CEMENT http://www.tancem.com/images/inner/projects/gemini.jpg Stephanie M. Murillo Maikut http://www.math.lsu.edu/~bogdan/photo-albums/poland-poznan/square-town-houses.jpg
INTRODUCTION Definition: “Cement is a crystalline compound of calcium silicates and other calcium compounds having hydraulic properties” (Macfadyen, 2006).
History Lime and clay have been used as cementing material on constructions through many centuries. Romans are commonly given the credit for the development of hydraulic cement, the most significant incorporation of the Roman’s was the use of pozzolan-lime cement by mixing volcanic ash from the Mt. Vesuvius with lime. Best know surviving example is the Pantheon in Rome In 1824 Joseph Aspdin from England invented the Portland cement (http://www.holcim.com/NZ/EN/id/71772/mod/gnm20/page/editorial.htm) (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1152/2005-1152.pdf) http://www.artchive.com/artchive/r/roman/roman_pantheon.jpg
Types of Cement Cements are considered hydraulic because of their ability to set and harden under or with excess water through the hydration of the cement’s chemical compounds or minerals There are two types: Those that activate with the addition of water And pozzolanic that develop hydraulic properties when the interact with hydrated lime Ca(OH)2 Pozzolanic: any siliceous material that develops hydraulic cementitious properties when interacted with hydrated lime. HYDRAULIC CEMENTS: Hydraulic lime: Only used in specialized mortars. Made from calcination of clay-rich limestones. Natural cements: Misleadingly called Roman. It is made from argillaceous limestones or interbedded limestone and clay or shale, with few raw materials. Because they were found to be inferior to portland, most plants switched. (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1152/2005-1152.pdf)
Portland cement: Artificial cement. Made by the mixing clinker with gypsum in a 95:5 ratio. Portland-limestone cements: Large amounts (6% to 35%) of ground limestone have been added as a filler to a portland cement base. Blended cements: Mix of portland cement with one or more SCM (supplementary cemetitious materials) like pozzolanic additives. Pozzolan-lime cements: Original Roman cements. Only a small quantity is manufactured in the U.S. Mix of pozzolans with lime. Masonry cements: Portland cement where other materials have been added primarily to impart plasticity. Aluminous cements: Limestones and bauxite are the main raw materials. Used for refractory applications (such as cementing furnace bricks) and certain applications where rapid hardening is required. It is more expensive than portland. There is only one producing facility in the U.S. (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1152/2005-1152.pdf) (Macfadyen, 2006).
GEOLOGY (RAW MATERIALS) The fundamental chemical compounds to produce cement clinker are: Lime (CaO) Silica (SiO2) Alumina (Al2O3) Iron Oxide (Fe2O3) Raw materials used in the production of clinker cement Fly ash: by-product of burning finely grounded coal either for industrial application or in the production of electricity (Macfadyen, 2006) (Hoffman, 2006)
Clinker compounds in Type I portland cement (Macfadyen, 2006) www.recycleworks.org/images/flyash_concrete.gif
SOURCES OF CaCO3 Sedimentary deposits of marine origin (limestone) Marble (metamorphosed limestone) Chalk Marl Coral Aragonite Oyster and clam shells Travertine Tuff LIMESTONES Originate from the biological deposition of shells and skeletons of plants and animals. Massive beds accumulated over millions of years. In the cement industry limestone includes calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate. Most industrial quality limestones is of biological origin. The ideal cement rock 77 to 78% CaCO3, 14% SiO2, 2.5% Al2O3, and 1.75% FeO3. Limestone with lower content of CaCO3 and higher content of alkalis and magnesia requires blending with high grade limestone (Macfadyen, 2006) (Kussmaul, 2003) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Limestoneshale7342.jpg
SOURCES OF ARGILLACEOUS MINERALS Argillaceous mineral resources: Clay and shale for alumina and silica Iron ore for iron Other natural sources of silica are and alumina are: Loess, silt, sandstone, volcanic ash, diaspore, diatomite, bauxite Shales, mudstones, and sandstones are typically interbedded with the limestone and were deposited as the inland waters and oceans covered the land masses. Clays are typically younger surface deposits (Macfadyen, 2006) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:ShaleUSGOV.jpg
