Women in leadership - Australia


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Women in leadership - Australia

  1. 1. Views from the CEDA Women in Leadership series in Victoria SEPTEMBER 2011Women in Leadership:Looking below the surface
  2. 2. women in leadership series and report leadsLiz Ritchie, Associate Director, VIC/TAS, CEDADr Hannah Piterman, Director, HPCG and Cofounder of Gender Worxabout this publicationWomen in Leadership: Looking Below the Surface© CEDA 2011ISBN: 0 85801 276 6The views expressed in this document are those of the authors, and should not beattributed to CEDA. CEDA’s objective in publishing this collection is to encourageconstructive debate and discussion on matters of national economic importance.Persons who rely upon the material published do so at their own risk.Designed by Robyn Zwar Graphic DesignPhotography by Yusake Sato Photographyabout CedaFor nearly 50 years, CEDA has informed, influenced and raised the standard ofdiscussion about the issues shaping Australia’s economic and social development.We do this by:• publishing independent research and policy analysis• providing a forum for debate and discussion• offering a membership network to people and organisations that value knowledge, insights and ideas in Australia’s best interests.CEDA is an independent not-for-profit organisation. Our funding comes frommembership fees, events, research grants and sponsorship.Ceda – the Committee for economic development of australiaLevel 13, 440 Collins StreetMelbourne 3000 AustraliaTelephone: +61 3 9662 3544Fax: +61 3 9663 7271Email: info@ceda.com.auWeb: ceda.com.audocument sponsorsCEDA is proud to partner with the following sponsors for this series:disclaimerCEDA has endeavoured to appropriately acknowledge all copyright materialcontained in this paper. However, there may be instances where CEDA hasprovided insufficient acknowledgement or the source was unknown. If notified,CEDA will ensure full acknowledgement of the use of copyright material.Further information and commentsContact: Liz Ritchie, Associate Director VIC/TAS, CEDATelephone: 03 9652 8405Email: liz.ritchie@ceda.com.au w o m e n i n l e a d e r s h i p L O O K I N G B E L O W T H E S U R FA C E 2
  3. 3. ContentsForeword 4Introduction 5Overview 6Recommendations and insights 8Setting the scene: Understanding the unconscious 9Insights from the CEDA podium 101. Understanding the gender wage gap 11 Alan Duncan, NATSEM2. Labour force participation 14 Judith Sloan, Fair Pay Commission3. The power of the irrational 17 Hannah Piterman, HPCG and Gender Worx4. Understanding barriers 20 Rachel Slade, WestpacInsights from the CEDA Women in Leadership 22roundtablesInsights from industry and government: 26Three Case Studies1. GlaxoSmithKline 272. PriceWaterhouseCoopers 283. South Australian Government 30 w o m e n i n l e a d e r s h i p L O O K I N G B E L O W T H E S U R FA C E 3
  4. 4. ForewordCEDA is Australia’s leading independent thought leadership organisation provid-ing policy perspectives on the critical economic and social issues facing Australia.Women in leadership is an issue with implications for policy that influences everythingfrom Board membership to gender equality.The following document provides an overview of the key issues raised during CEDA’sVictorian Women in Leadership series during 2010/2011.Reports such as this and other subsequent publications that will emerge fromCEDA’s ongoing Women in Leadership series across Australia aim to drive the debatearound gender equity, and in turn substantiate the business case for improvementsfor women in leadership roles. The need for action is indisputable and is also vital ifAustralia is to meet future skills and labour demand.While this document draws together facts and figures which provide an irrefutablebusiness case for resolving gender equity issues, it also aims to highlight some of theunderlying unconscious biases that exist that are often unspoken and are hinderingchange.By enabling our members to deconstruct this important but challenging issue, CEDAhopes to assist them to map a way forward so they can realise the economic benefitsto their businesses, the economy and to society more broadly.This successful Victorian Women in Leadership series has been run in conjunc-tion with Dr Hannah Piterman and the series sponsors ExxonMobil Australia andGlaxoSmithKline. CEDA commends them for this work and thanks all of the con-tributors, presenters and attendees who have participated in this process.Hopefully this report will bring about a deeper understanding of the issue, newinsights and possible solutions. However, CEDA recognises that for real change tooccur, sustained focus is required and we look forward to continuing our Women inLeadership series, both here in Victoria and nationally.Professor the Hon. Stephen MartinChief Executive, CEDA w o m e n i n l e a d e r s h i p L O O K I N G B E L O W T H E S U R FA C E 4
  5. 5. Insights from Industry and Government Introduction w o m e n i n l e a d e r s h i p l o o K i n G B e l o w T h e s U r Fa C e 5
  6. 6. OverviewAustralia is well placed as a leader on the world stage, but in these precipitous timesit cannot afford to be complacent. Government and business together must continueto pursue reforms in areas of productivity, competition, regulation and human capitalto secure the nation’s talent. Australia’s future and the integrity of these reformswill be thwarted if the market for female talent, particularly executive talent, remainsunderutilised.Women continue to be underutilised in our organisations, particularly at senior levels.The following questions need to be asked: Why is this so? Is it simply women choos-ing to raise their families instead of climbing the corporate ladder? Is it that womenare not given the appropriate opportunities that men who are equally trained orskilled obtain? Or is it something all together less tangible, something unconsciousin our minds, lying dormant – a social construction of the female role. It is crucial tokeep asking these questions and for CEDA to play an active role in continuing theconversation.We know that Australia is falling behind when it comes to female leadership.Compared with New Zealand, Canada, UK, US and South America, Australia is atthe back of the pack with women holding only:• 12.5 per cent of directors in the ASX 200• 2.5 per cent of chairs• 3 per cent of CEOs• 8 per cent of key executive managers positions, and• 72 ASX 200 companies do not have women on their boards1.A significant number of lobby groups, ASX businesses and state and federal gov-ernments are leading the nation’s impetus for change by demanding transparency,setting targets and developing consultative panels. CEDA commends and supportsthese levers for change. However, there is more work ahead.Why is CEDA addressing this issue?CEDA has a 50-year history of providing thought leadership and policy perspec-tives on the economic and social issues affecting Australia, through a rigorous andevidence-based research agenda, and forums and events that deliver lively debateand critical perspectives.CEDA has explored gender equity through the Women in Leadership series over thelast two years. The economic benefits of addressing the financial disparity betweenmen and women has been proven in numerous studies. One such study undertakenby Goldman Sachs JBWere in 2009 found that closing the pay gap between menand women alone would boost the level for Australia’s GDP by 11 per cent2. As thisreport suggests, unlocking the female potential and underutilised labour pool is cer-tainly one solution to improving the skills shortage that currently threatens Australia’scontinued economic growth. w o m e n i n l e a d e r s h i p L O O K I N G B E L O W T H E S U R FA C E 6
