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An exploration of e-safety messages
to young people, pa...
Foreword
The Safeguarding Board for Northern (SBNI) was set up in 2012 to co-ordinate and ensure that
children and young p...
Table of Contents
1.

Executive Summary .....................................................................................
1. Executive Summary
Background
In June 2013, The National Children’s Bureau (NCB NI) was commissioned by the Safeguarding...
Key findings, conclusions and recommendations
The remainder of this executive summary takes each of the study’s objectives...
comprises three organisations Childnet International, South West Grid for Learning (SWGfL)
and the IWF (Internet Watch Fou...
WHSCT has delivered and developed a range of e-safety resources for children, parents and
practitioners and is currently p...
Recommendations:
3. We recommend that Northern Ireland capitalises fully on the extensive e-safety messaging
work undertak...
Public awareness campaigns on e-safety to raise awareness and educate children and young
people and those who work with an...
There have been no evaluations conducted to determine the impact of e-safety messaging work
developed locally in Northern ...
To summarise, our recommendations arising from this study are as follows:
1. We recommend that SBNI considers using the e-...
2. Introduction
Background
The SBNI was established in 2012 following the publication of the Safeguarding Board Act (2011)...
The overall aim of this study is to map existing messages on e-safety that are delivered to young
people, parents/carers a...
3. Methodology
Whilst the study methodology was originally intended to be a desk review, two issues became clear
early on ...
Literature was also sourced from key agencies/organisations known to work specifically in the field
of e-safety, including...
Focus groups with parents and young people
One focus group was conducted with parents and another with young people in ord...
Structure of this report
The remaining chapters of this report are structured to reflect the findings in relation to each ...
4. What is e-safety and what are the risks of etechnology?
Using the findings from the desk review, this chapter of the re...
The Byron Review (2008)11, an independent review of the risks children face by the internet and
video games, identified th...
encountered sexual images online, and 40% of young people reported to know friends that had
engaged in ‘sexting’. The revi...
Figure 1: OECD categories of risk for children online
1. Information privacy and security risks

Information privacy
Perso...
EU Kids Online distinguish between content risks where the child is positioned as the recipient of,
usually mass produced ...
Table 1: E-technology risks for children and young people (CYP)
Aggressive
Sexual
Content risks:
CYP exposed to:
CYP expos...
Table 1 has been produced based on current research from EU Kids Online6. However, other
documents consulted in the desk r...
Summary
There is no common definition of e-safety at present. Analysis of existing phrases and terms
used leads us to sugg...
5. Who is doing what on e-safety in the UK and
internationally?
The chapter describes some of the key organisations and ne...
While none of these organisations have a base in Northern Ireland, in many cases Northern Ireland
appears somewhere on the...
addressed the Assembly debate on child internet safety on Safer Internet Day (5 February 2013)
in response to a motion put...
children in 201134. It is also informed by a large body of evidence on e-safety which includes the
work of Professor Sonia...
Internet Centre, in conjunction with C2K, held six E-Safety Live briefings in Northern
Ireland38. The E-Safety Live briefi...
Organisation Description
International help make the internet a safe place for children. It works directly with children
a...
Thinkuknow is CEOP’s internet safety programme for children between the ages of 8 to 16,
teachers and practitioners and fo...
-

Adults concern about internet safety was relatively unchanged from before and after the
campaign.

Evaluation of CEOP’s...
Summary
There are three key organisations leading the UK’s work on e-safety:
-

UKCCIS (UK Council for Child Internet Safe...
6. Who is doing what on e-safety in Northern
Ireland?
The chapter profiles the organisations involved in e-safety work in ...
advice and guidance on arrangements for preventing the accessing of inappropriate material on the
internet, the use of mat...
Barnardo's Safe Choices Project;
Beam Creative network;
Cookstown and Dungannon’s Women's Aid;
Mencap‘s Livenet Project;
N...
X-Ray data.
In terms of the above organisations’ specific work on e-safety:
X-Ray Data and No Bullying are subsidiaries of...
Table 3 provides a breakdown of the methods used by organisations that responded to the survey.
