MotivationThe force which drives behaviour (pp.48)• DIRECTION - i.e. what a person is trying to do• EFFORT - how hard a person is trying• PERSISTENCE - i.e. how long a person continues trying
Theories of motivationContent theories (pp.49)• Two-factor theory ( Hersberg): intrinsic and extrinsic•Types of needs: classification of needs: deficiency versus growth• Hierarchy of needs (e.g. Maslow): ordering of need by relativepriorityProcess theories• Expectancy theory (Vroom; Porter & Lawler): : a rational estimate ofthe likely result of their behaviour• Goal theory ( Locke)• Equity theory ( Adams)
Content Theories1.Hierarchy of Needs Theory Abraham Maslow (pp.56) There is a hierarchy of 5 needs---physiological, safety,social,esteem,& self-actualization---and as each need is sequentially satisfied,the next need becomes dominant review:1.intuitively logical,ease of understanding, receiving wide recognition, particularly among practicing managers. 2.little empirical support
Maslows Hierarchy of Needs1. Biological and Physiological needs - air, food, drink, warmth, sleep, etc.2. Safety needs - protection from elements, security, order, law, limits, stability, etc.3. Belongingness and Love needs - work group, family, affection, relationships, etc.4. Esteem needs - self-esteem, achievement, mastery, independence, status, dominance, prestige, managerial responsibility, etc.5. Self-Actualization needs - realizing personal potential, self-fulfillment, seeking personal growth and peak experiences.
Content Theories 2. ERG theory (Alderfer, pp.58) There are three groups of core needs: existence, relatedness and growth Difference:(1) more than one need may be operative at the same time,(2) if the gratification of a higher level needs is stifled, the desire to satisfy a lower level need increases Maslow: a rigid step like progression. ERG:contains a frustration-regression dimension Several studies have supported the ERG theory:natives of Spain & Japan place social needs before their physiological requirements
Content Theory3.McClelland’s Acquired Needs Theory Acquired needs theory. Developed by David McClelland. Three needs — achievement, affiliation, and power — are acquired over time, as a result of experiences. Managers should learn to identify these needs and then create work environments that are responsive to them. 9
Content Theory 3.McClelland’s Acquired Needs Theory Need for achievement. The desire to do something better or more efficiently, to solve problems, or to master complex tasks. High need for achievement people: Prefer individual responsibilities. Prefer challenging goals. Prefer performance feedback. 10
Content Theory 3.McClelland’s Acquired Needs Theory Need for affiliation. The desire to establish and maintain friendly and warm relations with others. High need for affiliation people: Are drawn to interpersonal relationships. Seek opportunities for communication. 11
Content Theory3.McClelland’s Acquired Needs Theory Need for power. The desire to control others, to influence their behavior, or to be responsible for others. High need for for power people: Seek influence over others. Like attention. Like recognition. 12
Content Theory 3.McClelland’s Acquired Needs Theory Research evidence on acquired needs theory. Identification of the need profiles that are required for success in different types of jobs. People can be trained to develop the need for achievement, particularly in developing nations. 13
Content Theories4. Motivation-Hygiene Theory Developed by Frederick Herzberg. Also known as Two Factor theory. Portrays two different factors — hygiene factors and motivator factors — as the primary causes of job dissatisfaction and job satisfaction . 14
Content Theories4. Motivation-Hygiene Theory Hygiene factors. (Mostly Extrinsic) Sources of job dissatisfaction. Associated with the job context or work setting. Improving hygiene factors prevent people from being dissatisfied but do not contribute to satisfaction. 15
Content Theories 4. Motivation-Hygiene Theory Motivator factors. (Mostly Intrinsic) Sources of job satisfaction. Associated with the job content. Building motivator factors into the job enables people to be satisfied. Absence of motivator factors in the job results in low satisfaction, low motivation, and low performance. 16
Problems with Content Theories Not specific about what behaviours and rewardssatisfy which needs.Neglect the impact of the social context onpeople’s interpretation of their needs.People do not necessarily strive to move up thehierarchy - at least, not through their work.How to define needs?
Process Theories1. Vroom’s Expectancy Theory (1964) pp.51 Motivation ( M)=Expectation (E) x Valence Where: Expectancy - If I tried would I be able to perform the action? Valence - How much do I value those outcomes?
Process Theories2. Goal-setting Theory (Locke,pp.51)A goal is a target level of performanceIf a goal is: difficult specificAnd if a person: accepts the goal feels committed to it gets feedback on their progressThen their performance improves because: their behaviour is focused they try hard they keep trying they develop strategies
Some “live issues” in Goal-Setting• How to enhance goal commitment (participative?)• Who defines “challenging”?• Conflict between goals Individual v. group Competing personal goals• Goals set Vs dynamic environment
Process theories3.Equity theory (Adams, 1963, pp.65) Individuals compare their job inputs & outcomes with those of others & then respond so as to eliminate any inequities Minor qualifications: 1. people have a great deal more tolerance of overpayment inequities than of underpayment inequities. 2. not all people are equity sensitive,such as benevolent types
Motivation and Job DesignHackman and Oldham (1980, pp.73)Motivation through design of work.Five “Core Job Dimensions”1. Skill Variety2. Task Identity3. Task Significance4. Autonomy5. Feedback
So…what do all these theories add up to? 1. Successful work performance can arise from many different needs/motives. 2. People need to believe they can perform effectively if they try. 3. The rewards for good performance should actually be desired by the people concerned. 4. What constitutes good performance should be clearly defined. 5. People need feedback on their performance. 6. People’s values and identity matter.