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Cement

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Cement, mining

Cement, mining

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  • 1. CEMENT
    http://www.tancem.com/images/inner/projects/gemini.jpg
    Stephanie M. Murillo Maikut
    http://www.math.lsu.edu/~bogdan/photo-albums/poland-poznan/square-town-houses.jpg
  • 2. INTRODUCTION
    Definition: “Cement is a crystalline compound of calcium silicates and other calcium compounds having hydraulic properties” (Macfadyen, 2006).
  • 3. History
    Lime and clay have been used as cementing material on constructions through many centuries.
    Romans are commonly given the credit for the development of hydraulic cement, the most significant incorporation of the Roman’s was the use of pozzolan-lime cement by mixing volcanic ash from the Mt. Vesuvius with lime.
    Best know surviving example is the Pantheon in Rome
    In 1824 Joseph Aspdin from England invented the Portland cement
    (http://www.holcim.com/NZ/EN/id/71772/mod/gnm20/page/editorial.htm)
    (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1152/2005-1152.pdf)
    http://www.artchive.com/artchive/r/roman/roman_pantheon.jpg
  • 4. Types of Cement
    Cements are considered hydraulic because of their ability to set and harden under or with excess water through the hydration of the cement’s chemical compounds or minerals
    There are two types:
    Those that activate with the addition of water
    And pozzolanic that develop hydraulic properties when the interact with hydrated lime Ca(OH)2
    Pozzolanic: any siliceous material that develops hydraulic cementitious properties when interacted with hydrated lime.
    HYDRAULIC CEMENTS:
    Hydraulic lime: Only used in specialized mortars. Made from calcination of clay-rich limestones.
    Natural cements: Misleadingly called Roman. It is made from argillaceous limestones or interbedded limestone and clay or shale, with few raw materials. Because they were found to be inferior to portland, most plants switched.
    (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1152/2005-1152.pdf)
  • 5. Portland cement: Artificial cement. Made by the mixing clinker with gypsum in a 95:5 ratio.
    Portland-limestone cements: Large amounts (6% to 35%) of ground limestone have been added as a filler to a portland cement base.
    Blended cements: Mix of portland cement with one or more SCM (supplementary cemetitious materials) like pozzolanic additives.
    Pozzolan-lime cements: Original Roman cements. Only a small quantity is manufactured in the U.S. Mix of pozzolans with lime.
    Masonry cements: Portland cement where other materials have been added primarily to impart plasticity.
    Aluminous cements: Limestones and bauxite are the main raw materials. Used for refractory applications (such as cementing furnace bricks) and certain applications where rapid hardening is required. It is more expensive than portland. There is only one producing facility in the U.S.
    (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1152/2005-1152.pdf)
    (Macfadyen, 2006).
  • 6. GEOLOGY (RAW MATERIALS)
    The fundamental chemical compounds to produce cement clinker are:
    Lime (CaO)
    Silica (SiO2)
    Alumina (Al2O3)
    Iron Oxide (Fe2O3)
    Raw materials used in the production of clinker cement
    Fly ash: by-product of burning finely grounded coal either for industrial application or in the production of electricity
    (Macfadyen, 2006)
    (Hoffman, 2006)
  • 7. Clinker compounds in Type I portland cement
    (Macfadyen, 2006)
    www.recycleworks.org/images/flyash_concrete.gif
  • 8. SOURCES OF CaCO3
    Sedimentary deposits of marine origin (limestone)
    Marble (metamorphosed limestone)
    Chalk
    Marl
    Coral
    Aragonite
    Oyster and clam shells
    Travertine
    Tuff
    LIMESTONES
    Originate from the biological deposition of shells and skeletons of plants and animals.
    Massive beds accumulated over millions of years.
    In the cement industry limestone includes calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate.
    Most industrial quality limestones is of biological origin.
    The ideal cement rock 77 to 78% CaCO3, 14% SiO2, 2.5% Al2O3, and 1.75% FeO3. Limestone with lower content of CaCO3 and higher content of alkalis and magnesia requires blending with high grade limestone
    (Macfadyen, 2006)
    (Kussmaul, 2003)
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Limestoneshale7342.jpg
  • 9. SOURCES OF ARGILLACEOUS MINERALS
    Argillaceous mineral resources:
    Clay and shale for alumina and silica
    Iron ore for iron
    Other natural sources of silica are and alumina are:
    Loess, silt, sandstone, volcanic ash, diaspore, diatomite, bauxite
    Shales, mudstones, and sandstones are typically interbedded with the limestone and were deposited as the inland waters and oceans covered the land masses. Clays are typically younger surface deposits
    (Macfadyen, 2006)
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:ShaleUSGOV.jpg
  • 10. MARKETING
    Wide distribution of plants minimizes the cost to customers.