Table 3: Breakdown of meth...
Table 4 below provides an overview of the target audience of e-safety training courses delivered by
organisations.
Table 4...
Table 5: Target audience of e-safety resources [18 organisations]
Target group
No. of resources
Primary school children
Po...
Media campaign on understanding the cyber playground, which had a focus on how cyber
bullying is still bullying (NIABF);
F...
Table 7: Target audience of e-safety training materials [8 organisations]
No. of e-safety
Target group
materials
Primary s...
Mencap’s Livenet project which is a joint initiative between Mencap, Citizens Online, The
Chartered Institute for IT and B...
The greatest amount of information on e-safety was found on the NI Direct website. NI
Direct is the official Government we...
An exploration of e-safety messages to young people, parents and practitioners in Northern Ireland
An exploration of e-safety messages to young people, parents and practitioners in Northern Ireland
An exploration of e-safety messages to young people, parents and practitioners in Northern Ireland
An exploration of e-safety messages to young people, parents and practitioners in Northern Ireland
An exploration of e-safety messages to young people, parents and practitioners in Northern Ireland
An exploration of e-safety messages to young people, parents and practitioners in Northern Ireland
An exploration of e-safety messages to young people, parents and practitioners in Northern Ireland
An exploration of e-safety messages to young people, parents and practitioners in Northern Ireland
An exploration of e-safety messages to young people, parents and practitioners in Northern Ireland
An exploration of e-safety messages to young people, parents and practitioners in Northern Ireland
An exploration of e-safety messages to young people, parents and practitioners in Northern Ireland
An exploration of e-safety messages to young people, parents and practitioners in Northern Ireland
An exploration of e-safety messages to young people, parents and practitioners in Northern Ireland
An exploration of e-safety messages to young people, parents and practitioners in Northern Ireland
An exploration of e-safety messages to young people, parents and practitioners in Northern Ireland
An exploration of e-safety messages to young people, parents and practitioners in Northern Ireland
An exploration of e-safety messages to young people, parents and practitioners in Northern Ireland
An exploration of e-safety messages to young people, parents and practitioners in Northern Ireland
An exploration of e-safety messages to young people, parents and practitioners in Northern Ireland
An exploration of e-safety messages to young people, parents and practitioners in Northern Ireland
An exploration of e-safety messages to young people, parents and practitioners in Northern Ireland
An exploration of e-safety messages to young people, parents and practitioners in Northern Ireland
An exploration of e-safety messages to young people, parents and practitioners in Northern Ireland
An exploration of e-safety messages to young people, parents and practitioners in Northern Ireland
An exploration of e-safety messages to young people, parents and practitioners in Northern Ireland
An exploration of e-safety messages to young people, parents and practitioners in Northern Ireland
An exploration of e-safety messages to young people, parents and practitioners in Northern Ireland
An exploration of e-safety messages to young people, parents and practitioners in Northern Ireland
An exploration of e-safety messages to young people, parents and practitioners in Northern Ireland
An exploration of e-safety messages to young people, parents and practitioners in Northern Ireland
An exploration of e-safety messages to young people, parents and practitioners in Northern Ireland
An exploration of e-safety messages to young people, parents and practitioners in Northern Ireland
An exploration of e-safety messages to young people, parents and practitioners in Northern Ireland
An exploration of e-safety messages to young people, parents and practitioners in Northern Ireland
An exploration of e-safety messages to young people, parents and practitioners in Northern Ireland
An exploration of e-safety messages to young people, parents and practitioners in Northern Ireland
An exploration of e-safety messages to young people, parents and practitioners in Northern Ireland
An exploration of e-safety messages to young people, parents and practitioners in Northern Ireland
An exploration of e-safety messages to young people, parents and practitioners in Northern Ireland
An exploration of e-safety messages to young people, parents and practitioners in Northern Ireland
An exploration of e-safety messages to young people, parents and practitioners in Northern Ireland
An exploration of e-safety messages to young people, parents and practitioners in Northern Ireland
An exploration of e-safety messages to young people, parents and practitioners in Northern Ireland
An exploration of e-safety messages to young people, parents and practitioners in Northern Ireland
An exploration of e-safety messages to young people, parents and practitioners in Northern Ireland
An exploration of e-safety messages to young people, parents and practitioners in Northern Ireland
An exploration of e-safety messages to young people, parents and practitioners in Northern Ireland
