Quality management ethics


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Quality management ethics

  1. 1. Quality Management & Ethics ETHICAL MANAGEMENT
  2. 2. Major Topics Ethics Defined Trust and Total Quality Values and Total Quality Integrity and Total Quality Responsibility and Total Quality Manager’s Role in Ethics Organization’s Role in Ethics Handling Ethical Dilemmas Ethics Training and Codes of Business Conduct Models for Making Ethical Decisions Beliefs versus Behavior: Why the Disparity?
  3. 3. Ethics Defined - 1 Ethics is the study of human behavior within a moral context. Morality refers to the values that are subscribed to and fosters by society in general and by individuals within the society Ethics attempts to - apply reason in determining rules of human behavior that translate morality into everyday behavior. Ethical Behavior – It is that which falls within the limits prescribed by widely accepted moral values.
  4. 4. Ethics Defined - 2 Guidelines for Determining Ethical Behavior Distinguish the concepts of legal and ethical:  A person’s behavior can be well within the prescribed limits of the law and still be unethical.  Blanchard and Peale suggest the following 5 P’s which help managers and employees make ethical choices in the work place.  Purpose – Individuals see themselves as ethical people.  Pride – Individuals apply internal guidelines & have self- esteem.  Patience – Individuals believe right will prevail in the long run.  Persistence – Individuals are willing to stay with an ethical course of action.  Perspective – Individuals take the time to reflect and are guided by their own internal barometer to take ethical decisions.
  5. 5. Ethics Defined - 3 Factors That Influence Ethical Behavior  Managers in a total quality setting need to understand the factors influencing a person’s behavior.  L.K.Trevino suggests 3 personality measures that can influence a person’s ethical behavior:  Ego strength – Ability to undertake self-directed tasks.  Machiavellianism – Extent to which a person will attempt to confuse others.  Locus of Control – The perspective of people concerning who or what controls their behavior.
  6. 6. Trust and Total Quality Total Quality approach cannot be achieved without ethical behavior.  Ethical Behavior builds trust and trust is an essential ingredient of total quality. In attempting to build trust in the workplace, managers should take the initiative. Fig 1. Elements of Total Quality that depend on Trust
  7. 7. Values and Total Quality Values are those deeply held beliefs that form the very core of who we are.  A persons conscience or internal barometer is based on his or her values. Ethical Behavior begins with Values.  Values that lead to ethical behavior are as follows:  Fairness  Dependability  Integrity  Honesty  Truthfulness
  8. 8. Integrity and Total Quality Integrity as a personal and organizational characteristic combines honesty and dependability. When an individual or an organization has integrity, ethical behavior automatically follows. People with integrity can be counted on to  Do the right thing  Do things correctly  Accomplish tasks thoroughly and completely  Finish work on time  Keep promises.
  9. 9. Responsibility and Total Quality Part of ethical behavior is to accept responsibility. People generally want to blame others for their own short comings and failures – In a total Quality setting, people are responsible for their actions and accountable for their performance. Accepting responsibility helps build trust, integrity, and all other elements of ethics.
  10. 10. Manager’s Role in Ethics Managers have 3 main responsibilities: - For setting an example of ethical behavior. - For helping employees make ethical choices. - Helping employees follow ethical behavior. Following are 3 approaches for managers to carry out their responsibilities:  Best Ratio Approach: People are basically good, hence create appropriate conditions.  Black-and-White Approach: Right is right, wrong is wrong, hence make ethical decisions and carry them out.  Full Potential Approach: People are responsible for realizing their full potential, hence decisions made should focus achieving this potential. Fig 2. Approaches to Ethics
  11. 11. Organization’s Role in Ethics Organizations have a critical role to play in promoting ethical behavior among their employees. An Organizations tasks in ethics can be summarized as:  Creating an internal environment that promotes, expects and rewards ethical behavior.  This can be achieved by establishing policies and practices promoting the atmosphere.  Setting an example of ethical behavior in all external dealings.  Organizations should set an example for their employees.  This motivates them to be ethical.
  12. 12. Handling Ethical Dilemmas Managers response to ethical dilemma is very important. Following are the guidelines, managers can use in such situations. Fig 3. Guidelines for handling ethical dilemmas
  13. 13. Ethics Training & Codes of Business Conduct Ethics Training:  Ethical behavior and the rationale for it can be taught.  In ethics training:  Stimulate discussion  Facilitate, don’t preach  Integrate ethics training  Highlight practical applications  Few examples of the topics that are widely addressed in corporate-sponsored ethics training programs are  Drug and alcohol abuse, Employee theft, Quality control etc. Code of Business Conduct:  Written Codes of Business conduct encourage employees to do the right thing.
  14. 14. Models for Making Ethical Decisions Decision making models used for determining ethical behavior can differ just as the values of organizations do. Most widely used models are:  Categorical Imperative Model – black-and-white model  Full Disclosure Model – functional criterion  Doctrine of Mean Model – Average between 2 extremes  Golden Rule Model – Do unto others as you would have them do unto you  Market-Ethic Model – Any legal action that promotes profitability-ethical  Organizational Ethic Model – Loyalty to organization  Equal Freedom Model – Organizations have freedom to behave  Proportionality Ethic Model – World is so complex, decisions are not clear  Professional Ethic Model – Principle of peer review
  15. 15. Beliefs vs. Behavior Ethics in workplace manifests itself through the application of values. Most, but not all, people subscribe to these values. Several Reasons explain the disparity like:  Self-Interest/Self-Protection  Conflicting Values  Tangible/Intangible – Immediate Deferred  Making Ethics Tangible and Immediate
  16. 16. Questions/Queries