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Transmission line losses
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Transmission line losses

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  • 1. Transmission line losses
    • They include conductor loss , radiation loss , dielectric heating loss , coupling loss and corona
    • Conductor losses
    • It is because current flows through a transmission line and a line has a finite resistance there is an un-avoidable power loss.
    • This is sometimes called conductor loss or conductor heating loss and is simply a power loss.
  • 2. Transmission line losses
    • To reduce conductor loss simply shorten the transmission line or use a larger diameter wire.
    • Conductor loss depends somewhat on frequency because of a phenomenon called the skin effect .
  • 3. Transmission line losses The skin effect is the tendency of an alternating electric current (AC) to distribute itself within a conductor so that the current density near the surface of the conductor is greater than that at its core. That is, the electric current tends to flow at the "skin" of the conductor .
  • 4. Transmission line losses
    • Dielectric heating losses
    • A difference of potential Between two conductors of a metallic transmission line causes dielectric heating.
    • Heat is form of energy and must be taken from the energy propagating down the line.
    • For air dielectric transmission lines the heating is negligible.
    • For solid core transmission lines dielectric heating loss increases with frequency.
  • 5. Transmission line losses
    • Radiation losses
    • If the separation between conductors in a metallic transmission line is appreciable fraction of wavelength.
    • The electrostatic and electromagnetic fields that surround the conductor.
    • Cause the line to act as if it were an antenna and transfer energy to any nearby conductive material.
    • The energy radiated is called radiation loss and depends on dielectric material conductor spacing and length of transmission line.
    • It reduces by properly shielding the cable e.g. STP and coaxial has less radiation loss
    • It is also directly proportional to the frequency.
  • 6. Transmission line losses
    • Coupling losses
    • Coupling loss occurs whenever a connection is made to or from transmission line or when two sections of transmission line are connected together.
    • Mechanical connections are discontinuities, which are locations where dissimilar materials meet.
    • Discontinuities tend to heat up, radiate energy, and dissipate power.
  • 7. Transmission line losses
    • corona
    • Corona is luminous discharge that occurs between the two conductors of a transmission line.
    • When difference of potential between them exceeds the breakdown voltage of the dielectric insulator.
    • Generally when corona occurs the transmission line is destroyed.