An exploration of e-safety messages to young people, parents and practitioners in Northern Ireland
An exploration of e-safety messages to young people, parents and practitioners in Northern Ireland
An exploration of e-safety messages to young people, parents and practitioners in Northern Ireland
An exploration of e-safety messages to young people, parents and practitioners in Northern Ireland
An exploration of e-safety messages to young people, parents and practitioners in Northern Ireland
An exploration of e-safety messages to young people, parents and practitioners in Northern Ireland
An exploration of e-safety messages to young people, parents and practitioners in Northern Ireland
An exploration of e-safety messages to young people, parents and practitioners in Northern Ireland
An exploration of e-safety messages to young people, parents and practitioners in Northern Ireland
An exploration of e-safety messages to young people, parents and practitioners in Northern Ireland
An exploration of e-safety messages to young people, parents and practitioners in Northern Ireland
An exploration of e-safety messages to young people, parents and practitioners in Northern Ireland
An exploration of e-safety messages to young people, parents and practitioners in Northern Ireland
An exploration of e-safety messages to young people, parents and practitioners in Northern Ireland
An exploration of e-safety messages to young people, parents and practitioners in Northern Ireland
An exploration of e-safety messages to young people, parents and practitioners in Northern Ireland
An exploration of e-safety messages to young people, parents and practitioners in Northern Ireland
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An exploration of e-safety messages to young people, parents and practitioners in Northern Ireland

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Northern Ireland research reports highlights that one in five young people spend five hours or more on the internet every day, and call for better online protection to ensure a positive experience for all.

The report "An exploration of e-safety messages to young people, parents and practitioners in Northern Ireland" is published here for ease of access and you can find the PDF here http://bgn.bz/sbni on their site.

This report was published in conjunctions with Internet Safety Day 2014.

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Transcript of "An exploration of e-safety messages to young people, parents and practitioners in Northern Ireland"

  1. 1. es ety af e s s a g es m content contact conduct commercialism An exploration of e-safety messages to young people, parents and practitioners in Northern Ireland Prepared by the National Children’s Bureau Northern Ireland (NCB NI) on behalf of the Safeguarding Board for Northern Ireland (SBNI) Final Report – January 2014
  2. 2. Foreword The Safeguarding Board for Northern (SBNI) was set up in 2012 to co-ordinate and ensure that children and young people in NI are kept safe. Alongside the core business, two key issues were highlighted for strategic attention – Child Sexual Exploitation and e-safety. Publication of this report from the National Children’s Bureau Northern Ireland (NCB NI) marks the first stage in the Safeguarding Board’s work on the new and emerging concern of e-safety. The SBNI values engagement with young people and their e-safety concerns came through clearly in our consultation on the first SBNI strategic plan. Young people wanted on-line access to e-safety help and clear ways of reporting abuse. The focus group work with young people in this report illustrates the issues and risks faced by young people going online to find what e-safety advice they need. Information is easily accessible – but so is inappropriate content. Young people have also told us that they feel that parents have a key role in ensuring their children’s safety on the internet. It is interesting then that this report recalls that one parent likened looking for information on e-safety to looking up something the doctor tells you on the internet and being put off because “so much comes up when you do a search”. The extensive content of the report reflects the importance placed by many organisations on addressing issues such as internet and online safety, sexting, and cyberbullying for children and young people. The wide range of activity and initiatives identified in many ways reflects the risks involved. The report and recommendations highlight a clear need for strategic policy direction, leadership and co-ordination for e-safety in Northern Ireland. The SBNI accepts the recommendations and looks forward to working with everyone involved to make e-safety a reality. Sharon Beattie Director of Operations Safeguarding Board for Northern Ireland January 2014
