Background1. Model is by John Friedmann in the 1960s to explain the differences in regional development.2. The countries in the world can be divided into two main groups - the core and the periphery.3. The core refers to the richer and developed countries or regions The periphery refers to the poorer and less developed countries or regions.4. Used to explain why uneven development happens between countries & within a country.
How a Core is formed Core country / region Natural resources, natural harbour, supply of cheap labourProgress and Reputationdevelopment with•Better infrastructure•More skilled labour•Higher income More investments
How a Periphery isformed Exploited by Core through Periphery ‐ Military, I.e. country/ region Colonisation Natural (Raw materials) & ‐ Economic, I.e. Unfair Human (Labour) trading rules Resources Slow economic Dependent on Core for growth development
Characteristics of Core & Periphery Countries Finished products & CORE PERIPHERY Investments • Jobs are available • Key industries: • little jobs and investments Secondary & Tertiary Key industries: Primary Industries • Limited infrastructure • Urbanised with good •Weak & poor economy infrastructure •Concentration of wealth Labour & Raw materials
Core periphery development can have + Positive or ‐ Negative effects on development ‐Negative + Positive (Backwash) (Spread)
• Spread Effect: Benefits of development spread from CORE to the PERIPHERY inequalities between CORE & PERIPHERY narrows. E.g. SingaporeBUT,• Backwash Effect: Negative impact CORE continue to grow at the expense of the PERIPHERY.• Backwash effect sometimes outweighs the benefits produced by the Spread effect PERIPHERY to suffer the negative impact of the development of the CORE.