External Influences International factors, economic and cultural influences; etc
Advocacy in Development Author: Shaila Shahid Krisok of Krisoker Sor (Farmers’ Voice) [email_address]
Advocacy is a strategy to influence policy makers when they make laws and regulations, distribute resources, and make other decisions that affect peoples’ lives. The principal aims of advocacy are to create policies, reform policies, and ensure policies are implemented. What is Advocacy Why Advocacy <ul><li>ADVOCACY is the deliberate process of influencing </li></ul><ul><li>those who make policy decisions. Use of advocacy will always: </li></ul><ul><li>Improve the livelihood of significant numbers of people. </li></ul><ul><li>Target policy makers and implementers at all levels above the household. </li></ul><ul><li>Be rooted in the field experience, evidence based and core values. </li></ul>
Essential areas for building a foundation for Advocacy 1 Gathering policy and political information 3 Building strategic relationships 4 Establishing your credibility as an advocate 5 Linking advocacy to country office priorities 6 Maintaining focus 2 Assessing risk
<ul><li>Advocacy is essentially all about three things: </li></ul><ul><li>Creating policies where they are needed when none exist. </li></ul><ul><li>Reforming harmful or ineffective policies. </li></ul><ul><li>Ensuring good policies are implemented and enforced. </li></ul>Advocacy frequently involves building constituencies – groups of people and organizations who support a particular policy viewpoint. Since advocacy usually occurs in the public domain, you must be prepared to consider the views of many people, and understand how decisions are made in your particular context. The more you know about the advocacy issue you select, the community where you work, and how political institutions function, the more effective an advocate you can be.
<ul><li>The effectiveness and success of advocacy efforts depend on how efficiently the following techniques and strategies are employed : </li></ul><ul><li>· Identifying and framing the issue </li></ul><ul><li>· Collecting information </li></ul><ul><li>· Mobilising interested people </li></ul><ul><li>· Networking </li></ul><ul><li>· Forming alliances </li></ul><ul><li>· Forming and sustaining coalitions </li></ul><ul><li>· Planning campaigns </li></ul><ul><li>· Involving the media </li></ul><ul><li>· Building pressure on the legislature </li></ul><ul><li>· Establishing contacts within the systems. </li></ul><ul><li>In people centered advocacy we target the following: </li></ul><ul><li>· People-directly or indirectly affected </li></ul><ul><li>· Public at large for changing public perception </li></ul><ul><li>· Decision makers: Members of Parliament, MLAs, Collectors, Judges, Bureaucrats </li></ul><ul><li>· Other institutions like National Commissions, Nodal agencies, Trade union, the Media etc. </li></ul>
<ul><li>The following are the key principles in people centered advocacy </li></ul><ul><li>· Listening to people </li></ul><ul><li>· Constant dialogue and counter questioning </li></ul><ul><li>· Patience </li></ul><ul><li>· Knowledge about systems, acts and rules (this gives you power) </li></ul><ul><li>· Mobilising people for the cause (not for project) and other resources </li></ul><ul><li>· Readiness to face consequences (availability of an alternate strategy) </li></ul><ul><li>· Appropriate knowledge, skills, information, tools and techniques </li></ul><ul><li>· Perfect timing (when the system is opening) </li></ul><ul><li>· Strategic planning </li></ul>
<ul><li>Following steps to be taken for strategic planning: </li></ul><ul><li>· Clarity of goals and objectives </li></ul><ul><li>· Analysis of strength, limitation, opportunity, threat (SLOT) of opponents and of our own group </li></ul><ul><li>· Collection of information about opponents: what they do, what they don’t do, what they like, what they don’t </li></ul><ul><li>like, etc </li></ul><ul><li>- Know the key actors </li></ul><ul><li>- Hit where it hurts the opponents </li></ul><ul><li>Choose the most appropriate time for best action </li></ul><ul><li>- Find out others who can influence the opponents </li></ul>
<ul><li>The following key questions are to be considered for developing an advocacy strategy: </li></ul><ul><li>· What do we want? (Strategic objectives) </li></ul><ul><li>· Who can deliver it? (Identify the key player/s) </li></ul><ul><li>· What does the audience want to hear? (Message development) </li></ul><ul><li>· Who do they want to hear? (Messenger / expert/ leader) </li></ul><ul><li>· How can we get them to hear? (Means of delivery) </li></ul><ul><li>· What kinds of resource are required? (Manpower/financial/knowledge, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>· What have we got? (Resources) </li></ul><ul><li>· What do we need to develop? (Gap in resources) </li></ul><ul><li>· How do we begin? (First effort) </li></ul><ul><li>· How do we tell if it is working or not? (Evaluation) </li></ul><ul><li>· How do we modify if it is not working? (Strategic planning) </li></ul>