  7. 7. As an independent organisation, CEDA has engaged business leaders from acrossgovernment, academia, and the private and not-for-profit sectors to explore thechallenges and impediments related to gender equity.This paper is a culmination of the Victorian events of the Women in Leadership serieswhich provided an open platform to explore these issues in all their complexity. Theseries explored the business and economic case, as well as the cultural factors thatcontribute to gender inequity.To date the series has included three public and two private forums on the followingthemes:• Closing the gender gap – the impact on Australia’s productivity• Improving participation in the workplace – opportunities and challenges• Why embracing diversity is good business• Engaging men in the gender debate• Female – speak the unspokenAbout this paperThis paper draws together the views provided by the thought leaders who spoke atthe events, case studies that were put forward, and conversations and themes thatemerged. It also includes recommendations and insights drawn from discussions atthese forums.Hosting a combination of public and private sessions enabled the identification ofsubtle hidden barriers that sit below the surface. These are not always readily avail-able for scrutiny, but can see women excluded from leadership. Dr Hannah Pitermanprovides a brief insight into these hidden barriers in the first section of the paper.‘Views from the CEDA Podium’ shapes the major themes emerging from the Womenin Leadership series, with summaries of presentations by keynote speakers.‘Views from the CEDA Roundtables’ includes direct quotes from the female-onlyand male-only roundtables that were held to provide a safe setting where the lesstangible perceptions that exist in relation to gender at work could be explored.‘Insights from industry and government’ provides three case studies that offerexamples of how organisations have initiated reforms, confronted culture and pavedthe way for the retention and recruitment of women.Issues relating to gender equity are not new to the reform agenda. What has changed,or appears to have changed, is the breadth of the debate and the lens through whichbusiness and government view the issues.Through the ongoing Women in Leadership series, and reports such as this, CEDAaims to elevate the debate, and in turn the business case, in a way that enables itsmembers to deconstruct the issues behind gender equity and realise the economicbenefits to their businesses and to society more broadly.We welcome the dialogue that this paper generates. w o m e n i n l e a d e r s h i p L O O K I N G B E L O W T H E S U R FA C E 7
  8. 8. Recommendations and insightsThroughout CEDA’s Women in Leadership series, thought leaders and participantsprovided a range of recommendations and insights, including strategies, actions andtechniques for improving an organisation’s gender equity outcomes.While some of these ideas will take a long time, others can be implemented readily,the underlining result should be that they provide realistic solutions.Create the business case1. Lead by example and lead for the future. Leaders need to understand that this “Leaders need to is a journey; it will take resilience and commitment to bring about change and it understand that must be driven from the top. this is a journey.”2. Good debate stems from good information which can drive change. Organisations need to take an evidence-based approach to understand the metrics and data within their own business, whether it be small, medium or large. Do an internal audit. Be realistic and transparent about the gender balance, lead- ership pipeline, retention and the pay parity within the business.3. Set realistic targets and report on progress. The ASX amendments to corporate governance principles are very important steps in propelling the gender debate onto the agenda of board rooms. With this in mind all businesses should be creat- ing and implementing their own policy and strategy or run the risk of being left behind.4. Build the talent pipeline. With females graduating at a higher rate than males, building the talent pipeline by increasing opportunities for women throughout their careers is critical for organisational success in the future.Cultural change1. Understand the nuances and culture that exist ‘under the surface’. This can be a challenging and threatening experience. Using the evidence-based approach reduces the likelihood of defensiveness and blame. However, it will uncover issues that may be uncomfortable to face. An acceptance of this at the beginning needs to be understood and widely communicated.2. Leadership will need to ensure a safe setting. Encourage men and women to have honest conversations. Gaps will undoubtedly be found between the organisa- tion and employees’ perceptions on issues relating to equal opportunity, including career opportunity, leadership and flexibility.3. Rethink existing or hidden norms. Challenge norms that perpetuate cultures of discrimination such as the ‘Imposter Syndrome’ (women feeling out of place in leadership roles).4. Abandon the fear of being marginalised or recriminated against. Cultural change will never occur if fear takes hold.5. Celebrate change. Build momentum and communicate these celebrations through newsletters, intranets, presentations and annual reports. w o m e n i n l e a d e r s h i p L O O K I N G B E L O W T H E S U R FA C E 8
  9. 9. Workplace actions1. Understand the longer-term return on investment. Organisations need to allo- cate funding to this change and understand the longer-term financial implications of the return on investment for the future. Internationally, companies are investing significantly on diversity initiatives. It was reported that $8 billion annually was invested by the Fortune 100 in the US.3 If Australia is serious about improving its international ranking, we need to invest for change.2. Discuss workplace practices. For example, implement an internal policy that ensures all critical meetings are within the school hours of 9am and 2.30pm.3. Every employee has different needs. Providing multiple workplace flexibility options is an imperative to strong female, and increasingly male, retention.4. Innovation is paramount. Create the right balance between the individual needs and the organisation’s needs – this is an opportunity to create a new paradigm for work.5. Softwiring. Provide role modelling, advocates and change agents.Understanding the unconscious:setting the scene “Gender biasesby HAnnAH PITErmAn lead managers to view talent inDr Hannah Piterman explores a recurrent theme of the Women in Leadershipseries – how unconscious bias, or intangible cultural dynamics, can undermine predeterminedchange in organisations: ways.”Research continues to show that while organisations are increasingly taking elaboratesteps to embed values of meritocracy and transparency in their work practices, theyfind their initiatives can be thwarted by intangible cultural dynamics. These culturaldynamics sit outside the realms of the rational and the strategic. They are oftenambiguous, highlighting a deep tension between those rational elements in busi-ness that promote equality in the workplace and the non-rational that see womenunder-represented and underpaid. Much sits in the domain of the unconscious, issubliminal in its expression and it is held onto despite logical argument and facts.According to Harvard researcher Audrey Lee4 unconscious bias is a form of dis-crimination that is specifically tied to the human cognitive process for receiving andstoring information. Researchers have demonstrated that individuals tend to processincoming information by relying on cognitive shortcuts – in essence, stereotypes.Gender biases lead managers to view talent in predetermined ways, and make deci-sions based on these predetermined views leading to inequity and loss of currentand future capability. Unconscious bias is quite prevalent, often in sharp contrast tothe way individuals perceive their view of themselves. Throughout this paper, andparticularly within the private discussions, numerous thoughts and quotes exhibit thedescribed unconscious bias. Understanding what it means can equip organisationsto challenge it and pursue new models of thinking. w o m e n i n l e a d e r s h i p L O O K I N G B E L O W T H E S U R FA C E 9
  10. 10. Insights from the CEDA podium 1. Alan Duncan, nATSEm 2. Judith Sloan, Fair Pay Commission 3. Hannah Piterman, HPCG and Gender Worx 4. rachel Slade, Westpac w o m e n i n l e a d e r s h i p l o o K i n G B e l o w T h e s U r Fa C e 10
  11. 11. Professor Duncan became the Director at Professor Duncan became the Director at NATSEM in early 2010, after leaving his NATSEM in early 2010, after leaving his previous position as Professor of previous position as Professor of Microeconomics and the Head of School Microeconomics and the Head of School at Nottingham School of Economics, at Nottingham School of Economics, University of Nottingham. University of Nottingham.1. Understanding the gender gap and its implications Professor Alan Duncan Professor Alan Duncan, Director of NATSEM, discusses NATSEM research that explored the reasons behind the gender wage gap and the links with economic growth. w o m e n i n l e a d e r s h i p l o o K i n G B e l o w T h e s U r Fa C e 11
