is not seeing how this single post saved her life, not ended it. She would have married a man who would have constantly cheated on her and Pria’s secrets would have dragged her down a darker path. This is your wake up call Pria and it is your decision what path you take now. You are free.
**Everyone in Vancouver needs to relax. You guys are just going through initial shock right now because TheDirty.com is new to your lifestyle and is spreading like wildfire. Just breathe and settle in. Be nice to people and they will be nice to you.
- I couldn’t conclude from the posts if this woman really did commit suicide, but the link to the picture with all the comments was still there. So I can only assume the worst.
the dirty survey at Capilano
We conducted a survey at Capilano to see whether or not people have heard of thedirty.com, and if so to gage their feelings about it.
Age: circle one - 17-19 20-25 26-35 35+
Gender: Male female
Have you heard of thedirty.com? yes no
if you answered YES please answer the following
have you seen someone you know on the thedirty.com? yes no
have you seen yourself on the thedirty.com? yes no
what do you think of the thedirty.com? circle all that apply :
i have to admit - i’ve posted something on it
don’t really know how I feel
embarrassing for the people posted on it
scary for my generation
scary for generations to come
should be outlawed
if you HAVE NOT heard of thedirty.com please answer the following:
I am now curious and am going to go look at thedirty.com: yes no
I am not going to look at thedirty.com: yes no
I don’t want to but I feel like I’m going to anyway: yes no
of the people who have heard of it
of the people who haven’t (we really didn’t mean to inadvertently promote it)
In the last 57 years, at least 250 reported cases of deaths were linked to bullying, hazing, or ragging, reported in English language newspapers from around the world (Srabstein, 2008).
Of these news stories 76% contained an alleged history that the victim was bullied. 22% of these reports were associated with suspected hazing or ragging.
In only four cases (2%), those who died had a history of bullying others. The majority of the reports of bullying related deaths (62.3%) originated in Europe, with most of them (93%) occurring in the United Kingdom (Srabstein, 2008).
Serious Consequences of Hazing
Potential physical effects of hazing, (Finkel, 2002):
Intra cranial injuries
1 st , 2 nd , 3 rd degree burns as well as interior burns of the throat
Vomiting, seizure, coma
Heart damage in patients with previous heart problems
Genitalia trauma, HIV, Hepatitis, STD’s, or unexpected pregnancy
Effects of Hazing
Hazing in its many forms can result in serious and life threatening effects. Not only does it sometimes cause physical problems but it also results in a phenomenon called “Effect Justification” (Aronson & Mills, 1959) or cognitive dissonance.
Some of the effects of cognitive dissonance include (Allan & Madden, 2008):
Few reports of hazing experiences – only 5% of people report the occurrence
Outcomes of hazing are seen as positive, while the serious physical effects are not taken seriously
Hazing is seen as a harmless tradition and not something harmful
Aronson and Mills (1959) study on initiation and its effects on attitude concluded that those who went through hardship to receive something, in their case it was girls who had to read something embarrassing to attend a discussion on sexuality, later identified the outcome of their initiation as positive, whereas those that did not have to go through an initiation to attend the same discussion were not as favourable. This idea stems from Leon Festinger’s theory of Cognitive Dissonance (1957).
An example of cognitive dissonance working in the hazing practice would be the outcome of the “Nation Study of Student Hazing” (Allan & Madden). After students from across the United States received a list of outcomes of hazing, 4 positive and 16 negative, the students more often mentioned the positive results. Students said they felt more included in the group 31% of the time, while only 11% of students said they felt stressed during the experience.
Perceived Positive Results of Hazing
Results of the study: Positive vs. Negative Results (Allan & Madden, 27-28)
86% of people cited a positive result, while 59% of people cited a negative result.
Feel more like part of the group 31%
Feel a sense of accomplishment 22%
Feel stronger 18%
Do better in class 15%
Perceived Negative Results of Hazing
Feel stressed 11%
Have problems in relationships 8%
Feel guilty 4%
Have difficulty sleeping 4%
Have difficulty concentrating in class 4%
Have trouble with academics 4%
Feel humiliated and degraded 3%
Feel depressed 3%
Incur physical injuries 3%
Perceived Negative Results of Hazing continued
Want revenge against organizers of the activity 3%
Quit the team or organization 3%
Feel in danger 2%
Look forward to my chance to do it to new recruits 2%
Need to visit a health center, doctor, or counsellor 2%
Consider transferring to another college or university 2%
Feel like I don’t want to live anymore 1%
Allan, E. J., & Madden, M. (2008). Hazing in View: College Students at Risk - National Study of Student Hazing. University of Maine, College of Education and Human Development. Aronson, E., & Mills, J. (1959). The Effect of Severity of Initiation on Liking for a Group. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology , 59 (2), 177-181.
Benjet, C., Thompson, R., & Gotlib, I. (2010). 5-HTTLPR moderates the effect of relational peer victimization on depressive symptoms in adolescent girls. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry , 51 (2), 173-179.
Enfield, M. (2010, March 26). Alcohol and Hazing . Retrieved March 28, 2010, from http://ezinearticles.com/?Alcohol-and-Hazing&id=4003858
Festinger, L. (1957). A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Finkel, M. A. (2002). Traumatic Injuries Caused by Hazing Practices. American Journal of Emergency Medicine , 20 (3), 228-233. Johnson, Jay, & Holman, Margery. (2004). Making the team: inside the world of sport initiations and hazing. Toronto: Canadian Scholars’ Press.
Lee, M. (Producer). (2008). Hazing, a wrong of passage. . [Web]. Retrieved from http://archives.cbc.ca/sports/hockey/clips/15104/
Lipkins, S. (2006). Inside hazing- understanding hazardous hazing. Retrieved from http://www.insidehazing.com/why.php
Ruffins, Paul (2009). Hazing Refuses to Go Away. Diverse: Issues in Higher Education 10/29/2009, Vol. 26 Issue 19, p6-6.
Lewis, Jan (1991). Fraternity Hazing: is that any way to treat a brother?. Trial v. 27 (September 1991) p. 63-6
Srabstein, J. (2008). Deaths linked to bullying and hazing. International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health , 20 (2), 235-239. Retrieved from PsycINFO database.
Van Raalte, Judy L., Cornelius, Allen E., Linder, Darwyn E., Brewer, Britton W. (2007). The Relationship Between Hazing and Team Cohesion. Journal of Sport Behavior Dec2007, Vol. 30 Issue 4, p491-507 i