Planning an Advocacy Initiative Analyzing policies Outlining An advocacy strategy Finalizing An advocacy strategy Framing a plan Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 <ul><li>Identify a policy issue </li></ul><ul><li>Identify key actors and institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze the policy environment </li></ul><ul><li>Summarize policy findings </li></ul><ul><li>Identify options for policy change </li></ul><ul><li>Select a policy issue </li></ul><ul><li>Select target audiences </li></ul><ul><li>Set a policy goal </li></ul><ul><li>Identify allies and opponents </li></ul><ul><li>Select roles </li></ul><ul><li>Identify key messages </li></ul><ul><li>Define advocacy activities </li></ul><ul><li>Set a timeline </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare a budget </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare a log frame </li></ul><ul><li>Plan for monitoring and evaluation </li></ul>
<ul><li>Advocacy strategies will enable us to: </li></ul><ul><li>Influence policy makers as a means of addressing policy root causes of poverty and discrimination. </li></ul><ul><li>Contribute more effectively to reducing poverty and preventing deaths and suffering by using a wider range of interventions. </li></ul><ul><li>Reach a large segment of the population and broaden the scope of our impact. </li></ul>But BEFORE YOU BEGIN BUILD YOUR FOUNDATIONS
CREDIBILITY CHECKLIST ✔ Can you, or your colleagues, legitimately speak on behalf of those affected by the issues? ✔ Are you, or your colleagues, known and respected by the policy makers involved in the issue? ✔ Do you, or your colleagues, have information or expertise that is relevant to the issues? ✔ Will the policy makers involved be interested in your opinion or that of your colleagues? ✔ Are there people within the country office who can effectively lead an advocacy initiative on the issues you are considering? ✔ Are you, or your colleagues, perceived as objective and trustworthy, or politically biased? CREDIBILITY means that other people trust and value what you have to say.
<ul><li>After this, you should start to consider the best options for policy change. Your goal is to rank these ideas in order of preference. Your analysis should consider such factors as: </li></ul><ul><li>Which of the policy solutions is likely to have the largest and most lasting impact on the problem? </li></ul><ul><li>What will happen if nothing is done regarding these policy issues? </li></ul><ul><li>Which policy solutions are readily achievable and which are likely to be expensive and/or time consuming? </li></ul><ul><li>Which policy solutions are likely to garner significant support or, alternatively, face significant opposition? </li></ul><ul><li>Are some of the policy solutions riskier than others? Can such risks be mitigated? </li></ul><ul><li>Who should take the lead on bringing the policy solution to the attention of policy makers? </li></ul><ul><li>Which policy solutions is the organisation and its current or potential </li></ul><ul><li>partners in the best position to achieve? </li></ul>
Evaluating Impact Possible key questions: • Have policy changes resulted in improvements in people’s quality of life? Why/why not? Can you provide data to support your findings? • Have policy changes contributed to protecting, promoting, or expanding people’s rights? Evaluating Effects Possible key questions: • Has the policy change you tried to achieve occurred, or are the prospects better than they were before? • Have new policies been approved, or outdated/adverse polices been changed? Are policies enacted at the national, regional and/or local levels? Why/why not? • What factors enabled/hindered the success of your policy change, that is, the creation, reform or enactment of policies? • Were bills or proposals formally introduced in the legislature or other government body or were informal decisions made? • Who made final decisions that enabled/hindered your policy change?
Evaluating your strategy Possible key questions: • Did you select appropriate primary and secondary audiences? Did you have to change the targets of your advocacy along the way? Why/why not? • Did your advocacy messages change your target audiences’ opinions or knowledge on the policy issue? Which messages were most successful, and which failed to convey your point? • Did you choose appropriate roles for your advocacy initiative? Could other roles have been more effective? • Did you advocate in a coalition? What were the benefits/drawbacks for advocating in a coalition? • Has your advocacy initiative increased the ability of community groups and/or local organizations to represent their own interests? • Did the advocacy initiative raise public awareness and interest in the policy issue? • What were the major obstacles faced by your advocacy initiative? What did you do to overcome those obstacles? • What can you learn from your strategy implementation for future advocacy initiatives?