  12. 12. NATSEM research on gender wage differentials in Australia has attempted to identifythe job or work characteristics that can explain at least a component of genderdifferences, and which gender differences remain unexplained.A recent AMP.NATSEM report5 shows that women are more educated than everbefore, with a 10 per cent increase in labour force participation in the last 20 years.While greater employment in professional occupations has brought about betterequality, there are still massive divisions in income, in wealth and superannuation, inunpaid work and in representation at senior levels.The wage gapThe figure often sighted in relation to the raw average earnings gap between menand women is 17 per cent6. However, the story is far more complicated than this.The wage gap figures alone do not demonstrate the levelof discrimination and therefore a deeper review of the datais required.Wage gaps can be explained by different work-relatedcharacteristics, different occupational choices, labourmarket patterns and histories between genders. Thereare also factors of choice – either guided or forced choice– that exist. Women perhaps disproportionately selectemployment with lower financial returns and, while thismay be a behavioural choice, it is fascinating to considerthat behaviour may in fact be conditioned by gendernorms and attitudes.Logically, the differences between men’s and women’swages can in part be due to different characteristics or “...the more senior a female becomes,attributes, alongside other aspects such as selection orchoices in occupation, industries and job types – other- the higher the gap in wage patterns.”wise described as human capital characteristics.A study by NATSEM researchers Rebecca Cassells, Yogi Vidyattama, Riyana Mirantiand Justine McNamara7 for the Australian Government Office for Women sought tostrip away these job-related characteristics and worker attributes from the raw wagedifferential.Explaining the pay differentialVocational qualifications, firm size, labour force history differences in terms of time inpaid work, tenure of current occupation, and industry segregation of selecting intogender specific industries hold some explanatory power. However, the overarchingfinding is that the majority of the wage differential is explained by being a womanor by being a man. If this data is taken a step further to create equal or equivalentcharacteristics and job-related attributes between men and women, it found thatabout one-third of the pay differential could be explained.Therefore, the stark and overwhelming statistic that lingers is that for the remaining60 per cent or more which is unexplained, there is no logical reason for the wagedifferential.Given the study shows that being a woman exerts a negative influence on averagepatterns of pay, what does this mean? The reality is there is much more to the storythan just looking at average wage differences. w o m e n i n l e a d e r s h i p L O O K I N G B E L O W T H E S U R FA C E 12
  13. 13. Where in the distribution of income and the distribution of earnings is the differentialat its greatest? It may be that the average wage gap stems from particular or spe-cific discrepancies at different points in the earning distribution or different levels ofseniority. In another study undertaken by Juan Barón and Deborah Cobb-Clark8 andpublished in the Economic Record, gender wage gaps among lower paid workerscould be largely explained by job-related characteristics. However, when comparedwith higher-paid workers in either the private or public sectors, more substantial cir-cumstances emerge. In the private sector, the gender wage gapsare only partially explained by job-related characteristics. In thepublic sector, it appears that virtually none of the wage gaps areexplainable. From this evidence it could be asserted that acrossthe workforce areas of seniority hold more cause for concern.Female managersResearch conducted by Ian Watson9 in the Australian Journal ofLabour Economics and Hiau Joo Kee10 in the Economic Recordalso looked at unexplained gender wage differences. Both theirfindings concur with the pattern that the more senior a femalebecomes, the higher the gap in wage patterns.Watson discovered that female managers in full time employ-ment earn 27 per cent less than their male counterparts and thatbetween 65 to 90 per cent of this differential is unexplained byjob-related characteristics. He also reported on the evidence ofa plateau in regards to labour market experience and, from that,postulated the ongoing existence of the glass ceiling that preventsprogression from middle to senior management for females com-pared with males. “... a reduction of the genderOverall Watson’s analysis found that an $18,500 difference in gap of around one percentageremuneration exists. He looked at how this wage difference could point could increase GDP bybe closed if female characteristics were conferred upon men,including labour market experience, hours worked and equalising around $4.4 billion.”the returns to different family characteristics. In fact, it only con-stituted a fraction of the $18,500 difference in remuneration. Themost important element in equalising the differential was for a woman to become aman, which would contribute around a $12,500 difference in wages for females.Kee’s work reiterated the pattern that wage gaps for lower-paid workers could beexplained by job-related characteristics. However, the greatest unexplained gapoccurred moving up the earnings distribution from the 75th to the 95th percentile,with the greatest difference in private rather than the public sector.The evidence leads to questions about the longer-term economic impacts forAustralia.The NATSEM Office for Women report sought to establish relationships between thegender wage gap and economic growth. Although the authors acknowledge thattheir findings are limited by not taking into account women’s unpaid contribution tothe economy, there are nevertheless some indicative patterns that emerge in theanalysis.It suggested a reduction of the gender gap of around one percentage point couldincrease GDP by around $4.4 billion. w o m e n i n l e a d e r s h i p L O O K I N G B E L O W T H E S U R FA C E 13
  14. 14. Judith Sloan was appointed as a non-executive director of Westfield HoldingsLimited and is a board member of theLowy Institute. She is also a HonoraryProfessorial Fellow at the MelbourneInstitute of Applied Economic and SocialResearch at the University of Melbourne.2. Labour force participation Professor Judith Sloan Professor Judith Sloan, Commissioner with the Fair Pay Commission, discusses the change in female labour force participation over time, and whether increased participation can contribute to higher labour productivity. w o m e n i n l e a d e r s h i p l o o K i n G B e l o w T h e s U r Fa C e 14
  15. 15. It’s interesting to think about how Australia compares in terms of female labour forceparticipation and how this may have changed overtime. Does higher female labourforce participation contribute to higher labour productivity?Overall Australia ranks reasonably well, behind New Zealand, Canada andSwitzerland.Chart 1:aUsTralia ranKs preTTy well in Terms oF overall worKForCe parTiCipaTion%7060 OECD Average5040 Turkey Iceland NZ Canada Switzerland Australia US Norway Sweden Netherlands South Korea Portugal Ireland Finland Austria Slovak Republic Czech Republic Mexico Germany Spain Luxembourg France Poland Greece Belgium Hungary Italy Japan UK DenmarkSource: Source: Abhayaratna, J. and Lattimore, R. 2006, Workforce Participation Rates – How Does Australia Compare? Productivity Commission Staff WorkingPaper, Canberra (Page XII)In the younger age groups Australia ranks well in labour force participation. It isbelieved this is due to the prevalence of education and work, and the combination ofboth. Interestingly this is not as common elsewhere in the world.The issues arise in the prime age bracket of 25 to 54 years of age, where Australiaranks quite poorly on the international scale.Female labour force participation has increased, and while we still have low par-ticipation during the child bearing years, it has also slowly increased as Graph 2indicates.Chart 2:CoUnTry-speCiFiC worKForCe parTiCipaTion raTe Gaps By Key laBoUr marKeT seGmenTs, 2005 Prime-aged Males Child Bearing Females People Nearing Retirement% % %93 80.0 72 +7.1 +15.2 +1.4 77.5 6792 75.0 62 +7.1 +0.4 +2.391 +0.9 72.5 57 +2.6 +2.190 70.0 52 NZ Canada Australia Canada US UK Australia NZ US UK Canada AustraliaSource: Abhayaratna, J. and Lattimore, R. 2006, Workforce Participation Rates – How Does Australia Compare? Productivity Commission Staff Working Paper, Canberra (Page XIII).Data sources: Based on ABS (2006C, 2006d); CIA (2006); EOWA (1998); IISS (2006); OECD (2006c); UN (2005a, 2005b) and USCB (2005). w o m e n i n l e a d e r s h i p L O O K I N G B E L O W T H E S U R FA C E 15
