29082013161402 automatic-street-light-powered-through-speed-break

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By-Krishna Sarraf

By-Krishna Sarraf

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  • 1. INTRODUCTION • Street light automation is quite common in these days , but generating the required energy through speed breaker is latest trend in the technology . • Our aim is to generate electric energy from speed breaker , store it into a battery, and utilize the stored energy when required. • To prove this concept practically , proto type module is constructed. • Entire system is designed as automatic, human involvement is not required for switching ON/OFF the light. • Speed breaker is designed electro-mechanical technology.
  • 2. MECHANICAL STRUCTURE OF SPEED BREAKER
  • 3. BLOCK DIAGRAM 547 MOSFET Motor shaft +6V C R + - +6V LDR Speed breaker mechanism Coupled with motor shaft DC motor built in with reduction gear mechanism Bridge rectifier Voltage regulator 6V/4.5AH Battery Street light designed with high glow LED’s 555 Timer chip configured in monostable mode of operation & used as trigger circuit
  • 4. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM Speed breaker Mechanism coupled with DC motor shaft DC motor with built-in Reduction gear mechanism 4X4007 +- 100µF 1k LED 7808 +6V + -6V/4.5AH Battery 10k 555 4 8 2 6 1 5 3 +6V +6V 1k 1k 547 Z44 High glow LED’s Current Limiting resistor +6V 0.1µFLDR
  • 5. DESCRIPTION AS PER BLOCK DIAGRAMS • SPEED BREAKER MECHANISM :- • It works principle of simple physics i.e. when a moving vehicle passes through this set up, the kinetic energy of vehicle cause roller to rotate transmission shaft coverts to Electrical Energy cum Mechanical Energy. • Components which is used :- Pipes (Square type) , chain , DC motor (dynamo) , metal sheet , recoil springs ,gear . • The mechanical structure contains four legs system is considered as motion convertor. Speed breaker mechanism designed with inclined plates . When ever some force applied on the surface, plates come down and turn rotates geared shaft through chain drive loaded with recoil springs in clockwise direction. • Similarly mechanism released due to spring action moves home position and turn rotates geared shaft through chain drive in anti clockwise direction. The output of this shaft coverts mechanical energy to electrical energy.
  • 6. • ELECTRIC MOTOR THAT GERNERATES THE ELECTRICAL ENERGY :- • An electrical motor is a machine that converts Electrical Energy to Mechanical Energy. But here reversed principle has been implemented there by motor is converted as generator i.e. Mechanical Energy to Electrical Energy. • On the basis Faraday's law of electro-magnetic induction . • A DC Motor consists of four main parts i.e. armature, magnetic field, commutator, & brushes. • Commutator is two types semi –cylindrical of conducting material separated by an insulating material. Each half of the commutator rotates with the loop. • Each brushes presses against one segment of the commutator. Brushes are made of soft conducting material it can easily slide the commutator. When the brushes are fluctuating it will have same polarity and DC voltage will also fluctuate. • The armature is set in to a rotation when DC voltage from external source is applied across the brushes , the turning force is called torque depends mainly on the strength of the magnetic field.
  • 7. • BATTERY & ITS CIRCUIT:- • The battery used in the project work is rated for 4.5AHat 6V. • It is a free type rechargeable battery generally called as secondary cell. It can supply continuously for a specified interval time. • Current ratings varies in the case of lead-acid battery with high ampere –hour capacity is called heavy duty battery. • A bridge rectifier circuit is constructed with four diodes & it is filtered using a capacitor. • A battery cannot be charge at low voltage as well as In high voltage there fore voltage must be regulated by using voltage regulator device.
  • 8. • LDR :- • LDR means Light Dependent Resistor , LDR is chose to control the street light accordingly by the sensing the natural light whether it is dark/bright. • It is very sensitive device, which converts the light energy into variable resistance & it is light intensity is inversely proportional to resistance . • Light dependent cadmium sulphide resistors are cost effective, versatile , wide linearity & available in different sizes for different applications. • LDR range is resistance varies approximately 50 Ω in bright light to a maximum 2 mega ohms in total darkness. • For this application LDR varied from 400Ω to 5000Ω in the reflectance sensor and from 3000Ω to 8000Ω in intensity sensor.
  • 9. • LED STREET LIGHT • Street lights are replaced with high glow LED’s, a group of these lights can produce the same light intensity those are produced by the old lamps. Moreover the current consumption is very less when compared with old lamps. The other advantage is that these LED’s operates at very low voltage. Therefore the streetlight used in this project work is designed with these cool high glow LED’s. Depending up on the lamp doom size, number of LED’s arranged in a group may vary, as it is a prototype module, here 12 LED’s are used. To simulate the lamppost, one small flexible table lamp pole is used & it is fixed over a wooden plank.
  • 10. • DESCRIPTION OF TIMER CHIP (555 IC):- • The 555 timer is one of the most popular and versatile integrated circuits ever produced. It includes 23 transistors, 2 diodes and 16 resistors on a silicon chip installed in an 8-pin mini dual-in-line package (DIP-8). • The 558 is a 16-pin DIP that combines four slightly modified 555s on a single chip. • The 555 has three operating modes: • Monostable mode: in this mode, the 555 functions as a "one-shot". Applications include timers, missing pulse detection, bounce free switches, touch switches, Frequency Divider, Capacitance Measurement, Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) etc • Astable - Free Running mode: the 555 can operate as an oscillator. Uses include LED and lamp flashers, pulse generation, logic clocks, tone generation, security alarms, pulse position modulation, etc. • Bistable mode or Schmitt trigger: the 555 can operate as a flip-flop, if the DIS pin is not connected and no capacitor is used. Uses include bounce free latched switches, etc
  • 11. Conclusion • The project work “Automatic Street light that is powered through speed breaker” is designed & developed successfully. • For the demonstration purpose, a proto type module constructed with lower ratings of devices, & results are found to be satisfactory. • As it is a demo module it cannot be use for real applications, but the concept is near to the real working system, to make it more realistic, higher rating power generator with suitable gear mechanism is essential to produce more energy. • This concept falls under the subject of non-conventional energy resources, out of the many alternative energy resources one dependable source is solar energy, but it is quite costliest affair. • Therefore, alternative cheapest source is to generate electricity from speed breaker. • This technology proven here is the ultimate inexpensive source of all known forms of energy.