Concepts, nature and purposes of curriculum


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Concepts, nature and purposes of curriculum

  1. 1. Concepts, Nature and Purposes Of Curriculum
  2. 2. What is curriculum? What is its purpose? What is its nature?
  3. 3.  1. Traditional Points of view of curriculum ◦ “Curriculum is that it is a body of subjects or subject matter prepared by the teachers for the students to learn.” ◦ It was synonymous to the “course of study” and “syllabus”.
  4. 4.  “ Basic education should emphasize the 3Rs and college education should be grounded on liberal arts.” -- Robert M. Hutchins  Arthur Bestor believes that curriculum should focus on the fundamental intellectual disciplines of grammar, literature and writing.
  5. 5.  Joseph Schwab viewed that discipline is the sole source of curriculum. And to Phenix, curriculum should consist entirely of knowledge which comes from various discipline
  6. 6.  Curriculum can be viewed as a field of study.  It is made up of its foundation, domains of knowledge as well as its research theories and principles.  It is concerned with broad historical, philosophical and social issues and academics.  Most of the traditional ideas view curriculum as written document or a plan of action in accomplishing goals.
  7. 7.  2. Progressive Points of View of Curriculum ◦ “ Curriculum is defined as the total learning experiences of the individual.” ◦ School subjects, course of study syllabi can only be called curriculum if the written materials are actualized by the learners.
  8. 8.  This definition is anchored in John Dewey’s which stated that “reflective thinking is a means that unifies curricular elements”. Thought is not derived from action but tested by application.  Caswell and Campbell viewed curriculum as “all experiences children have under the guidance of teachers”.
  9. 9.  Smith, Stanley and Shores also define curriculum as “a sequence of potential experiences set up in the schools for the purpose of disciplining children and youth in group ways of thinking and acting”.  Marsh and Wills define it as “the experiences in the classroom which are planned and enacted by the teachers and also learned by the students”.
  10. 10.  TWO MODELS OF CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT  1. Ralph Tyler Model: Four Basic Principles  A. What educational purposes should the school seek to attain? (purposes of the school)  B. What educational experiences can be provided that are likely to attain the purposes? (educational experiences related to the purposes)  C. How can these educational experiences be effectively organized? (organization of the experiences)  D. How can we determine whether these purposes are being attained or not? (evaluation of the experiences)
  11. 11.  2. Hilda Taba’s model- the grassroots approach.  Seven Major Steps  1. Diagnosis of learners needs and expectations of the larger society  2. Formulation of learning objectives  3. Selection of learning content  4. Organization of learning content  5. Selection of learning experiences  6. Organization of learning activities  7. Determination of what to evaluate and the means of doing it.
  12. 12.  1. Recommended curriculum – proposed by scholars and professional organization  2. Written Curriculum - documents, course study or syllabi  3.Taught curriculum – what teachers implement or deliver in the classrooms and schools  4. Supported curriculum – resources- textbooks, computers, audio-visual materials which support and help in the implementation of the curriculum
  13. 13.  5. Assessed curriculum – that which is tested and evaluated  6. Learned curriculum – what the students actually learned and what is measured.  7. Hidden curriculum – the unintended curriculum.
  14. 14.  1. Philosophical Foundation of Curriculum  A. Educational Philosophy – Perennialism  Aim of Education – To educate the rational person; to cultivate the intellect  Role of Education – Teachers help students think with reason. Based on the Socratic methods of oral exposition or recitation.  Focus in the Curriculum – Classical subjects, literary analysis and curriculum is constant  Curriculum Trends – Use of great books and return to liberal arts
  15. 15.  B. Educational Philosophy – Essentialism  Aim of Education – To promote the intellectual growth of the individual and educate a competent person  Role of Education – The teacher is the sole authority in his or her subject area or field of specialization  Focus in the Curriculum – Essential skills of the 3R’s and essential subjects of English, Science, History, Math, and Foreign Language.  Curriculum Trends – Excellent in education, back to basics and cultural literacy.
  16. 16.  C. Educational Philosophy – Progressivism  Aim of Education – To promote democratic and social living  Role of Education – Knowledge leads to growth and development of lifelong learners who actively learn by doing  Focus in the Curriculum – Subjects are interdisciplinary integrative and interactive.  Curriculum Trends – school reforms, relevant and contextualized curriculum, humanistic education.
  17. 17.  D. Educational Philosophy – Reconstructionism  Aim of Education – To improve and reconstruct society education for a change  Role of Education – Teachers act as agents of change and reforms in various educational projects including research.  Focus in the Curriculum – focus on present and future trends and issues of national and international interests  Curriculum Trends – Equality of educational opportunities in education, access to global education
  18. 18.  2. Historical Foundations of Curriculum  Some of the curriculum theorists and how they view curriculum from a historical perspective. 1. Franklin Bobbit (1876-1956) – presented curriculum as a science that emphasizes on students’ need and prepares students for adult life. 2. Werret Charters (1875-1952) – like Boobit, to Charters curriculum is a science. 3. William Kilpatrick (1871-1965) – Curricula are purposeful activities which are child-centered. The purpose is child development and growth. 4. Harold Rugg (1886-1960) – to Rugg, curriculum should develop the whole child. It is child-centered.
  19. 19.  5. Hollis Caswell (1901-1989) – sees curriculum as organized around social functions of themes, organized knowledge and learner’s interest.  6. Ralph Tyler (1902-1994) – believes that curriculum is a science and an extension of school’s philosophy. It is based on students’ needs and interests.
  20. 20.  1. Behaviorist Psychology  To the behaviorist, learning should be organized in order that students can experience success in the process of mastering the subject matter.
  21. 21.  2. Cognitive Psychology  These psychologists focus their attention on how individuals process information and how they monitor and manage thinking.  To the cognitive theorists, learning constitutes a logical method for organizing and interpreting learning
  22. 22.  3. Humanistic Psychology  Humanistic psychologists are concerned with how learners can develop their human potential. Curriculum is concerned with the process not the product; personal needs not subject matter; psychological meaning and environmental situations.
  23. 23.  Schools exist within the social context. Societal culture affects and shapes schools and their curricula.  Society as ever dynamic is a source of very fast changes which are difficult to cope with and to adjust to. Thus schools are made to help to understand to these changes.
  24. 24.  Reported by:  Ms. Mary Krisna A. Marcos