  16. 16. What is evident is the major increase in the participation of older women. There are infact two effects: one, the cohort effect where women are much better educated thantheir mothers and are continuing to participate; and two, an increase in participationfrom women who are beyond the cohort. In the past, Australia was dismal in realisingolder female participation, but now we are above the OECD average.Chart 3:laBoUr ForCe parTiCipaTion, older men and women, 1979 To 2009%9080 Sweden New Zealand70 United States Canada Australia60 OECD countries504030 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 YEARSource: OECDAnother interesting participation factor is part-time employment. Australiais the champion of this. In Australia, over 40 per cent of employment ispart time and this could arguably be due to flexibility in the labour market.Interestingly, even the male percentage of part-time employment is highin comparison to OECD standards.Interestingly, and contrary to popular belief, producing an environmentthat is conducive to more female participation will result in a lower skilledand less experienced work force which will reduce productivity – in theshort term. Does this mean we should not take action? Certainly not, asthe longer-term results would certainly produce a different outcome.Currently, women who choose to stay in the workforce do so for rationalreasons as they are seeking a return on their skills and experience. Fromthis we could question the focus with which Australia chooses to pursueits increases in participation. For example, ensuring that we maximise “What is evident isthe underutilised skilled talent that is currently lying dormant. What wedo know is that female participation is growing, particularly among older the major increase inwomen, and this may be a constant trend for years to come. the participation of olderThere is an interesting story sitting behind all of this information in the women.”choices couples are making. Does he take the high risk and she takesthe low risk? Perhaps this is a sensible choice to make as a family, butlogically speaking if women have chosen the low-risk occupation, with low returns,this will inevitably show up in the wages gap. This is something to think about andconsider as a whole. w o m e n i n l e a d e r s h i p L O O K I N G B E L O W T H E S U R FA C E 16
  17. 17. Professor Duncan became the Director atDr Hannah Piterman is the Director of NATSEM in early 2010, after leaving hisHannah Piterman Consulting Group and previous position as Professor ofCo founder of Gender Worx. Hannah Microeconomics and the Head of Schoolauthored ‘Unlocking Gender Potential: A at Nottingham School of Economics,Leader’s Handbook’, which was University of Nottingham.published in 2010 and has contributedimmensely to this topic through reportsand journal articles.3. The power of the irrational Dr Hannah Piterman Dr Hannah Piterman discusses why, despite the business case for gender equity being clear, this remains a complex issue and looks at the changes needed. w o m e n i n l e a d e r s h i p l o o K i n G B e l o w T h e s U r Fa C e 17
  18. 18. Despite the clear business case backed by extensive research that has alignedimproved financials and healthier, more positive cultures with the increase of womenat senior ranks, the gender parity chasm still exists. Not only are women excludedfrom the leadership table, but they are held to account for being women.The business case for gender equality is clear but the solutions are complex. Genderdiversity is by no means unanimously accepted as a strategic priority. Perceptions ofits importance vary, particularly between men and women.Recent worldwide research published in the Harvard Business Review by Bain andCo.11 found that 80 per cent of women and only 48 per cent of men believe thatgender parity should be a critical business imperative. Sixty-six per cent of menbelieve that women have equal opportunity to be promoted to leadership and gover-nance positions, yet less than a third of women agreed.Competing messagesSo we have competing messages. One that recognises women are smart, capableand committed and that business cannot afford to squander scarce and talentedfemale resources. The other messagesare subtle, perhaps unconscious, anddeeply embedded in an organisation’sDNA. These messages are based on abelief system that meritocracy exists andthat women who have not succeededhave only themselves to blame.The resulting dynamic sees womenhaving to prove that they are extraor-dinary. That they are without needs ordemands, and that they are unencum-bered by family in order to avoid beingsidelined as less ambitious, as nothaving the prerequisite experience andof not wanting to commit.The well-documented wage gap istestament to the fact that women are “The business case for gender equality is clear butexpected to be selfless, while self- the solutions are complex. “orientation and competitiveness areaccepted in males.Female authorityAs a society, we still struggle with the notion of female authority. Women who areseen to step outside a stereotypical female paradigm can engender rage in others,both male and female.There are many extraordinary women who continue to achieve extraordinary things.However, as long as being extraordinary remains the tacit prerequisite by both menand women for women’s entry into leadership, senior ranks will remain populatedby men. It is undoubtedly a cultural problem and therefore cultures need to shift forfemale authority to thrive. w o m e n i n l e a d e r s h i p L O O K I N G B E L O W T H E S U R FA C E 18
  19. 19. Changes neededFirst, the rationale needs to be ramped up from important to urgent and a cogentbusiness case prepared. The ASX amendments to the Corporate GovernancePrinciples are an important step. However, unless the impetus is complemented byculture change in organisations, women will choose with their feet.Second, business needs to take an evidence-based approach and seek metrics thatcan guide strategy and interventions for dealing with the issues. Companies investsignificantly in diversity initiatives. For the US it is estimated to be in the vicinity of$8 billion annually for Fortune 100 companies12. However, investment has not madesignificant inroads into the number of women in senior executive positions. The rightlevers are not being pulled. A sound measurement basis provides a strong lever forchange.Third, leadership needs to respond to the evidence and take action. For example,strategies that address the paucity of women in line roles will not become effectivefor some time as organisations address pipeline blockages that see an aggregateof only 4.1 per cent of women in line roles.However, a decision to make all core strategicmeetings between 9am and 2.30pm could beimplemented immediately.Fourth, leadership needs to ensure a safesetting that encourages men and womento examine hidden norms without the fearof marginalisation or recrimination. Whilean evidence-based approach reduces thelikelihood of defensiveness and blame, theprocess will surface uncomfortable issues. Itmay highlight gaps between the organisationas a fair-go employer and the way employeesperceive the organisation’s commitment toequal opportunity.Fifth, it goes without saying that a budgetis needed to ensure that action is taken toaddress issues that emerge from the datawhile acknowledging that Rome wasn’t builtin a day. “Gender is a strategic and riskSixth, business needs to challenge normssuch as the long-held belief that flexibility and management issue – not a women’sseniority cannot be aligned. Some organisa- issue...”tions have found creative options to deal withstructural impediments.Finally, business needs to accept that change occurs incrementally and imperfectly,and therefore needs to commit to the long haul. Equivocation, particularly duringdifficult times, sends a strong message that can undo progress.Gender is a strategic and risk management issue – not a women’s issue – andorganisations that are successful in reducing gender parity will be the new winners. w o m e n i n l e a d e r s h i p L O O K I N G B E L O W T H E S U R FA C E 19
