HYDRAULIC BRAKING SYSTEMS

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HYDRAULIC BRAKING SYSTEMS

  1. 1. HYDRAULIC <br />BRAKING <br />SYSTEMS<br />KAJA KRISHNA PHANI<br />BTE-09-020<br />AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING COLLEGE & RESEARCH INSTITUTE<br />TAMILNADU AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY<br />
  2. 2. The technology of controlling pressurized fluids to create <br />force and motion is known as Hydraulics .<br />HYDRAULIC PRINCIPLES:<br />Fluids cannot be compressed<br />Fluids can transmit Movement<br />Acts “Like a steel rod” in a closed container<br />Master cylinder transmits fluid to wheel cylinder or<br />caliper piston bore.<br />Fluids can transmit and increase force<br />PRESSURE =FORCE / AREA<br />
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  5. 5. Of course ,the final contact between vehicle and road made through tyres<br />-hence it is of great importance in braking system.<br />Bald or defective tyres will even make the best brakes ineffective. <br />The braking systems which works with the help of hydraulic <br />principles is known as hydraulic braking systems.<br />
  6. 6. HYRAULIC BRAKING SYSTEM CAN BE OPERATED BY<br />Vacuum, Hydro or Motor assisted<br />Disc System<br />Drum System<br />Dual System<br />
  7. 7. DRUM BRAKE<br />MASTER <br />CYLINDER<br />DISK BRAKE<br />BRAKE PEDAL<br />
  8. 8. HYDRAULIC PRESSURE IS DISTRIBUTED EQUALLY IN ALL DIRECTIONS <br />BY THE SAME PRINCIPLE ……….<br />
  9. 9. SAME LINE OF PRESSURE WILL BE EXERTED ON ALL WHEELS<br />
  10. 10. The Hydraulic pressure is the same, but the applied force can be changed by the piston size.<br />
  11. 11. The applied <br />pressure can be <br />raised or <br />lowered by <br />piston size<br />
  12. 12. MASTER CYLINDER<br />Provides a reservoir for brake fluid and contains the driving pistons in the hydraulic circuit<br />THEY ARE OF 2 TYPES<br />Front - Rear split<br /> -One piston for front brakes and one for rear<br /> -If a leak occurs you could lose front brakes<br /> Diagonally split<br /> -One piston drives one front wheel and one rear wheel<br /> -Diagonal layout allows you to maintain directional control if a <br /> leak occurs<br />
  13. 13. DRUM BRAKES<br />Expanding shoes create force on the inner surface of the drum<br />Used on the rear of some trucks and SUV’s<br />Self-energizing design requires less activation force<br />Require periodic adjustment<br />
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  15. 15. Disc brakes<br />DISK BRAKES WORKS WITH THE HELP OF CALIPERS<br />
  16. 16. Calipers are of two types<br />FIXEDCALIPERS<br />Calipers are disc brakes that use a caliper that is FIXED<br />in position and does not slide. <br />-They have pistons on both sides of the disc. <br />-There may be 2 or 4 pistons per caliper<br />FLOATING CALIPERS<br />-Much more common<br /> -Single Piston<br /> -Easier to work with<br /> -On “inboard” side of caliper<br />
  17. 17. FIXED CALIPER<br />Applies two pistons to opposite sides of rotor<br />Caliper stays stationary<br />Disc Brakes require higher hydraulic pressure<br />APPLICATIONS<br />-Motorcycles and some import trucks and cars use this type<br />-Similar to bicycle brakes<br />
  18. 18. SLIDING CALIPER<br />.Applies pressure to two pads on opposite sides of rotor<br />.Caliper<br />-Sliding <br />-Fixed<br /> .Friction Material exposed to air<br />
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  20. 20. FRONT WHEEL LOCK<br />THIS CONDITION WILL OCCUR IF THERE IS MORE FRONT BRAKE TORQUE <br /> THAN DYNAMIC FRONT WEIGHT<br />REAR WHEEL LOCK<br />THIS CONDITION WILL OCCUR IF THERE IS MORE REAR TORQUE THAN <br /> DYNAMIC REAR WEIGHT<br />
  21. 21. OPTIMUM BRAKING<br />Optimum braking is achieved when brake torque distribution matches <br />dynamic weight distribution<br />When a vehicle brakes , weight is transferred to the front.the nose will <br />dip as it gets heavier and rear will rise as it gets lighter.The rear needs less <br />hydraulic pressure. <br />TO ACHIEVE THIS CONDITION PROPORTIONATING VALVES ARE USED<br />Proportionating valves are used to provide balanced braking <br />by reducing hydraulic pressure to rear wheel<br />
  22. 22. When a large variation at axle loading takes place, such as railway wagons ,<br />trucks ,load or height sensitive proportionating valves regulate more hydraulic <br />pressure to the rear axle in the amount needed. <br />Some vehicles with front/ rear split braking systems have a proportionating <br />valve by-pass which allows full pressure to rear axle if front brakes fails.<br />
  23. 23. Some types of <br />proportionating valves<br />
  24. 24. Brake booster or servo unit<br />Mounted on firewall between the brake pedal and master cylinder ,brake boosters<br /> vary in size andd can be single or double diaphragm<br />Power booster in <br />closed position<br />
  25. 25. Brake booster have two chambers :one at front which is always at constant and <br />another at the rear where pressure varies they are by a pressure plate and are <br />sealed from one another by a rubber diaphragm.<br />There is a vacuum in the manifold of all 4-stroke petrol engines .Boosters use<br />this increase the force applied to master cylinder from 3- 5 times without loos<br />-ing brake sensitivity or response and with reduced pedal effort.<br />On diesel engines, an auxiliary vacuum pump is utilised to supply vacuum. <br />If the engine stops this will retain enough vacuum in the booster for upto 3 <br />brake applications. <br />
  26. 26. Types of boosters<br />
  27. 27. Brake fluid<br />The fluid through which the energy is passed in hydraulic braking systems is <br />known as BRAKE FLUID<br />Properties of Brake Fluid<br />Does not thicken or then with changing heat<br />Must not boil<br />Must be compatible with brake parts material<br />Must lubricate internal parts<br />Must not evaporate easily<br />
  28. 28. Reference:<br />www.parker.com<br />www.google.co.in<br />
  29. 29. Thank you<br />

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