‘N’ Level Exam Topics• Section A: – Topics: Rivers and Coasts – 2 questions, Choose 1 (25 marks each) • Section B: – Topics: (1) Geography of Food, (2) Development – 2 questions, Choose 1 (1 will be set on a specific topic, 1 question will be set on a topic or a combination of topics) – 25 marks each
What is development?• Refers to improvements in Standard of Living and Quality of Life• Standard of Living (SOL) refers to the living conditions in which people live in. – Access to education, health services and basic amenities (i.e. clean water supply and sanitation system)• Quality of Life (QOL) refers to the degree of satisfaction that you have with your living conditions and lifestyle.
How do you feel towards the photographs you have seen Pit Stopjust now? 2 mins Development is Uneven; Some places are more developed than others. 1. How can we tell? 2. What caused these differences? 3. What can be done?
Essential Questions:1. What is Development?2. How do we measure the level of development in a country?3. Where are the DCs (Developed Countries) and LDCs (Less Developed Countries) located?4. Why is there uneven development?5. What are the strategies to reduce uneven development?6. How does National Development alleviate uneven development?
Strategies: •Economic Effectiveness Standard of Quality of •Education Good/ Bad? Living Life •Social What is National Level How to Measure Development? Development? How to bring about development? Development Indicators 1. Economic 2. Education International Level 3. Health Uneven development Reasons for between & within Uneven •International countries DevelopmentOrganisations Limitations•International S.H.E.E.P Core‐Periphery of each Agreements Factors: Model indicator Social HistoricalEffectiveness •Spread effect Economic Tool:Good/ Bad? •Backwash effect Environment HDI •Cumulative causation Political 0<HDI<1
1. What is development?• Improvements in Standard of Living and Quality of Life• Standard of Living (SOL) refers to the living conditions in which people live in. – Access to education, health services and basic amenities (i.e. clean water supply and sanitation system)• Quality of Life (QOL) refers to the degree of satisfaction that you have with your living conditions and lifestyle.
2. How do we measure the level of development in a country? 1. Economic 3. Education • Income per capita • Literacy Rate • Employment 2. Health Structure • Life Expectancy • Employment • Infant Mortality Rate Opportunities • Availability of health services 4. •Access to clean water Level of Urbanisation supply & sanitation
1. Economic indicatorsi. Income per capita• Income = Wealth of people in a country = Gross Domestic Product (GDP) or Gross National Product (GNP)• Per capita = Per person• Income per capita refers to the average income earned by each worker in a country in a year.
How is GDP and GNP different?• GDP refers to the income earned by residents working in a country in a year (includes citizens and non‐citizens working in the cty). vs.• GNP refers to the income earned by citizens in a country in a year (includes citizens working in the country as well as overseas).
Mathematically,• GDP per capita Total income generated by residents in a country a year Total Population (Residents)• GNP per capita Total income generated by citizens in a country in a year Total Population (Citizens)
• Higher GDP or GNP means that a country is wealthier and has more resources to develop.• The same holds for countries with higher GDP per capita or GNP per capita.• Countries with low GDP/ GNP means that country is undeveloped as there is little resources available for development.• The same holds for countries with lower GDP per capita or GNP per capita.• E.g. According to UNDP 2005, developed country, U.S.A, has a GDP per capita of US$37 562, as compared to developing country, Ethiopia, who only has a GDP per capita of US$711 in the same year.
Limitations1. GDP / GNP is a gross figure, it does not take into account the population size of a country.2. GDP per capita/ GNP per capita is an average figure, it does not account for individual or regional differences in income. 3. Does not reflect the local cost of living. I.e. a pen may cost $0.50 in Cty A but $2 in Cty B. 4. Does not account for informal activities such as hawking, tuition. As a result, income/ income per capita may not be an accurate measure of the level of development in a country.
1. Economic indicatorsii. Employment Structure Primary e.g. logging, farming, miningEmployment Structure Secondary e.g. garment manufacturing Tertiary e.g. services: banking, tourism industry
Which industry, do you think, brings in the most income? Most ACTIVITY TIME $$$ Secondary Primary Least Tertiary $$$
Drag each label to the pie graph that represent its economy. ACTIVITY TIME Newly Industrialising Country Developed Country (DC) Less Developed Country (LDC)
• Primary industries contribute little wealth to the country• Jobs in primary industries are low paying• Jobs in secondary & tertiary industries are higher‐paying• Hence, generally, most DCs have largest proportion of workforce in tertiary, followed by secondary, lastly, primary.• On the other hand, LDCs have largest proportion of workforce in primary, followed by secondary, then tertiary.
Limitations• Some countries may have a sizeable proportion of workforce in the primary industry and yet still be a DC.• E.g. USA has a relatively balanced primary, secondary and tertiary industry because of its large domestic economy. As a result, employment structure may not be an accurate measure of the level of development in a country.