  20. 20. Professor Duncan became the Director atRachel Slade is Westpac’s Head of NATSEM in early 2010, after leaving hisDiversity and Flexibility, a Group Centre previous position as Professor ofof Excellence focused on delivering a Microeconomics and the Head of Schooldiversity strategy across all Westpac at Nottingham School of Economics,Group brands. University of Nottingham.4. Understanding barriers Rachel Slade Rachel Slade examines some of the barriers and what is needed for long-term sustainable change. w o m e n i n l e a d e r s h i p l o o K i n G B e l o w T h e s U r Fa C e 20
  21. 21. Like the rest of corporate Australia and in particular the financial services industry,Westpac is struggling to deal with the issues of women in senior leadership, exceptof course at the very top. Westpac has a proud history of taking action to make apositive difference for women.To reference a study by FINSIA that provides a powerful message:When asked: “Is it almost impossible for women to progress to executive level insuch a male-dominated cluster of the financial services industry”, 61 per cent ofwomen agreed and 85 per cent of men disagreed.When it comes to perceptions of opportunities for women, this kind ofgender divide is not uncommon. The majority of decision makers in thisindustry and in corporate Australia today are men. The corporate fabricof the organisation has been woven by men and unwritten rules havebeen framed by men. So with this in mind it is not surprising that barriersaren’t transparent or overt. Here are some that we know exist and we arecognisant of their implications:maternal wall: A description used to explain the issue of women notbeing approached for opportunities because somebody is making a deci-sion in their best interests. The phrases too often are: “She won’t wantto travel because she has young children”, “the hours in that role are toolong”, “she won’t move to Melbourne because of her commitments”, and“she’s just too pre-occupied with her wedding next year to be interested”.It can sound ridiculous, but when people (both men and women) discussthe maternal wall the facial expressions acknowledge the guilt.Organsiations and leaders need to question both stated and unstatedassumptions about what is good for women and/or what women want.To tap female potential organisations need to engage with the femaleworkforce.The hour glass ceiling: Finding the balance between paid and unpaidwork and that unpaid work is largely about caring. Women do invariablytake on a large share of the caring and nurturing role, whether that betheir children, the household and increasingly their elderly parents.Displaying ambition: Women and authority - how do we as a businesssociety accommodate a different face and style of leadership? How dowe remove the perception of the double bind women face: too aggres-sive if they behave in an ambitious manner and too weak if they arecommunal and collaborative? Assumptions about what women want,need to cease and questions need to be asked at various stages of theircareer. Businesses need to support creating valid and alternative modelsof career progression.Hardwiring: Achieving long term sustainable change takes an approachthat combines focused interventions like targets, with critical elements “…The corporate fabricand drivers for soft wiring cultural change. Some examples of hardwiringinclude targets and policies. Examples of softwiring include storytelling, of the organisation hasrole modelling and creating a grass roots community of advocates and been woven by men andchange agents.Supporting communication with some fundamental principles is impor- unwritten rules have beentant – this is about equality of opportunity, for the full talent pool. Not framed by men.”about opportunity at any cost. w o m e n i n l e a d e r s h i p L O O K I N G B E L O W T H E S U R FA C E 21
  22. 22. Insights from the CEDA roundtables As part of the Women in Leadership series, CEDA held two roundtables – one with women only and one with men only – to try to distil some of the less tangible perceptions that exist. The experience provided a unique opportunity for business leaders to hear and discuss some of the nuances that exist in a safe setting. w o m e n i n l e a d e r s h i p l o o K i n G B e l o w T h e s U r Fa C e 22
  23. 23. Regardless of the facts and figures of this debate, underneath are the feelings,experiences, mindsets and biases.The higher the level of awareness of these perceptions, the greater the oppor-tunity for renewed insight and understanding. Some thoughts and opinions fromthe sessions are included below to provide insight into some of these underlyingissues.From the female perspectiveWomen’s role in society“There is a question about space for talking and communicating these issues in a male-dominated world. There is a travesty of culture which means you have to fight between picking up your children from school or being at work. So I believe Australia is a conservative society with a massive gender segregation, which goes across all industries.” “There is a travesty of culture which means“There is a whole-of-family challenge, more you have to fight between picking up your predominant in different ethnicities. However, children from school or being at work.” the gender roles that men and women play are still very real today. There is pressure from family and friends believing you should play a certain gender role. You are made to feel guilty for going to work, for leaving your children and it’s assumed that someone else is raising your children. This is an enormous emotional and mental hurdle to overcome.”“Women stand out more because the culture is one of male entitlement, and that is the norm. Women who stand up to men are seen as being ultra-feminist and feminism can be used in a derogatory way.”“I was the only female on the executive team and I’ve had comments like ‘It’s those bio-rhythms again’.”“Australia has had a culture which enabled one bread winner and this is the genesis of all those 50s type expectations of one feeling inadequate. Even though this is not realistic we still have this image.”How women feel about other women “Women who“I can sometimes be fearful of women who are manipulative and yet men who behave the same are not deemed manipulative, they are stand up to men deemed as influencers. Why is this so?” are seen as being“There is unconscious behaviour in organisations; it’s rife, an under- lying anger towards other successful women. Women are really ultra-feminist and angry with other women and they don’t like that female authority.” feminism can“As a minority in a competitive culture, women are often pitted against each other. It’s natural to want to be the best woman in the be used in a room. However, this engenders competition.” derogatory way.”“There is no support from our own sisterhood; basically women are criticising women.” w o m e n i n l e a d e r s h i p L O O K I N G B E L O W T H E S U R FA C E 23
