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# Transmission line losses

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### Transmission line losses

1. 1. Transmission line losses <ul><li>They include conductor loss , radiation loss , dielectric heating loss , coupling loss and corona </li></ul><ul><li>Conductor losses </li></ul><ul><li>It is because current flows through a transmission line and a line has a finite resistance there is an un-avoidable power loss. </li></ul><ul><li>This is sometimes called conductor loss or conductor heating loss and is simply a power loss. </li></ul>
2. 2. Transmission line losses <ul><li>To reduce conductor loss simply shorten the transmission line or use a larger diameter wire. </li></ul><ul><li>Conductor loss depends somewhat on frequency because of a phenomenon called the skin effect . </li></ul>
3. 3. Transmission line losses The skin effect is the tendency of an alternating electric current (AC) to distribute itself within a conductor so that the current density near the surface of the conductor is greater than that at its core. That is, the electric current tends to flow at the &quot;skin&quot; of the conductor .
4. 4. Transmission line losses <ul><li>Dielectric heating losses </li></ul><ul><li>A difference of potential Between two conductors of a metallic transmission line causes dielectric heating. </li></ul><ul><li>Heat is form of energy and must be taken from the energy propagating down the line. </li></ul><ul><li>For air dielectric transmission lines the heating is negligible. </li></ul><ul><li>For solid core transmission lines dielectric heating loss increases with frequency. </li></ul>
5. 5. Transmission line losses <ul><li>Radiation losses </li></ul><ul><li>If the separation between conductors in a metallic transmission line is appreciable fraction of wavelength. </li></ul><ul><li>The electrostatic and electromagnetic fields that surround the conductor. </li></ul><ul><li>Cause the line to act as if it were an antenna and transfer energy to any nearby conductive material. </li></ul><ul><li>The energy radiated is called radiation loss and depends on dielectric material conductor spacing and length of transmission line. </li></ul><ul><li>It reduces by properly shielding the cable e.g. STP and coaxial has less radiation loss </li></ul><ul><li>It is also directly proportional to the frequency. </li></ul>
6. 6. Transmission line losses <ul><li>Coupling losses </li></ul><ul><li>Coupling loss occurs whenever a connection is made to or from transmission line or when two sections of transmission line are connected together. </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanical connections are discontinuities, which are locations where dissimilar materials meet. </li></ul><ul><li>Discontinuities tend to heat up, radiate energy, and dissipate power. </li></ul>
7. 7. Transmission line losses <ul><li>corona </li></ul><ul><li>Corona is luminous discharge that occurs between the two conductors of a transmission line. </li></ul><ul><li>When difference of potential between them exceeds the breakdown voltage of the dielectric insulator. </li></ul><ul><li>Generally when corona occurs the transmission line is destroyed. </li></ul>