It is a form of writing that tells
people about things that truly happened,
but that they might
not have known about already.
•Not biased writing;
•Reports of what is only seen;
•No exaggeration or leaving out details;
•Not enhancing what is seen;
•Reveals all truth in the story with no edits
Journalism as a career
Journalism is a highly responsible job, and highly
interesting at the same time. People looking for a
career in journalism should have a presentable and
confident personality, along with the ability to write
and present information accurately and concisely.
Other essential requirements that highlight a good
journalist are: an inquisitive bent of mind, good
writing and communication skills, ability to
differentiate between fact and fiction, tact,
intelligence, awareness, and interest in current
affairs. Most importantly, one must be capable of
handling the unforeseen situations efficiently.
If you are talented and hard working, a career in journalism is for you. It
will take you to a good salary package and perhaps even fame. With
the growing importance of media today, the opportunities in the field are
numerous and the job is also demanding and exhilarating at the same
History of Philippine Press
In the year 1637 the "Father of Filipino Printing",
Tomas Pinpin, launched
the first Philippine newsletter called
was written in Spanish and contained
a 14-page report on current events.
In 1799, following Pinpin's debut in printing, he again came up with his
Hojas Volantes or "flying sheets". It was titled "Aviso Al Publico"
(Notices to the Public), which served the Spaniards and
had a role comparative to a "town crier."
After a decade,“
Del Superior Govierno," was
Gov. Fernandez del
on August 8, 1811.
•It was the first regularly issued
publication that reported
developments about Spain and
•First newspaper that included in
its layout the name, date and
of its publication.
•Came up with 15 issues within
its years of operation from 1811
35 years had lapsed,
then came the
First daily newspaper on December 1, 1846
called "La Esperanza."
The paper, edited
by Felipe Lacorte and Evaristo Calderon,
lasted only for three years.
But gave way to the birth of other dailies
such as "La Estrella" in 1847 and
"Diario de Manila" in 1848.
•became the government's daily organ in
•was renamed to "Boletin Oficial de
•later ceased circulation by Royal Order in
•reappeared with Felipe del Pan as its
•and encountered another
official decree that led to its
permanent closure on February 19, 1898.
In1862, a Tagalog
Mariano Sevilla, founded
El Catolico Filipino.
The first Philippine religious
newspaper which seriously
dealt with the problems of
Another first in the history is
El Porvenir Filipino
founded in 1865.
It was the newspaper
that pioneered in
Later it was followed by
Revista Mercantil which
came out the same year.
In the succeeding years there had
been attempts to create a more
liberal and mass appealing press.
The year 1887 marked the beginning
of a more opinionated journalism in
It officially begun on
April 1, 1887 with the birth
of La Opinion.
According to historians,
it was the first paper to defy the friars
and campaigned for the ouster of the
After the Spaniards' defeat from the Americans,
English newspapers started to circulate.
It was lead by the Manila Times of Thomas Gowan which was established
on October 11, 1898.
President Manuel L. Quezon bought it in 1917 and sold it after four years of
Two other foreign owners had the Manila Times before Alejandro Roces, Sr.
acquired it in 1927 and closed it down in 1930.
However, In 1927 the son of Alejandro Roces, Sr., Ramon Roces
put up a magazine known as Graphic.
Roces was titled ―Father of modern journalism."
Manila Tribune was
established by Roces on April 1, 1925, with Carlos P. Romulo as editor.
AMERICAN COLONIAL PERIOD
Another American newspaper issued during that time was the
"oldest existing newspaper",
The Manila Daily Bulletin, established by Carson Taylor
In February 1, 1900. The paper started out as a shipping journal
and later widened its scope in 1912.
Some time after 1930 with Herald and Tribune on tough
competition for high number of circulation,
Sen. Vicente Madrigal, owner of the Herald, put up his
own publication chain called DMHM comprised of Spanish daily,
El Debate, weekly, Monday Post, Herald
and Mabuhay, a Pilipino daily.
Most publications were shut down except for the ones they used for their
DMHM was the first destroyed when Manila was bombed.
Printing and distribution of the periodicals were transferred
under Osaka Mainichi Publishing Company,
established by Manila Sinbusya Corporation.