  24. 24. From the male perspectivemen on women in leadership issues“This issue is a major social equity argument but even with the ever increasing evi- dence that suggests a stronger business and economic argument to create more diverse senior ranks and boards in Australia, it still seems incredibly hard. Why is this so? Why do our metrics lag behind the rest of the world? This is what puzzles me and both genders have a responsibility.”“One of the challenges to inequity is trying to understand the more subtle dynamics in the relationship between men and women in the workplace. There has been much attention placed on the provision of maternity leave, childcare and crèches, “As a minority in a the more tangible aspects. However, (there is) not enough discussion about the intangible aspects of the workplace and the sorts of cultural and interpersonal rela- competitive culture, tionships that exist.” women are often“There is a perception that men can exude a natural aggression, it’s needed to do these jobs, you need to be pushy. If a female does this, it’s almost unnatural, pitted against each whether it comes with the voice, the tone, the body language and everything else. other.” I can reflect on a past senior colleague who used to come across as excessively aggressive or tense but upon reflection I can see it was simply her trying to find her voice.”“It can be intimidating for women to speak up around men, especially ‘big men’ with ‘big voices’. The presence alone can create anxiety that alienates the minority, being the female, who in many cases are smaller in stature and quieter in vocal delivery. We need to lift women’s confidence and we need to help them speak up and find their voice.”men on unconscious bias “There is a perception that men can“There are subtle sexual tensions that exist between exude a natural aggression...if a female men and women, we all have relationships in our lives which are gender based and the workplace does this, it’s almost unnatural.” is simply another environment, but indeed a more complex one. I admit to having had a tendency towards employing more attractive women, not simply more physically attractive, also more attractive personalities.”“Whilst unconscious bias is now a big conversation, we need to be realistic and not allow bad behaviour to be deemed as unconscious. Let’s not pretend that con- scious bias is not present; there are definitely still stereotypical attitudes that we men and women are guilty of holding.”What men think women think“Women get to the point where it’s just too hard and they have had enough. Balancing work and life is too difficult and therefore it’s easier to move into the small to medium size market that is more flexible. The opportunity loss for talented women is enormous.” w o m e n i n l e a d e r s h i p L O O K I N G B E L O W T H E S U R FA C E 24
  25. 25. “Women are more likely to feel the imposter syndrome, which effectively means I am sitting here in this meeting but I don’t belong here. Often they fought really hard to be there but when they look around they don’t really belong. I’m at the table but I am an imposter.”“I’ve seen women get to senior positions and they are often harder on women coming through, certainly harder than their male counterparts. Is it because they broke through the glass ceiling and now they have a right to be extra critical of those trying to forge the same path? Why is it that women seem to be the harshest judges of women?”“Our firm has been particularly proud of its achievements with women. However, we are seeing a fall off from where we have been. Many women who have been promoted are “Why is it that women simply saying, ‘I do not want this’. Interestingly, we are also seeing a rise in Beyond Blue statistics in depression levels seem to be the in men. Perhaps there is something in the role we expect harshest judges of our executives to take on and the environments with which they participate which is fundamentally flawed. Perhaps women?” women are being smart and men go on suffering.”What about the baby boomers?“Another issue males need to understand is that baby boomers are still in charge and they don’t understand women as much as they think they do. An example of this is a baby boomer CEO of a top 10 company a few years ago was about to hire a woman into a position one below him. The woman confided in the recruiter that she was pregnant and the recruiter informed somebody in the organisation who ultimately informed the CEO. The whole process nearly collapsed except a 39-year-old man at the time said, ‘This is ridiculous, that’s fine, I’ll hire her’. The interesting part is the 58-year-old CEO had absolutely no intention of hiring her, this was a deal breaker. I think baby boomers are really struggling with issues that the next generation are not struggling with as much.” “...baby boomers are still in charge and they don’t understand women as much as they think they do.”Do we need to moderate “maleness” in organisations?“I did experience through my career macho characteristics being exhibited. What is it to be male? The mateship idea of squeezing people out who weren’t particularly interested in football or didn’t want to go to the pub after work. There is a much greater need to be culturally sensitive and we could all admit that these character- istics are still alive and well today and you have to ask, is this how it’s supposed to be?”“Perhaps there is something about our boardrooms that reflects what men are used to, such as the behaviour on football fields, behaviours we developed earlier in our childhood as boys.” w o m e n i n l e a d e r s h i p L O O K I N G B E L O W T H E S U R FA C E 25
  26. 26. Insights from industry and government Three case studies: 1. GlaxoSmithKline 2. PriceWaterhouseCoopers 3. South Australian Government w o m e n i n l e a d e r s h i p l o o K i n G B e l o w T h e s U r Fa C e 26
  27. 27. 1. GlaxoSmithKline Australia Deborah Waterhouse, Vice President and General Manager, Australia and New ZealandAt GSK there is a strong economic rationale for attracting and retaining talentedpeople, alongside a very strong business rationale. Supporting employees to find theright balance between their work and their personal lives is paramount, and GSK hascreated a number of policies that support this commitment.All GSK staff can apply for alternative work arrangements, including:• job sharing• reduced hours or school hours• part time work• work from home and from office scenarios• purchase of additional annual leave• taking a career break• retirement wind downIn addition, GSK has a Corporate Family “History has provenProgram – an online portal where employ-ees can find child care services, babysitters, the best teams areaccess parenting resources, and find out not dominated byabout free onsite parenting seminars.This program is geared for both men and one gender…”women. GSK also runs health and resilienceprograms, and parental leave is an optionfor both men and women.In 2010 and 2011, GSK was awarded Employer of Choice for Women by the EqualOpportunity for Women in the Workplace Agency. GSK set a very clear strategy forthe business in 2008 to ensure success. One of the pillars within this strategy was‘fostering individual empowerment’, where an individual employee value proposi-tion is developed. The strategy, GSK in Balance, essentially means striking a dealbetween the needs of the employer and the needs of the employee.Today the GSK executive team is 50/50 – five men and five women. History hasproven the best teams are not dominated by one gender and the breadth of thinkingand range of perspectives that emerges from this team is absolutely invaluable.Women have the greatest opportunity to exercise authority as authentic and unen-cumbered leaders when there is a critical mass. w o m e n i n l e a d e r s h i p L O O K I N G B E L O W T H E S U R FA C E 27
  28. 28. 2. PriceWaterhouseCoopersWith 6,505 employees, and an average employee age of 32 years old, the peopleagenda is a critical part of our firm’s strategy – to ‘ignite a behaviour led cultureto live the strategy’. Diversity is also imbedded in the PwC corporate responsibilitystrategy – we believe that a positive workplace culture which supports diversity andwellbeing is paramount to delivering high performance, innovation and agility in themarketplace.PwC’s diversity strategy has seven dimensionsOur aspiration is to create an inclusive workplace that embraces the diversity of ourpeople and supports them to achieve their personal and professional goals whileenhancing business performance. In order to support this aspiration, we focus oncreating an awareness of how unconscious bias can impact the decisionswe make.PwC’s current approach to transformation is based on a ‘positive (dis)Abilitychange construct’ (a process adapted from ‘Appreciative Inquiry’by Fran J. Barrett & Ron E. Fry). In this regard, we seek to create Flexibility & Religious individual beliefschange by understanding and leveraging the strengths of our choiceorganisation in addition to addressing the deficits. The focusshifts to the solution rather than the problem. In adopting this Perspectives andmodel we have started to see positive results in the retention Capabilitiesof talent, increased engagement, increase in people working Ageflexibly and an increase of women in leadership. CulturalThree years ago the firm took a