Once you have an advocacy strategy in place, you can start to make more detailed decisions about how to achieve your policy goals. Some of the most important decisions you will make when implementing an advocacy strategy are: ∏ What messages you will send to your target audience ∏ How you will work with others in advocacy ∏ How you will employ advocacy tactics, such as negotiation or using the media, to achieve your aims.
DEVELOPING AND DELIVERING MESSAGES Develop clear and compelling messages. A message explains what you are proposing, why it is worth doing, and the positive impacts of your policy proposal. A few rules can help you choose the content of your message wisely. Deliver messages effectively. When you deliver a message, you want your target audience to agree with it and then take action on your proposal. For this to happen, you must ensure they will understand your message and believe your message. You also need to think about how to ensure they receive your message. Reinforce messages. Usually, delivering a message once is not enough. Always have a strategy to reinforce your message, either yourself, or through others. When you re-send your message, you can also use the opportunity to respond to any concerns expressed by your target audience.
What you need to know about your target audience What does it mean to "know your audience"? Of course, this isn’t always possible, but you can take time to learn about the interests, attitudes, and positions of your target audience, even without meeting them. For example, here are some things that you can try to learn before your develop your message: <ul><li>About your </li></ul><ul><li>target audience... Specifically... </li></ul><ul><li>What are their political interests? What group of people do they </li></ul><ul><li>What are their self-interests in represent? </li></ul><ul><li>Their relation to the issue? </li></ul><ul><li>How much information do they Are you telling them something already have about your issue? they already know? What NEW information are you offering? </li></ul><ul><li>Do they already have an opinion? What is it, how strongly held? </li></ul><ul><li>Have they already voted or taken a public position on your issue? </li></ul><ul><li>What objections might they have, Do you need to clear up any to your position? What could they misperceptions, or counter opposing lose as a result of your proposal? arguments? </li></ul><ul><li>What are their personal interests? What are their hobbies or “passions” outside of work? What do they do in their spare time? </li></ul><ul><li>Do their backgrounds (personal, Can you link your issue to educational or professional) suggest something you know they do support? Do they have a bias or position ? </li></ul>
What is Networking Formal or informal structures that link actors (individuals or organisations) who share a common interest on a specific issue or a general set of values, willing to assist one another or collaborate on a common policy goal Internal Networking The process of using resources in your own organization (including people) to gain expected result you need External Networking The process of asking people you know outside your organization for influencing about the target audience A Network should have the capacity to foster the following three “Cs” Communication The multiplicity of links allows for actors to communicate better. knowledge to be shared interactively across both horizontal and vertical dimensions Creativity Free and interactive communication among a diverse range of actors offers a fertile climate for creative action Consensus Links among diverse actors to build consensus and circumventing formal barriers. Allow like-minded actors to identify each other and rally around a common issue
The Context – political structures / processes, institutional pressures, prevailing concepts, policy streams and windows etc Links between policy makers and other stakeholders, relationships, voice trust, networks, the media and other intermediaries etc The Evidence, credibility, methods, relevance, use, how the message is packaged and communicated, etc Influences International factors, National arena, economic, social and cultural influences; etc
<ul><li>Use the media </li></ul><ul><li>If influencing public opinion is your advocacy strategy, it becomes important to use the media to deliver your message. Policy makers and groups involved in political processes also pay close attention to the press, so using the media sometimes can help you to reach multiple audiences. The principal benefits of using the media are: </li></ul><ul><li>The ability to deliver your message to a large number of people, potentially attracting public interest and supporters to your cause. </li></ul><ul><li>It may increase your profile and credibility with policymakers, and therefore improve your access to them. </li></ul><ul><li>Like any approach, use of the media also carries certain risks. For example: </li></ul><ul><li>The possibility that the coverage of your organization or cause will be unfavorable or inaccurate. </li></ul><ul><li>The possibility that media coverage will motivate any opponents to your cause. </li></ul><ul><li>The best way to help ensure that media coverage will advance your advocacy </li></ul><ul><li>goals is to plan ahead. Once you decide to use the media, there is a wide range of techniques to choose from. Which method you choose depends on the nature of your message, the audience you hope to reach, media that are accessible to you, and your own level of skill and experience in dealing with the media. </li></ul>