Papers that existed those times but still under the
Controll by the Japanese corporation were that of:
TVT Liwayway Manila Shimbun
Shin-Seiki Bicol Herald Davao Nichi-Nichi
The Guerrillas they also came up with their own typewritten or
mimeographed paraphernalias on 8 ½ x 11-inch paper edited by
journalists-guerillas which served to empower the soldiers' and people's
morale and aid as counter propaganda against the Japanese.
law in the
Batas Militar sa Pilipinas) or
"state of emergency".
refers to the period of
Philippine history wherein
Philippine Presidents and
Heads of state
declared a proclamation to
control troublesome areas
under the rule of the
Among aspects of martial
•Censorship of radio and
•Prohibition of the sale and
consumption of alcoholic
•Prohibition of gatherings of
more than five persons in
the street, and
•Requirement of a permit
from the local military
authorities before any public
meeting can be held.
•Religious meetings inside
may be tolerated by the
authorities, held at hours
not conflicting with the
In rare cases, martial law has
been in effect with armed
soldiers barring citizens from
being out-of-doors after
This may conflict with many other values.
Revelations of what is inside the
news may be contrary to
the public interest even if it is
Publication is not
necessarily justified simply because
the information is true especially in
lustful details for public figures
which are a great content in media
Privacy is also a right, and one
which conflicts with free speech.
an element of entertainment, which is a
legitimate goal of media content.
Journalism may mix fantasy and truth, with resulting
ethical issue is how
far should one risk
order to correctly
and fully report the
Journalistic ethics may conflict with
the law over issues such as the
protection of confidential news
For example, undercover reporters
may be engaging
in deception, trespass and
similar torts and crimes
No law shall be passed abridging the freedom of speech,
or of the press,
or of the right of the people peaceably
and petition the government for redress of grievances.
Right to know
Public curiosity to know
(1) Responsibility— The right of a newspaper to attract and hold
readers is restricted by nothing but considerations of public welfare.
A journalist who uses his power for any selfish or otherwise unworthy
purpose is faithless to a high trust.
(2) Freedom of the Press— Freedom of the press is to be guarded as
a vital right of mankind. It is the unquestionable right by law, including
the wisdom of any restrictive statute.
(3) Independence— Freedom from all obligations except that of
fidelity to the public interest is vital.
(4) Sincerity, Truthfulness, Accuracy –a newspaper is constrained to
(5) Impartiality— News reports should be free from opinion or bias of
any kind. Everything written should be complete gathered from datas
(6) Fair Play— A newspaper should not publish unofficial charges
affecting reputation or moral character, without opportunity given to the
accused to be heard; right practice demands the giving of such
opportunity in all cases of serious accusation outside judicial
(7) Decency— A conviction of sincerity to profess high moral purpose,
supply incentives of conduct, such as are to be found in details of crime
and vice, publication of which is should be demonstrated for the general
I believe in the profession of
I believe that the public journal
is a public trust; that all
connected with it are, to the full
measure of responsibility,
trustees for the public; that all
acceptance of lesser service
than the public service is a
betrayal of this trust.
I believe that clear
statement, accuracy and
are fundamental to good
I believe that a journalist
should write only what he
holds in his heart to be
I believe that suppression
of the news, for any
their than the welfare of
society, is indefensible.
I believe that no one
should write as a journalist
what he would
not say as a gentleman;
that bribery by one's own
pocket book is as much
to be avoided as bribery by
the pocketbook of another;
responsibility may not be
escaped by pleading
another's instructions or
I believe that
advertising, news and
editorial columns should
alike serve the best interests
of readers; t
hat a single standard of
helpful truth and cleanness
should prevail for all;
that supreme test of good
journalism is the measure of
its public service.
I believe that the journalism
which succeeds the best-
and best deserves success-
and honors man; is stoutly
independent; unmoved by
pride of opinion or greed of
constructive, tolerant but
never careless, self-
controlled, patient, always
of its readers but always
unafraid, is quickly
indignant at injustice; is
unswayed by the appeal of
or the clamor of the mob;
seeks to give every man a
chance, and as far as law,
wage and recognition of
human brotherhood can
make it so, an equal chance;
patriotic while sincerely
good will and cementing
world-comradeship, is a
journalism of humanity, of
and for today's world
of Chapter One
A Presentation in News and Feature Writting
Kristie Roma A. San Juan
Mardielyn D. Perez
BS Mass Communication
Professor: Vicente Lim
EMILIO AGUINALDO COLLEGE