fresh look at our whole diversitystrategy and our female population, in an effort to understandthe root cause behind our challenges in this space. The research Gender Sexualexplored two key themes: orientation1. Why was the pipeline leaking from senior manager (49 per cent women) to director (39 per cent women) to partnership (17 per cent women)?2. With a strong parental leave return rate, why were women leaving within 12 months of returning to PwC?The causal analysis uncovered the following challenges:• More men were being tagged as potential talent for the leadership pipeline• Part time work was offered but it had very little flexibility• Leadership development courses were often held off site or in a residential capac- ity, a model not suitable for all staff membersApplying the ‘positive change construct’ approach, we consulted a new audienceof women who had succeeded to reach partnership level and women who hadreturned and chosen to stay at PwC beyond 12 months. Our research uncoveredsomething very different than what we had seen before.Every female that had made partner at PwC had a sponsor – an advocate.Coincidentally, the sponsor was male in every case. Secondly, the staff returningand remaining after parental leave worked flexibly, not within a tight part time regime. w o m e n i n l e a d e r s h i p L O O K I N G B E L O W T H E S U R FA C E 28
  29. 29. They tapped into a variety of sources to achieve the desired flexibility (purchasingadditional annual leave, utilising an emergency nanny service and working flexibly tobalance personal and client commitments).Equipped with this knowledge, a new strategy was designed starting with leadership,and formed part of our employee value proposition. It built a point of differentiation in “…we focusthe marketplace for graduate intakes and clients. There was an intentional focus onunderstanding bias and building awareness as outlined below: on creating anThe new strategy includes specific programs: awareness of• Growth Mindset – leadership development programs based on research by Carol how unconscious S Dweck, Ph.D and world renowned psychologist at Stanford University. bias can impact• Building Female Leaders – designed for senior managers and directors. The program builds the mental and emotional capacities that underpin the wellbeing the decisions we and success of women in senior roles. make.”• Sponsoring Women – designed for our partners. The workshop focuses on spe- cific strengths-based approaches to one-to-one interactions and sponsorship roles as well as the science of gender differences in thinking, decision making, stress response and reactions.• Redesigning part time work – shifting language from part time fixed hours to flex- ible hours, transition that matches workload.• Inspiring Market Leaders – designed for partners and principals. This two-day workshop takes an outside in approach to our culture work, starting with the needs of our clients to help shape where we focus and how we lead our teams. The output is a network of change agents across the firm who then continue the behavioural change journey in their business units.• Harvard Implicit Association test – staff recommended to undertake this 15 minute test to aid conversation around cognitive bias.Results:• 87 per cent of our people are proud to work at PwC• 84 per cent believe PwC is an inclusive work environment where individual differ- ences are respected and valued.Chart 2The Gender shiFT in pwCThese are some of our milestones and achievements 2008 2011 Representation Partner admissions 14% are female 41% are female Returning parental leavers 87% 91% Parents leaving within 12 months of return 24% 16% Sponsorship Key talent women with a sponsor 10% female Key Talent 65% female Key Talent Formal male sponsors no formal data 54% sponsors Flexibility Purchasable annual leave 4 weeks 12 weeks Paid parental leave 14 weeks 18 weeks Work flexibility 8% 49% Source: Diversity & Inclusion Survey 2010 w o m e n i n l e a d e r s h i p L O O K I N G B E L O W T H E S U R FA C E 29
  30. 30. 3. South Australian Government Warren Maccan, Commissioner for Public Sector Employment, Office for Ethical Standards and Professional Integrity, Department of Premier and CabinetSouth Australia can boast that it is the leading Australian state for the highest numberof female executive positions in Australia.Within the SA Government Strategic Plan is a target: 50 per cent of the public sectorexecutives to be women by 2014.The public sector in SA is the largest employer in the state with approximately100,000 staff. Of that figure, 1,200 are classified as executives. Experience hadshown over time that the traditional arguments for change around equity and theglass ceiling were falling on deaf ears and decision makers were becoming quitecynical. Therefore, the need for the business case became clear and it was this thathelped provide a bridge for change in SA.In 2003, only 29 per cent of the SA female workforce held executive level positions.In October 2010 that had jumped to 42 per cent. So how did this happen? What wasthe business case for change?The key components of the business case included:Graduate talentOver the past 10 years almost 60 per cent of Australia’s graduates were women, andwith the number of female graduates growing at twice the rate of male graduates, thepipeline is clear. These numbers are not due to more predominantly female orientedcourses, such as nursing or social work; females also outnumber males in naturaland physical sciences, and management and commerce, among other courses.Chart 1:aUsTralian sTUdenTs award CoUrse CompleTions By Gender, 1997 To 2008% Male Female605040302010 0 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 YEARSource: Department of Education Employment and Workplace Relations Higher Education Statistics 2008 – Table 2 Award course completions for all students bycitizenship and gender, 1997-2008 w o m e n i n l e a d e r s h i p L O O K I N G B E L O W T H E S U R FA C E 30
  31. 31. The poignant relevance for the SA Government was to consider that a very large pro-portion of executives will ultimately come from the graduate pool of talent. Therefore,it does not make good business sense to be appointing less than 50 per cent of ourexecutives from the pool that is largest and clearly growing.Female executives and performance of boards “…traditionalThe next component to consider for the business case was the link between female arguments forexecutives and performance. There is an immense amount of international researchon this question but the following referred to here is from Catalyst in the United change aroundStates. equity and the glassThe graph below measures the performance of boards of US Fortune 500 compa- ceiling were fallingnies with more women. It shows that boards with a greater number of female boarddirectors outperform on all three results – return on equity, return on sales and return on deaf ears…theon invested capital. need for a business case becameChart 2:Board diversiTy resUlTs clear…” Return on equity by female Return on sales by female Return on investment capital by representation on the board representation on the board female representation on the board Companies with more women Companies with more women Companies with more women outperform those with the outperform those with the outperform those with the least by 53% least by 42% least by 66%ROE ROS ROIC +53% +42% +66% 9.1% 13.9% 9.7% 13.7% 4.7% 7.7% BOTTOM TOP BOTTOM TOP BOTTOM TOP QUARTILE QUARTILE QUARTILE QUARTILE QUARTILE QUARTILE WBD WBD WBD WBD WBD WBDSource: Catalyst 2007: US Fortune 500 CompaniesWe know women make up half the workforce entrants, but by the time they reachexecutive level, the proportion has fallen to 10.7 per cent, while only two per cent getto sit in the CEO’s chair.Cost impactWomen are leaving the SA public sector at a younger age than men, and everytime an experienced female member of the executive feeder group leaves it costs$140,000 in recruitment and training to replace them. w o m e n i n l e a d e r s h i p L O O K I N G B E L O W T H E S U R FA C E 31