1. Economic indicatorsiii. Employment Opportunities • Cycle of Development Developed Countries Many employment Opportunities Improved Income per SOL & QOL capita
Less Developed Countries (LDCs) Few Employment OpportunitiesLow SOL & Low Income per QOL capita
• Greater employment opportunities in DCs allow its people to earn more income and have higher SOL and QOL.• Few employment opportunities in LDCs cause its people to be poor and have higher SOL and QOL.
2. Health indicators• Health conditions refer to the general well‐ being of a person with regard to his/ her mental and physical conditions.• It differs between DCs and LDCs.• Determined by whether there is: – Medical & healthcare is available and accessible – Facilities such as hospitals and clinics – Safe drinking water & proper sanitation – Balanced diet
Definitions of terms:i. Life expectancy refers to the average number of years a person is expected to live.ii. Infant Mortality Rate refers to the rate at which the number of babies less than one year of age dies, for every 1,000 live births, in a year. iii. Access to water supply & sanitation facilities
ACTIVITY TIME Life Infant Clean Proper Expectancy Mortality Water Sanitation Rate Supply FacilitiesDC High/ Low High/ Low Yes/ No Yes/ NoLDC High/ Low High/ Low Yes/ No Yes/ NoWhy?
• People in DCs have higher life expectancies than LDCs because: – Balanced diet – Clean environment – Access to leading medical services – Afford medical treatment – E.g. UNDP 2005: Japan has a high LE of 82 years as compared to Ethiopia with 47.6 years.
• People in DCs have lower infant mortality rates than LDCs because there is access to: – Proper healthcare amenities such as clinics, hospitals and medical research facilities – E.g. DCs such as Norway and USA have lower IMR (3 and 7 per 1000 live births respectively) than LDCs such as Cambodia and Sierra Leone (97 and 166 per 1000 live births respectively).
• People in DCs have access to clean water supply supplied by pipes to home• People in LDCs do not have access to clean water • Unclean water is unsafe for drinking and will cause water‐borne diseases such cholera & polio.• E.g. UNDP 2005: Access to clean water; Norway (100%), Ethiopia (22%)
• DCs have proper sanitation facilities (i.e. toilets with flush and waste disposal system)• LDCs has poor/ no sanitation facilities (i.e. human waste left in open ground) seep into ground and contaminate groundwater rivers contaminate water sources lead to widespread of diseases such as dysentery.• E.g. UNDP 2005: 100% Australians has access to sanitation compared to only 6% in Ethiopia.
Hence, • DCs: Access to medical facilities, clean water and proper sanitation reflects High Standards of Living & Quality of Life More developed• LDCs: Lack of access to medical facilities, clean water and proper sanitation reflects Low Standards of Living & Quality of Life Less developed
3. Education indicators• Literacy rate refers to the percentage of adults (age 15 and above) in a country, who can read and write.• More developed a country is, the higher its literacy rate• More financial resources to build schools, train teachers and subsidise education• E.g. UNDP 2005: Italy has a high literacy rate of 98.5% as compared to Sierra Leone with 29.6%.
• Higher literacy rates means people have more skills to work in the technology‐driven tertiary industries higher pay higher SOL and QOL• Low literacy rates in LCDs hinder economic development as industries will be focused on low‐skilled primary and secondary sectors lowly paid low SOL & QOL
Limitations• Some countries can have a high literacy rate and yet still classified as a LDC.• E.g. Vietnam has a high literacy rate of 94% in 2004 despite being a LDC.As a result, literacy rate may not be an accurate measure of the level of development in a country.
4. Urban population• Higher the percentage of people residing in cities, the more developed a country is.• More higher paying jobs are available in urban areas compared to rural areas• Hence, the higher the % of urban population, the higher the SOL
Limitations1. Rural‐urban migration: Movement of labour from rural to urban areas in search of better jobs• Rural farmers lack skills needed for well‐paid jobs in urban areas unemployed/ lowly paid jobs in urban areas 2. Counter‐urbanisation trend in DCs: People move out of cities to the suburbs to avoid problems such as overcrowding, high pollution in the cities. As a result, % of urban population may not be an accurate measure of the level of development in a country.
Think: Can we measure development more Pit Stopaccurately then? How? 3 mins
SolutionHUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX (HDI)1. An index used by United Nations to measure the level of development in a country.
Human Development Index (HDI)2. Takes 3 key indicators: • Economic indicators (Gross Domestic Product per capita, Gross National Product per capita, Employment structure and opportunities) • Health indicators (i.e. Life expectancy, Infant Mortality Rate) • Education indicators (i.e. Literacy rate)3. Value between 1 and 0.
Human Development Index (HDI) Low Medium HighHDI 0.499 and below 0.500‐0.799 0.800‐1.00 0 ≤ HDI ≥ 1Limitations:1.Lack of complete data as economies in LDCs are in informal trading2.Failure to take into account human rights and freedom3.Time lag between year of publish and time of data collection (2 years)
What is Standard of Living (SOL)?What is Quality of Life (QOL)? Pit Stop
What are the 3 categories of indicators Pitused to measure the level of development? Stop 1. Economic 2. Health 3. Education