Control LaboratoryMicrocontroller based Earth LeakageDetector (ELD)13 stations and potentialfree contact wired to Data logger. forpredicting the earth fault of cable providedatPanel Interlocking: 75 out of 78 stations areprovided with a PI including three majorRRI. 1441 out of 2690 aspect of Signals areprovided with LED Signals.
41 Block Sections are provided with Alcatel make Digital Axle counter for the last Vehicle check on B-Route.
• Power Supply: Power supply is the heart of Signalling System any defect/failure of Power supply leads to complete shutdown of Signalling System. Accordingly special emphasis has been given to Power supply. IPS has been provided at all PI stations (71) (excluding major RRI) including 12 interlocked gates to prevent the blanking of the signal.• To charge of batteries during long power cut 175 Diesel Generator Set has been provided at stations & Interlocked LC gates.
DESCRIPTION• The Control lab aims at imparting practical training not only on basic devices (using trainer kits), simple circuit concepts and programmable devices but also on complete systems of communication and passenger information. This lab gives an opportunity to trainees to get acquainted with the actual system of Train Control Working by the help of following control communication equipment:• Conventional Control Equipment• Equalizer Amplifier Type Control Equipment• Control Equipment for OFC Media (CCEO)• Control chart
Telecommunication• Train Control Communication: Omnibus control circuits at each station provided on OFC in B & D route and on quad cable in E-Route. 6-Quad cable and 4-Quad Cable have been provided for the Block/ Gate Working and emergency communication. All stations on the B-Route are provided with a Hot line communications with the adjacent station on OFC network.• The short-haul STM1 equipment is provided at every station (53 stations) in B & D- route. The STM1 network is protected by long-haul STM4 (7 stations) self healing ring network.• Telephone Exchanges: For Railways Internal Communication requirements telephone exchange (7 numbers) have been provided at important stations (Solapur, Wadi, Gulberga, Kurduwadi, Daund and Ahemdnagar,Agra). Solapur is connected with the Zonal Headquarter by tie line and NGN network. BSNL Telephones have been provided at all Railway stations with Caller IDs.• Data Communications: Computerized Passengers Reservation System (PRS) is provided at a 12 stations. Unreserved Ticketing System (UTS) is provided at 73 stations. Crew Management System (CMS) is provided at 5 Crew Lobbies. Freight Operation Information System (FOIS) / Coach Operation Information System (COIS) is provided at all 16 loading station on the division.
50 Line WLL (DECT) Exchange commissioned for ARTWD & ART DD for extending communication for Railway Passengers and Railway staff from the disaster site ART Western Digital ART Display Digital
HISTORY OF N.C.R • North Central Railway was raised on 1st Oct, 2002. • It consist of two divisions each from Northern &Western Railway. • The formation of this zone along with five new zones was first approved by Railway Board on 16th Sept, 1996. The main Branch of N.W.R is situated in Jagatpura.
RAIL-NET• RAILNET abbreviated from two wordsRAILway + interNET.• Railnet means “ the internet used by railway”.• First Railnet was established betweenRAILWAY BOARD, 9 zones, & 6 productionunits.
• INTRA-NET:Intra-net is an internal network ofIndian Railway. Which is use by onlyrailway officers and staff member. • INTER-NET:Inter-net allow user to get into a globalcommunication method & global poolof knowledge through www in a securemanner.
PASSENGER RESERVATION SYSTEMPRS networking of entire Indian Railways completed inApril, 1999.PRS is running currently at 1,200 locations, Deploying4,000 terminals , covering journeys of 3,000 trains andexecuting ONE MILLION passenger transactions perday.Internet booking of tickets was started In August 2002.TATKAL has been converted from a separate coach to anormal Quota and enabled for all trains in 2004Internet booking timings extended to 4:00 a.m. – 11:30p.m. from March 2005.
Delhi IR’s SWITCHING NETWORK Firozpur via JUC(RCF,Kapurthala) Alipurduar Danapur Lucknow Allahabad Katihar Dhanbad (RDSO) (CORE) Izzatnagar Lumding Mughalsarai Moradabad Agra Lucknow Rangia Samastipur Ambala Jhansi Varanasi Tinsukhia Sonpur (DCW,Patiala) (DLW) Howrah NR NCR NER NFR ECR Jaipur Sealdah (1000) (4400) (4100) (1300) (300) Asansol Ajmer (CLW) Bikaner Malda NWR ER Jodhpur (IMEE,Jamalpur) (800) (2000) Jabalpur Adra Bhopal Chakradharpur WCR RLY BOARD SER Kota (4000) (3000) (4000) Kharagpur Mumbai Ranchi Ahmedabad WR SECR Bhavnagar (3000) (2000) Bilaspur Rajkot Nagpur Ratlam CR SWR SCR SR ECoR Raipur Vadodara (3000) (2000) (3000) (3000) (1000) (RSC) Hubli Secunderabad Chennai Khurda Road (IRISET) (ICF)Mumbai CSTM Sambalpur Banglore Hyderabad Madurai(IRIEEN,Nasik) Waltair (WAP) Bhusawal Guntkal Palghat LEGEND: Mysore - E1 (2 MB) CONNECTIVITY Guntur Tiruchchirapalli Nagpur - CHANNEL CONNECTIVITY Pune Nanded Trivandrum - ( ) CAPACITY of EXCHANGE (IRICEN) Vijaywada NOTE: Remaining Divisions will also be Solapur connected at E1 level during this year.