<ul><li>STEPS IN THE ADVOCACY PROCESS </li></ul><ul><li>There are a number of important steps that you need to take in your advocacy work. They are presented in sequential order below. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the issue . Advocacy begins with an issue or problem that an organisation or network agrees to support in order to promote a policy change. The issue should support the organisation’s mission and meet the criteria set for its advocacy campaigns. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Set goals and objectives . A goal (sometimes called a strategic objective) is a general statement of what the organisation hopes to achieve during the next three to five years. The advocacy objective describes the short-term, specific and measurable achievements that contribute to the goal. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Develop the message and identify target audience . Advocacy messages are developed to frame the issue and persuade the receiver to support your organisation’s position. There are three important questions to answer when preparing advocacy messages: </li></ul><ul><li>· What type of people is this message for – what do they already know? </li></ul><ul><li>· What do you want to achieve with the message? </li></ul><ul><li>· What do you want the recipient of the message to do as a result of the message? </li></ul>
5. Develop implementation and activity plan for your advocacy work . The organisation should develop an implementation plan to guide its advocacy campaign. The plan should identify activities and tasks, responsible persons or committees, the desired time frame and needed resources. When you develop the plan you need to select channels of communication. Selection of the most appropriate medium for advocacy messages depends on the target audience. The choice of medium varies for reaching the general public, influencing decision makers, educating the media, generating support for the issue among like-minded organisations, etc. Some of the more common channels include press kits and press releases, press conferences, fact sheets and a conference for policy makers. You may also need to raise funds. Advocacy campaigns can always benefit from outside funds and other resources, as such resources can assist in the development and dissemination of materials, cover travel costs and cover costs for training.
<ul><li>6. Implement the plan . </li></ul><ul><li>The organisation should try to follow the plan and do what has been planned, on time and within budget frames in order to achieve the set objectives for the campaign. </li></ul><ul><li>7. Monitor and evaluate . </li></ul><ul><li>From the outset of the campaign, i.e. step one above; the organisation must monitor progress and expenditure. It must ask itself questions like; </li></ul><ul><li>1. Are we doing the right thing and are we doing it right? </li></ul><ul><li>2. Are we following our plan and are we approaching our objective? </li></ul><ul><li>3. Are we within our budget frames or are we spending more than </li></ul><ul><li>anticipated?” </li></ul><ul><li>8. Revise advocacy plan. </li></ul><ul><li>If any of the questions above is answered in the negative the campaign management must take corrective action. At the end of the campaign the organisation should evaluate whether the objectives were met and whether the work was done in a cost-effective manner. The main purpose of this evaluation is to learn from one’s experiences and use this knowledge in the planning of future advocacy campaigns. </li></ul>
TOP TIPS Policymakers are generally very busy people who are bombarded with ideas, both good and bad, all the time. In order to make an impact, you need to be focused and well prepared, alert and ready to deliver your key messages whenever the opportunity arises, and determined to be heard and understood. Here are tips to consider before you approach an organisation or individual that you want to influence. Be focused and well prepared. Be ready to deliver your key messages whenever the opportunity arises. Be determined to be heard and understood. Start early – even before the issue has come up on the agendas of the policy makers.
<ul><li>SKILLS REQUIRED </li></ul><ul><li>In order to be successful in advocacy you need to be skilled and have the right attitudes. Within your network or advocacy group, you need to develop the following skills: </li></ul><ul><li>· Policy analysis of legal and regulatory issues </li></ul><ul><li>· Word processing, graphics and design </li></ul><ul><li>· Telephonic and web research. Qualitative and quantitative research skills. </li></ul><ul><li>· Interviewing skills </li></ul><ul><li>· Language and writing skills </li></ul><ul><li>· Presentation and negotiation skills </li></ul><ul><li>· Database development and management </li></ul><ul><li>· How to develop a communications strategy, planning and management </li></ul><ul><li>· PR and media relations </li></ul><ul><li>· Project management </li></ul><ul><li>· Financial management </li></ul><ul><li>· Logical Framework Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>· Fundraising skills </li></ul><ul><li>As regards attitudes the following three are probably the most important ones: </li></ul><ul><li>· Confidence in oneself and the programme one works for. </li></ul><ul><li>· Politeness and courtesy </li></ul><ul><li>· Persistence and a spirit of “never-give-up”. </li></ul>