MARKETING Wide distribution of plants minimizes the cost to customers. In any market even though cement must meet certain specifications there are other factors that dominate, such as: Delivered cost Quality Product consistency Technical assistance and Sales relationship with the user companies Factors that drive the consumption of cement in the marketplace Economic growth Private and governmental capital investment Population growth (Macfadyen, 2006)
MINING METHODS Limestone deposits are mainly extracted by bench mining in which holes are charged with ammonium nitrate and fuel oil explosive and blasted The rock is excavated with front end loaders (10 m3 capacity) and loaded into 70 to 90 tons haul trucks and then transported to the primary crusher Marl and chalk normally do not require blasting. A trend is to use in pit moveable primary crushers and belt conveyors to transport the rock to a fixed secondary crusher, thereby reducing the number of trucks and haulage distance Underground mining of limestones is not typical, in the U.S one plant obtains its limestone from underground operation, using room and pillar mining method. Clay and shale normally extracted using front end loaders and loaded into haul trucks. When they occur as overburden the clays and shales not used are stored and often reused for reclamation in the mined out areas of the quarry (Macfadye, 2006) http://www.heta4.com/imagesandgraphics/images/frontendloader.gif
USES Uses Main use is in the fabrication of concrete and mortars Modern uses Building (floors, beams, columns, roofing, piles, bricks, mortar, panels, plaster) Transport (roads, pathways, crossings, bridges, viaducts, tunnels, parking, etc.) Water (pipes, drains, canals, dams, tanks, pools, etc.) Civil (piers, docks, retaining walls, silos, warehousing, poles, pylons, fencing) Agriculture (buildings, processing, housing, irrigation) (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1152/2005-1152.pdf) (http://www.holcim.com/NZ/EN/id/71772/mod/gnm20/page/editorial.html) (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mortar_%28masonry%29) http://www.wpclipart.com/working/construction/concrete_block.png http://irandaily.ir/1383/2116/html/005991.jpg
SUBSTITUTES It competes in the construction industry with concrete substitutes: Alumina Asphalt Clay brick Fiberglass Glass Steel Stone Wood Some materials like fly ash and ground granulated furnace slugs have good hydraulic properties and are being used as partial substitutes for portland cement in some concrete applications (http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/cement/cemenmcs07.pdf)
PRODUCTION Data in thousand metric tons http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/cement/cemenmcs06.pdf
World production of hydraulic cement by region (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1152/2005-1152.pdf).
U.S production and consumption of portland cement (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1152/2005-1152.pdf)
RESOURCES Although individual company reserves are subject to exhaustion, cement raw materials (especially limestone) are widespread and abundant, and overall shortages are unlikely in the future (http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/cement/cemenmcs07.pdf)
REFERENCES Hoffman, G., 2006: Pozzolans and supplementary cementitious materials. Pages 1161-1172 in Industrial Minerals and Rocks 7th edition. Edited by J.E. Kogel, N.C., Trivedi, J.M. Barker & S.T. Krudowski. Littleton, Colorado: SME Macfadyen, J.D., 2006: Cement and cement raw materials. Pages 1121-1136 in Industrial Minerals and Rocks 7th edition. Edited by J.E. Kogel, N.C., Trivedi, J.M. Barker & S.T. Krudowski. Littleton, Colorado: SME http://www.holcim.com/NZ/EN/id/71772/mod/gnm20/page/editorial.htm Consulted April 2007 http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1152/2005-1152.pdf Consulted April 2007 http://www.artchive.com/artchive/r/roman/roman_pantheon.jpg Consulted April 2007 http://www.recycleworks.org/images/flyash_concrete.gif Consulted April 2007 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Limestoneshale7342.jpg Consulted April 2007 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:ShaleUSGOV.jpg Consulted April 2007 http://www.heta4.com/imagesandgraphics/images/frontendloader.gif Consulted April 2007 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mortar_%28masonry%29 Consulted April 2007 http://www.wpclipart.com/working/construction/concrete_block.png Consulted April 2007 http://irandaily.ir/1383/2116/html/005991.jpg Consulted April 2007 http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/cement/cemenmcs06.pdf Consulted April 2007 http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/cement/cemenmcs07.pdf Consulted April 2007