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Development 1.3
 

Development 1.3

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    Development 1.3 Development 1.3 Presentation Transcript

    • 1.3 REASONS FOR UNEVEN DEVELOPMENT
    • Social Social Environmental HSocial istorical Environmental Historical Environmental Economic Historical Economic Political Economic Political Political WHY ARE SOME COUNTRIES RICH & OTHERS POOR? S.H.E.E.P MODEL
    • 1. Social Reason1.1. Rate of Population GrowthIn  LDCs (E.g. Ethiopia, Nigeria, India): – Traditional mindsets: Large families seen as sign of  prosperity– High Mortality due to poor healthcare  have more to  ensure some live to adulthood– Largely farming community: Need more hands to help  in fields– High birth rate  high population growth  overpopulation  insufficient food & housing  Low  Standard of Living
    • 1. Social Reason 1.1. Rate of Population GrowthIn  DCs (E.g. Norway, Japan, Singapore):– Women more educated; more career‐minded  later marriages  lower birth rate– High Costs of Living  deters large families– Lower Population Growth  more resources freed  up for development  higher SOL– Problem: Aging Population
    • 1. Social Reason1.2 EducationIn  LDCs:   – Little Wealth to spend on education – Majority of workforce in primary industries (i.e.  farming)  Low income + No schooling opportunities – Low Standard of Living  Low levels of Development – E.g. Sierra Leone has low GDP per capita of US$548 &  low literacy rate of 29.6% 
    • 1. Social Reason1.2 EducationIn  DCs:   – More Wealth to build Schools & train Teachers  – Higher literacy rate  More employment in  Secondary & Tertiary Industries (higher skilled jobs =  higher salaries)  higher Standard of Living  Brings  about Development  – E.g. Italy has a GDP per capita of US$27 119 and a  high literacy rate of 98.5%.
    • 2. Historical Reason • Colonialism is the domination of a more  powerful country over another country.• Dominated country: Colony• More powerful country: Colonial power• Reasons for Colonialism: 1. Raw materials. I.e. Angola  2. Gain control of important trade routes. I.e.  Singapore
    • 2005 UNDP Human Development Report HDI  Country HDI Value GDP per Rank capita (US$)012 Netherlands 0.943 29 371 Former Colonial 015 United Kingdom 0.939 27 147 Powers027 Portugal 0.904 18 126110 Indonesia 0.697 3 361127 India 0.602 2 892 Former Colonies160 Angola 0.445 2 344
    • 2.1 Historical ReasonColonisation for Raw materials (Case Study: Angola)• Colonised by Portugal in the 15th C • Climate & soil conditions suitable  for growing cash crops (i.e. cotton,  coffee & cocoa)• Workers in colonies harvest cash  crops  exported to colonial  powers for processing  processed  goods sold at high price• E.g. cotton  clothing
    • View YouTube Video:  Blood Diamond
    • Recall: Core‐Periphery Model Low‐value raw  materials E.g. Cotton,  Coffee, Cocoa  Technology to  Little Profit process raw Periphery:  Core:  Colonial  materials Colonies Sold at Higher  Angola Portugal Powers Profit  Economy  grows Core helped develop infrastructure  such as roads & railways to enable  transport of raw materials but not  education
    • 3. Economic Reason• How a country becomes RICH? Cumulative  Causation  Multiplier Effect: Initial development Cumulative of CORE results in Causation benefits that drive its Increase in profit & wages further development Increase Wealth More income
    • 3. Economic Reason• SO how does UNEVEN Development happen?Backwash - Raw materialsEffect - Labour Peripher CORE y Brain‐drain -Finished Products -Little investment
    • 3. Economic ReasonBackwash Effect1.CORE grows: Attracts labour from Periphery  • Brain‐drain in Periphery country; hinders  development2.Profits controlled in the hands of rich, little  wealth redistributed to the rest of the  population• Backwash Effect: Flow of labour & raw  materials from the periphery to the core,  leaving the periphery at a disadvantage
    • Core periphery development can have  + Positive or ‐ Negative  effects on development ‐Negative + Positive (Backwash)  (Spread) 