    In any market even though cement must meet certain specifications there are other factors that dominate, such as:
    Delivered cost
    Quality
    Product consistency
    Technical assistance and
    Sales relationship with the user companies
    Factors that drive the consumption of cement in the marketplace
    Economic growth
    Private and governmental capital investment
    Population growth
    (Macfadyen, 2006)
  • 11. MINING METHODS
    Limestone deposits are mainly extracted by bench mining in which holes are charged with ammonium nitrate and fuel oil explosive and blasted
    The rock is excavated with front end loaders (10 m3 capacity) and loaded into 70 to 90 tons haul trucks and then transported to the primary crusher
    Marl and chalk normally do not require blasting.
    A trend is to use in pit moveable primary crushers and belt conveyors to transport the rock to a fixed secondary crusher, thereby reducing the number of trucks and haulage distance
    Underground mining of limestones is not typical, in the U.S one plant obtains its limestone from underground operation, using room and pillar mining method.
    Clay and shale normally extracted using front end loaders and loaded into haul trucks.
    When they occur as overburden the clays and shales not used are stored and often reused for reclamation in the mined out areas of the quarry
    (Macfadye, 2006)
    http://www.heta4.com/imagesandgraphics/images/frontendloader.gif
  • 12. PROCESSING
  • 13. (Macfadyen, 2006)
  • 14. USES
    Uses
    Main use is in the fabrication of concrete and mortars
    Modern uses
    Building (floors, beams, columns, roofing, piles, bricks, mortar, panels, plaster)
    Transport (roads, pathways, crossings, bridges, viaducts, tunnels, parking, etc.)
    Water (pipes, drains, canals, dams, tanks, pools, etc.)
    Civil (piers, docks, retaining walls, silos, warehousing, poles, pylons, fencing)
    Agriculture (buildings, processing, housing, irrigation)
    (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1152/2005-1152.pdf)
    (http://www.holcim.com/NZ/EN/id/71772/mod/gnm20/page/editorial.html)
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mortar_%28masonry%29)
    http://www.wpclipart.com/working/construction/concrete_block.png
    http://irandaily.ir/1383/2116/html/005991.jpg
  • 15. SUBSTITUTES
    It competes in the construction industry with concrete substitutes:
    Alumina
    Asphalt
    Clay brick
    Fiberglass
    Glass
    Steel
    Stone Wood
    Some materials like fly ash and ground granulated furnace slugs have good hydraulic properties and are being used as partial substitutes for portland cement in some concrete applications
    (http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/cement/cemenmcs07.pdf)
  • 16. PRODUCTION
    Data in thousand metric tons
    http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/cement/cemenmcs06.pdf
  • 17. http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/cement/cemenmcs07.pdf
  • 18. World production of hydraulic cement by region
    (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1152/2005-1152.pdf).
  • 19. U.S production and consumption of portland cement
    (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1152/2005-1152.pdf)
  • 20. RESOURCES
    Although individual company reserves are subject to exhaustion, cement raw materials (especially limestone) are widespread and abundant, and overall shortages are unlikely in the future
    (http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/cement/cemenmcs07.pdf)
  • 21. REFERENCES
    Hoffman, G., 2006: Pozzolans and supplementary cementitious materials. Pages 1161-1172 in Industrial Minerals and Rocks 7th edition. Edited by J.E. Kogel, N.C., Trivedi, J.M. Barker & S.T. Krudowski. Littleton, Colorado: SME
    Macfadyen, J.D., 2006: Cement and cement raw materials. Pages 1121-1136 in Industrial Minerals and Rocks 7th edition. Edited by J.E. Kogel, N.C., Trivedi, J.M. Barker & S.T. Krudowski. Littleton, Colorado: SME
    http://www.holcim.com/NZ/EN/id/71772/mod/gnm20/page/editorial.htm Consulted April 2007
    http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1152/2005-1152.pdf Consulted April 2007
    http://www.artchive.com/artchive/r/roman/roman_pantheon.jpg Consulted April 2007
    http://www.recycleworks.org/images/flyash_concrete.gif Consulted April 2007
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Limestoneshale7342.jpg Consulted April 2007
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:ShaleUSGOV.jpg Consulted April 2007
    http://www.heta4.com/imagesandgraphics/images/frontendloader.gif Consulted April 2007
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mortar_%28masonry%29 Consulted April 2007
    http://www.wpclipart.com/working/construction/concrete_block.png Consulted April 2007
    http://irandaily.ir/1383/2116/html/005991.jpg Consulted April 2007
    http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/cement/cemenmcs06.pdf Consulted April 2007
    http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/cement/cemenmcs07.pdf Consulted April 2007