  3. 3. Table of Contents 1. Executive Summary ............................................................................................ 3 2. Introduction ...................................................................................................... 11 3. Methodology .................................................................................................... 13 4. What is e-safety and what are the risks of etechnology? ...................................................................................................... 17 5. Who is doing what on e-safety in the UK and internationally? ................................................................................................ 25 6. Who is doing what on e-safety in Northern Ireland?....................................... 34 7. User perspective of online e-safety messages ................................................. 57 8. Summary of key findings, conclusions and recommendations ............................................................................................ 64 List of acronyms ........................................................................................................ 71 Bibliography .............................................................................................................. 74 Appendix A: Additional survey responses ................................................................ 76 Appendix B: Other UK wide organisations delivering esafety messages ............................................................................................... 77 Appendix C: Contact details of survey respondents ................................................ 79 Appendix D: Survey Instrument ............................................................................... 81 Appendix E: Survey responses –overview of organisations and their e-safety work ............................................................. 90 Appendix F: Survey responses – theme of e-safety messages .......................................................................................................... 99 Appendix G: NI4Kids – NCB article about e-safety research .......................................................................................................... 100 Appendix H: NI organisations with e-safety messages on their website .................................................................................................. 101 2
  4. 4. 1. Executive Summary Background In June 2013, The National Children’s Bureau (NCB NI) was commissioned by the Safeguarding Board for Northern Ireland (SBNI) to undertake a scoping study to explore current e-safety messages for children and young people, parents and practitioners in Northern Ireland. For most children and young people e-technology is part of everyday life and this has become even more apparent in the current research NCB NI is conducting on behalf of OFMDFM where findings show, for example, that four out of five young people (79%) go online everyday and in excess of one in five young people (22%) spend five hours or more online every day. Whilst the literature suggests that for most young people, going online is a positive experience, young people can also experience harm and can face harmful risks online. For example, research findings from the NSPCC (2013) show that one in five children had been the targets of cyber bullying in the last year and 10% of 11 to 16 year olds have been targeted by internet ‘trolls’. Given the extent of young people’s use of e-technology alongside these worrying statistics, e-safety is now becoming an increasingly important area of work and a priority of many organisations that work with children and young people. The overall aim of this study is to map existing messages on e-safety that are delivered to young people, parents/carers and practitioners in Northern Ireland. The specific objectives of this study are to: 1. Define e-safety and associated risks 2. Develop a profile of agencies delivering e-safety messages in the UK & Northern Ireland 3. Assess the nature, quality, access to and impact of e-safety messages in Northern Ireland 4. Make recommendations for improving e-safety messages in Northern Ireland Methodology The methodology comprised the following activities: A desk review to define e-safety and associated risks and to understand which organisations deliver e-safety messages in the UK and internationally; A survey of organisations working in the field of e-safety in Northern Ireland. The survey was open for completion for four weeks in July 2013 and resulted in 25 valid responses; and A focus group with young people and another with parents to get a user perspective on the availability and usefulness of e-safety messages online. 3
  5. 5. Key findings, conclusions and recommendations The remainder of this executive summary takes each of the study’s objectives, in turn, and summarises the key findings, conclusions and subsequent recommendations relating to each. Objective 1: Defining e-safety and associated risks This study found no common definition of e-safety in the current literature, NCB NI therefore created the following definition for use throughout this study: “E-safety or electronic safety is about utilising electronic devices or e-technologies in a safe and responsible way. It is mainly concerned with the safeguarding of children and young people in the digital world and educating them so they feel safe when accessing etechnologies.” [NCB NI definition] Young people’s extensive use of e-technologies leaves no doubt over the importance of e-safety and the need for young people, and those who care for or work with them, to be able to take appropriate preventative action to minimise the associated risks. These risks have been defined in various ways and are becoming more commonly categorised as follows: Content risks: The child or young person is exposed to harmful material; Contact risks: The child or young person participates in adult initiated