    • 3. Economic ReasonSpread Effect1.Spread of wealth and knowledge from core to  periphery2.Benefits reaped by companies are distributed to  the rest of the population3.Happens with strong governance• Spread Effect: Benefits of development spread  from CORE to the PERIPHERY  narrow  inequalities between CORE & PERIPHERY  Known as Centrifugal Growth
    • 3. Economic ReasonIllustrating Spread Effect (Centrifugal Growth)Case Study of Thailand’s Automobile Industry:In 1990s,• Rising car manufacturing costs in Japan• Relocate factories to Thailand• Created jobs for locals in Thailand• Transfer of skills and knowledge in automobile  manufacturing from Japan counterparts
    • Illustrating Spread Effect (Centrifugal Growth)Case Study of Thailand’s Automobile Industry: Japanese car manufacturers benefitted from cheaper labour & Thailand benefitted operating costs from the investment: 1.Jobs creation 2.Transfer skills and knowledge
    • 4. Environment Reason4. 1 Presence of raw materials – Money made from the sale of raw materials – Used to improve infrastructure and develop the  country – E.g. Norway (Timber: Furniture, Crude Oil: Petrol) – Limitations: Not all countries with natural resources  are rich – E.g. Nigeria
    • Case Study: Crude Oil in Nigeria – Nigeria still poor despite having extracted & sold  crude oil for large sums of money.  – Reasons: – Money used to develop urban areas & not rural areas – Lack of good governanceNegative impacts: – Environmental degradation – Environment damaged from oil exploration – Local water supplies contaminated by oil spillages &  pollution – Poor health due to pollution – Low SOL and QOL
    • 4. Environmental Reason4.2 Climate – Climate determines the type of natural vegetation  that can be grown. – Top 10 DCs located in Temperate Climate Zone – Low to moderate temperatures (below 00C to 340C) – Moderate rainfall (300 – 1000mm) – Bottom 10 LDCs located in Tropical Climate Zone  (esp. tropical grassland regions of Africa) – High temperatures – Low seasonal rainfall
    • 4. Environmental ReasonWhy?• Cool moist climate: Suitable for growing important  crops, E.g. Canada• Large scale sale & export of crops allows country to  make profit  Brings development• Dry and arid climate: Droughts make it difficult to  grow crops, E.g. Mali, Ethiopia• Seasonal rainfall: Floods destroy homes &  farmlands; • LDCs lack money to rebuild lives & livelihoods unlike  DCs  Remain Poor. E.g. Rural areas along major  rivers in China
    • Technology can be used to overcome  environmental constraints. But, only the RICH  can afford prevention & reconstruction  whereas the POOR countries continues to  poor with low standards of living.
    • 4. Environmental ReasonCase Study: Zuider Zee Project in Netherlands• Flat and low‐lying• Prone to flooding• Flood management strategy: Zuider Zee Project – Land reclamation from an inland sea (i.e. polders) – Building of dykes and a dam• Solved flooding issue• Polders used for farming & building settlements
    • 5. Political Reason• Development is affected by: • Political Conflict • Wars and political instability  • Loss of properties and lives  • Deters foreign investors • Leadership
    • 5. Political Reason1. Political Conflicts – Civil War in Sierra Leone since early 1990s  caused it to be one of the poorest & least  developed country (ranked 2nd last in HDI) – Civil War in Cambodia (in 1970s)One the other hand,  – Switzerland: high GDP of US$30 552 attributed  to long history of political stability and peace  (ranked top 7th in HDI) 
    • 5. Political Reason2. Leadership:• Good leadership sets directions, motivate  people into action towards a common goal• Good governance: Fair, just & honest  government • stable and peaceful environment that attracts  foreign investors (i.e. MNCs) to set to business in the  country• Efficient and development‐oriented• E.g. Norway (Profit cap for petroleum co.s), 
    • View YouTube video:Blood Diamonds (National Geographic)  1. What are some of the reasons why Sierra  Leone is so poor despite having so much  natural resources? 2. How has having diamonds as a natural  resource worked against Sierra Leone? 3. Suggest ways in which they can overcome  poverty and develop.
    • THE END