  32. 32. Dollars spent on training and developmentGiven the composition of the workforce is 50/50, it is more than unjust – if notinequitable – to see the statistics below. One can see why females might become “…every time andisenfranchised with pervading cultures. experienced femaleChart 3: member of theToTal TraininG and developmenT By Gender adminisTraTive UniT employees JUne 2009 executive feeder$ Millions30 group leaves it25 Male Female costs $140,000…20 to replace them.”1510 5 0 $1–$47,999 $48,000–$60,999 $61,000–$78,199 $78,200–$98,499 $98,500+ Total SALARY BANDSSource: Workforce Information Collection Data (WIC) June 2009Understanding this content has helped build the business case which has been usedto improve the SA story. Using external benchmarks has been a driver for internalorganisational change and building the business case for gender parity within the SAGovernment. Paramount to achieving change is driving it from the top.Endnotes1 EOWA Gender workplace statistics at a glance, July 2001, Quarterly2 Goldman Sachs JBWere Investment Research, 2009; Economics – Australia’s Hidden Resource: The Economic Case For Increasing Female Participation3 Duehr, E. & Bono, J.E. (2006). Men, women, and managers: Are stereotypes finally changing? Personnel Psychology, 59, 815-846.4 Audrey J. Lee, Unconscious Bias Theory in Employment Discrimination Litigation, 40 Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties L. Rev. 481-503 (2005)5 Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS 2009)6 Rebecca Cassells, Riyana Miranti, Binod Nepal and Robert Tanton (2009). ’She works hard for the money: Australian women and the gender divide’, AMP.NATSEM Income and Wealth Report Issue 22, April 2009.7 Rebecca Cassells, Yogi Vidyattama, Riyana Miranti and Justine McNamara (2010). ‘The impact of a sustained gender wage gap on the Australian economy’. Report for the Office for Women, Department of Families, Community Services, Housing and Indigenous Affairs (FaHCSIA), Canberra, Australia.8 Juan Barón and Deborah Cobb-Clark (2010). ‘Occupational Segregation and the Gender Wage Gap in Private- and Public-Sector Employment: A Distributional Analysis’, Economic Record, 86, pp. 227-2469 Ian Watson (2006). ‘Decomposing the Gender Pay Gap in the Australian Managerial Labour Market’, Australian Journal of Labour Economics, 13, pp. 49-79.10 Hiau Joo Kee (2006). ‘Glass Ceiling or Sticky Floor? Exploring the Australian Gender Pay Gap’, Economic Record, 82, pp. 408–427.11 Coffman, J. Gadiesh, O. & Miller, W (2010). The great disappearing act:Gender parity up the corporate ladder. Bain & Company12 Duehr, E. & Bono, J.E. (2006). Men, women, and managers: Are stereotypes finally changing? Personnel Psychology, 59, 815-846. w o m e n i n l e a d e r s h i p L O O K I N G B E L O W T H E S U R FA C E 32
  33. 33. From our sponsor:ExxonMobilExxonMobil is a highly successful company in a highly competitive, technologyfocused industry. Diversity is a key issue for ExxonMobil for a simple reason – itmakes good business sense to employ the best people, whatever their gender orbackground, and ensure that they develop to their full potential. Our success, andour future, relies on our ability to attract and develop the best brains from diversebackgrounds.Women play a vast and important role in our operations, both in Australia and globally.ExxonMobil Australia has been recognised as an Employer of Choice for Women bythe Equal Opportunity for Women in the Workplace Agency (EOWA) for the past 10years, since the inception of these awards. Our policies encourage women’s active participation in the workforce and are impor-tant in fostering a supportive environment for women, such as 14 weeks of paidparental leave in addition to the Federal Government’s paid parental leave scheme.Our Workplace Flexibility Programs allow for part-time work opportunities, time-offfrom work and variable work schedules to support our employees’ need for flexibilityat various points in their careers.Equally important is creating a culture of diversity and inclusiveness within ourcompany. We do this in many ways, not least by building a proactive consciousnessabout progression opportunities for women right from the start of their career.Our ongoing aim to provide an inclusive environment for women in our workplace fitsperfectly with the aims of CEDA’s Women in Leadership Series. It is through ongoingdiscussions and engagement with opinion leaders, such as the opportunities offeredthrough this series, that effective change on closing the barriers faced by women inthe workplace can truly be met.ExxonMobil Australia has been proud to be involved with the CEDA Women inLeadership Series and the Looking Below the Surface report. As a subsidiary of oneof the world’s largest companies providing energy to people all around the globe, wehave an important job to do, and this can only be achieved if both men and womenare involved to their full potential.Ulysses YiannisHuman Resources Manager, Asia-Pacific SouthExxonMobil Australia Pty Ltd w o m e n i n l e a d e r s h i p L O O K I N G B E L O W T H E S U R FA C E 33
  34. 34. From our sponsor:GlaxoSmithKlineGlaxoSmithKline (GSK) is incredibly proud to be involved in CEDA’s Women inLeadership series. It has been a great opportunity to showcase the leadership ofa number of talented women and actively contribute to the debate on importantquestions facing our society today.When we heard about this series we were determined to be involved, because weare passionate about advancing the career prospects of all our employees. Likemany businesses, we know that fostering great talent and matching the right peopleto the right roles is crucial to our success.In 2010 and again in 2011, GSK was recognised by the Equal Opportunity forWomen in the Workplace Agency (EOWA) as an employer of choice for women. Weare very proud of this achievement because it represents our public commitment tosupporting and advancing women in the workplace.We have put in place a number of policies to support this commitment, from paidparental leave, corporate family programs, development opportunities and flexibleworking arrangements, to help all employees find the right balance between workand family life.But is there more we can do? How can we continue to maximise the value thatwomen bring to our business, particularly in leadership and management roles? On amore personal note, as an executive, what support can I give the women in my teamto help them reach their full potential?It is to help us answer these important questions that GSK decided to be involved inthe series; and we have not been disappointed.GSK is a global research-based pharmaceutical and healthcare company with aproud history in Australia dating back to 1886. We collaborate with local research-ers and doctors to discover new ways of treating and preventing disease, investingaround $56 million a year in research and development. We provide about 1620skilled jobs across Australia and contribute $584.6 million to Australia’s pharmaceuti-cal and medicinal exports.With this research heritage we are delighted to support the research-based approachCEDA has adopted throughout the series, culminating in the development of thisWomen in Leadership report entitled Looking Below the Surface. We commendCEDA and Dr Hannah Piterman for instigating this important research and for creat-ing the safe environment to continue to drive the debate.As women, we have a lot to celebrate. We are chief executives, business leaders,academics, Nobel Laureates, mothers and partners. We have achieved high publicoffice. But it hasn’t been easy and there is a long way to go. That’s why we need tokeep having this conversation.Deborah WaterhouseGeneral Manager, GlaxoSmithKline Australia and New Zealand w o m e n i n l e a d e r s h i p L O O K I N G B E L O W T H E S U R FA C E 34
  35. 35. national south australia and theLevel 13, 440 Collins Street northern TerritoryMelbourne VIC 3000 Level 7, Qantas HouseGPO Box 2117 144 North TerraceMelbourne VIC 3001 Adelaide SA 5000Telephone 03 9662 3544 PO Box 8248, Station ArcadeFax 03 9640 0849 Adelaide SA 5000 Telephone 08 8211 7222 Fax 08 8211 8222new south walesand the aCTLevel 14 victoria and TasmaniaThe John Hunter Building Level 13, 440 Collins Street9 Hunter Street Melbourne VIC 3000Sydney NSW 2000 GPO Box 2117GPO Box 2100 Melbourne VIC 3001Sydney NSW 2001 Telephone 03 9662 3544Telephone 02 9299 7022 Fax 03 9640 0849Fax 02 9232 7559 western australiaQueensland Level 5, BGC CentreLevel 17, 300 Adelaide Street 28 The EsplanadeBrisbane QLD 4000 Perth WA 6000GPO Box 2900 PO Box 5631, St Georges TceBrisbane QLD 4001 Perth WA 6831Telephone 07 3229 9955 Telephone 08 9228 2155Fax 07 3229 8166 Fax 08 9228 2166