online activity; Conduct risks: The child or young person is a perpetrator or victim in peer-to-peer exchange; Commercial risks: The child or young person is exposed to inappropriate commercial advertising, marketing schemes or hidden costs. Recommendations: 1. We recommend that SBNI considers using the above e-safety definition or adopting an agreed definition going forward and encourages others working in the field to do the same. 2. We recommend that when developing future e-safety messaging work in Northern Ireland, consideration is given to each of the four risk categories identified above. Objective 2: Developing a profile of agencies delivering e-safety messages in the UK & Northern Ireland The study indentified three key organisations that are leading the UK’s work on e-safety: UK Safer Internet Centre which has three overall functions: An awareness centre to promote safe, responsible use of the internet and mobile devices to young people; a helpline for professionals working with children and a hotline for reporting online criminal content. The Centre also hosts the annual public awareness campaign – Safer Internet Day. The Centre 4
  6. 6. comprises three organisations Childnet International, South West Grid for Learning (SWGfL) and the IWF (Internet Watch Foundation) CEOP (Child Exploitation and Online Protection Centre) is part of the UK policing structures and its key functions include tracking and bringing offenders to account either directly or in cooperation with local and international police forces, and working with children, parents/carers and practitioners to deliver the Thinkuknow internet safety programme UKCCIS (UK Council for Child Internet Safety) is the main umbrella organisation with a membership over 180 organisations across the government, industry, law enforcement, academia and charity sectors, that works in partnership to help keep children safe online. The Northern Ireland Minister for Health, Social Services and Public Safety (Edwin Poots MLA) sits on the Executive Board of UKCCIS. The impact of the above organisations’ work, specifically in the area of delivering e-safety messages, has been reported in a number of recent evaluations. The evaluation of Safer Internet Day 2013 found positive impacts on how children and young people behave online as well as on young people’s awareness and understanding of internet safety and information control. Similarly, an evaluation of CEOP’s Thinkuknow training programme found that young people are less likely to share information with strangers and are more likely to report online abuse as a result of taking part in the programme. This study found a wide range of organisations that are delivering e-safety work in Northern Ireland. The following paragraphs outline the key players identified, including a summary of their e-safety work: At Government level, there is no overarching policy which addresses e-safety. Much of the current work on e-safety is being led by OFMDFM. Some of the key activities of OFMDFM include: the current cross-departmental review on current and future actions in the field of e-safety to inform opportunities for a more coordinated approach across government management of the NI Direct website which provides advice and information on different aspects of e-safety for young people and parents local promotion of Internet Safety Day 2013 in collaboration with UK Safer Internet Centre. Prior to this, much of the concrete work delivered at government level on e-safety was in the form of guidance materials produced by the Department of Education for Northern Ireland (DE) and the Health and Social Care Board (HSCB). Across the statutory sector, the Western Health & Social Care Trust (WHSCT), C2K and the PSNI are leading the way on e-safety within their respective remits. 5
  7. 7. WHSCT has delivered and developed a range of e-safety resources for children, parents and practitioners and is currently progressing the development of an internet safety portal. They have also delivered the above mentioned CEOP Thinkuknow e-safety training to 160 practitioners. C2K provides e-safety support for all teachers in Northern Ireland. They have developed resources such as videos and DVD’s and editable PowerPoint presentations for teachers to use in lessons. They have also developed support documentation for schools to devise their own e-safety policies. C2K also held six E-Safety Live briefings in conjunction with UK Safer Internet Centre in March of this year (2013). The PSNI also delivers CEOP’s Thinkuknow internet safety programme to primary and postprimary schools throughout NI as part of their Citizen and Safety Education (CASE) programme. The PSNI’s C district is working with the Saltmine Trust and the Police and Community Safety Partnerships to deliver a drama workshop to all local primary schools on aspects of e-safety. In the voluntary and community sector, NSPCC has delivered substantial work in this sector. For example: - NSPCC has staff trained as CEOP ambassadors and also deliver the CEOP Thinkuknow introduction and Ambassador training to other organisations - NSPCC undertakes research in the area of e-safety (findings from which are quoted in this report) and have developed guidelines for social media and sample online safety and ICT policies - NSPCC delivers the Childline Schools Service in NI primary schools which looks at online safety and cyber