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and Indian Railways• ICT is known to have made – immense impact in booking of railway tickets – can make an impact in • service management • tracking movement of goods • control of wagons • passenger amenities – can improve decision making and management
Passenger Services• Voice communications – GSM is the best solution – Railways can work out a deal with Cell operators, or RAILTEL can float a Cellular Operator company• Data Communication – GPRS or corDECT can provide data communication to moving train • provide a Internet kiosk on a train • provide 802.11 wireless connection in the train for passengers using laptops – 802.11 wireless connection also at stations for passengers to download and upload when train stops (at low cost) • fibre provides backbone
What is OFC ?Fibre Optic cable functions as a“LIGHT GUIDE”, guiding the lightintroduced at one end of the cablethrough to the other end.
Advantages of Optic Fibre• More Bandwidth - Thousands of Channels• Low Loss - 0.5db per km• Less number of Repeaters• Electro Magnetic Immunity• Small size & Light Weight - Easy to handle• Greater Safety - No Electric Hazards• Higher Security
OFC Applications•Telecommunication Network•Junction Network & Long Distance Network•Submarine cable•High EMI areas•Explosive environment•Computer links & Local Area Network•Cable television•Medical Field , Automobile Field
Principle of Working Total Internal reflection TIR is achieved since Core and Cladding having different Refractive Indices. Core RI – 1.48 Cladding RI – 1.47
Construction of Cable •Centre Strengthening Member – GRP, FRP •Loose Tube Buffers – 2.4 mm Dia • Fibres are placed inside the Buffers alongwith Jelly to prevent moisture entry. •Primary Strength Member – Aramid Yarn-Kevlar •Inner Sheath – Black •Outer Nylon Sheath - Orange
Single Mode Fibre•A much smaller core Diameter•The Core dia is 8 to 10 Micrometer•Cladding Dia is 125 Micrometer•Very large bandwidth•Light can go for very long distances
MultimodeHas a large Core DiameterCore Diameter - 50, 62.5, 100 Micro meterCladding dia - 125 Micro meterLight waves are dispersed into number of pathsMultiple path of light cause signal distortionSuitable for shorter length like LAN
Plastic Optic Fibre•Large Core - 1 MM Dia•Multimode Fibre•Used in AutomobileIndustry instead ofCopper•MOST (MediaOrientated System oftransport )
TOOLS AND EQUIPMENTNO TOOLS NAME USE1 Bolt cutter Cutting of the cable2 Scissors Cutting paper3 Lap cutter Removal of cable sheath4 Phillip screw driver set. Tightning the screw5 Marking scale For positioning cable clamp6 Tape measuring Measurement7 Spanner set Tightning nuts8 Hammer Common used9 Knife Removal plastic10 Torque wrench For fixing the modal A cable replace11 Pliers combination For cutting tension members12 Cleaver Cutting optical fiber core13 Core stripper Stripping secondary coating
Method of cable Splicing• STRIPPING• CLEAVING• FUSION PROCESS
Stripping• Strip back the external sheathing of the cable using a rotary stripping tool. Cut back the aramid strength member using ceramic or kevlar scissors.• Strip the primary buffer from the fiber using fiber strippers not ordinary wire strippers. Do this a small section at a time to prevent the fiber breaking, about 10mm (3/8 in) on each cut is fine until you get used to it. Strip back about 35mm (1.5 in).•Clean the bare fiber with a lint free wipe and isopropyl alcohol, itwill "squeak" when it is clean.
Cleaving• The cleaver first scores the fiber and then pulls the fiber apart to make a clean break. It is important that the the ends are smooth and perpendicular to get a good joint, this is why a hand held cleaver will not do. • Basically the operation consists of putting the fiber into the groove and clamping, then close the lid and press the lever
The Fusion Process• Once the fiber ends are prepared they are placed in the fusion splicer. Press the button and the machine takes care of the rest of the fusion process automatically• First the two fibers are aligned, you can see this on the photo where a much magnified image shows the two fiber ends. The display also shows how well the cleaver does its job of producing a perfect 90 degree cut.