Babies born with FAS tend to weigh less and be shorter than normal. They usually suffer from: Smaller headsDeformed facial featuresAbnormal joints and limbsPoor coordinationProblems with learningShort memoriesVictims of fetal alcohol syndrome often experience mental health problems, disrupted school experience, inappropriate sexual behavior, trouble with the law, alcohol and drug problems, difficulty caring for themselves and their children, and homelessness. *Binge drinking is considered drinking more than 7 drinks in one week or at one time.
Most common S&S: Underweight babiesWithdrawal symptoms in newbornBirth defectsDrugs Nearly 4% of pregnant women in the United States use illicit drugs such as marijuana, cocaine, Ecstasy or other amphetamines, and heroin. Opoids in particular are the most commonly abused and readily cross the placenta.
Drugs Alcohol Group 4
November 7, 2011Drugs and Alcohol in Pregnancy LPN 105 – Group 4
Overview: Drugs and alcohol can be harmful during any stage of pregnancy both prescription and non prescription. However, fetal harm is of the greatest concern during the first trimester when the earliest development is critical. Unfortunately, a woman may not be aware of their pregnancy at this stage. Both drugs and alcohol cross the placenta with similar complications. Many women who abuse one drug have the additional problem of abusing more than one at the same time doubly increasing the risks to the pregnancy.
Risk of premature birth and miscarriage Low birth weight, hypoglycemia and intercranial hemorrhage Babies may have failure to thrive or grow at normal rates after birth.
Leading known cause of birth defects Risk of miscarriage doubles Average birth weight of babies is about 4 lbs for babies exposed to large amounts of alcohol Can cause malformations especially in the first ten weeks Problems with heart, limbs, and facial features in baby are indicative of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
S&S: Small skull, Abnormal facial features, Heart defects, Impeded growth, Mental retardation. Simple eye movement test on infant used to diagnose Highest risk for FAS is binge drinking
Passes nicotine and cancer causing agents to fetus Increases risk of SIDS Only about 20% of women who smoke quit during pregnancy Inhibits fetal growth Depresses woman’s appetite and possibly depriving nutrition to fetus Reduces the ability of the lungs to absorb oxygen and possibly depriving some oxygen to the fetus. However, studies indicate the body does compensate for these losses by forcing the hemoglobin to carry more oxygen.
Contains toxins like tobacco inhibiting oxygen supplyOccasional use during the 1st trimester is unlikely to cause birth defects.
If used especially in later pregnancy an infantexperiences profound withdrawal, sleepnessness,difficulty feeding and muscle spasms.Defects of genitals, kidneys and brain are possiblewith early pregnancy use.Learning difficulties often prevail throughoutchildhood.
Withdrawal symptoms in these infants is the most profound than any other drug. Infant death is more common than with any other drug. More likelihood of HIV infection in infant as Heroin is often injected
If a woman anticipatesPrevention becoming pregnant then a health care provider’s bestEducate, approach is to educateEducate women of child bearing ageeducate! to: Stop smoking. Do not drink alcohol. Do not use illegal drugs.
DO’S DONT’S Safe, confidential No sudden detox for pregnancy detox for drug drug addicted mothers addiction is available via Even secondhand substance abuse treatment centers. tobacco smoke should be avoided. Psychiatric and obsteteric evaluation and care are primary venues for women to seek treatment and/or referrals.
Methadone, Buprenorphine and Naltrexon are used forcontrolled medical detox.There are few supported studies on long term effects but,clearly preferable to drug abuse.
Again - supportive non judgmental care.Use referrals to available resources to assistwomen.Keep in mind that these mothers are fearful ofmany factors including losing custody of otherchildren, incarceration or criminal chargesand, at the very least embarassment.
Currently no states hold prenatal substance abuseas a criminal act of child abuse and neglect.However, many states have expanded childwelfare requirements to include substance abuseduring pregnancy as grounds for termination ofparental rights.