bullying - NSPCC Northern Ireland also recently submitted a briefing paper on internet safety to the children’s spokespersons for a Northern Ireland Assembly debate on internet safety (referenced in the main findings section of this report) Other notable organisations operating in the field include NIABF (Northern Ireland Anti-Bullying Forum) and Beat the Cyber Bully, both of which have undertaken substantive work specifically in the area of cyberbullying. NIABF’s work focuses specifically on cyber bullying and includes the development of over 20 different teaching resources for primary, post-primary and special schools, information leaflets for parents and media campaigns. Beat the Cyber Bully’s work in the area includes; workshops with young people in schools and in youth and community groups; parents awareness evenings and workshops; an ebook on cyber bullying; an online blog; and a presentation of evidence to the Culture, Arts and Leisure Committee’s investigation into Safeguarding Children in Sport. 6
  8. 8. Recommendations: 3. We recommend that Northern Ireland capitalises fully on the extensive e-safety messaging work undertaken by the three leading organisations in the UK (UK Safer Internet Centre, CEOP and UKCCIS) and vice versa. Whilst some local organisations are already taking aspects of the work of the leading UK wide organisations forward, there is much more scope for this to be increased. Furthermore, given the extensive work carried out by NI’s key players, valuable learning from this should also be transferred to these UK wide organisations. As a basic starting point, it would be worthwhile exploring the following: - Does Northern Ireland have strong enough links with each of the above organisations in order that the sharing of effective practice takes place? - Is Safer Internet Day being fully exploited in Northern Ireland? - Are young people and practitioners both aware and making use of the various resources within the UK Safer Internet Centre – the awareness centre, helpline etc? 4. We recommend that Northern Ireland’s representation on UKCCIS, currently represented by the Department for Health, Social Services and Public Safety, be re-examined. E-safety is an issue that spans many government departments; therefore we feel it would be timely for an inter-departmental review of Northern Ireland’s representation on this important body. 5. We recommend that work begins on developing a policy framework and strategy for esafety in Northern Ireland. Objective 3: To assess the nature, quality, access to and impact of e-safety messages in Northern Ireland The nature of e-safety messages in Northern Ireland E-safety messages tend to be delivered in one of the four following ways: Resources to help educate children and young people, and those who care for and work with them, about e-safety (such as videos, leaflets, checklists, books, website information); Training materials to help professionals educate children and young people, and those who care for and work with them, about e-safety (such as handbooks, manuals, session plans); Training courses that are delivered in a variety of formats to children and young people and those who care for or work with them; and 7
  9. 9. Public awareness campaigns on e-safety to raise awareness and educate children and young people and those who work with and care for them (such as PR and advertising, press releases, TV and radio footage, print media etc). E-safety work in Northern Ireland targets children and young people, parents and practitioners on an almost equal level and much of it is delivered in partnership. The most common themes of e-safety messages in Northern Ireland are using mobile phones, cyber bullying, use of privacy and personal information, and ‘sexting’. Quality, access to and impact of e-safety messages in Northern Ireland Much of the work done locally on e-safety messaging is inaccessible in that it has a cost associated or it is not apparent on the websites of delivering organisations. This made an assessment of quality difficult. The only e-safety theme on which sufficient information exists to conduct a comparative analysis of quality is cyber bullying. Our assessment of cyber bullying messages delivered by a sample of 5 leading organisations found a high level of inconsistency in the number of messages delivered. Only four of the sixteen messages sampled were consistent across organisations’ websites or literature and some messages are advocated by only one of the organisations. This level of inconsistency raises two important issues: How reliable are the messages? (i.e. how accurate, up to date and appropriate are they?) How do children and young people, their parents and those working with them decide which messages to trust? To explore the issue of accessibility further, our focus groups with young people and parents found that: In the case of children and young people, accessing useful advice online is relatively easy provided that effective search terminology is used Children and young people run the risk of accessing inappropriate content when searching for advice on e-safety issues online Parents might not use the internet to access advice on e-safety issues and may instead contact organisations, such as NSPCC, which they know deal with e-safety issues The extent to which parents communicate with their children and discuss what is happening in their lives is of vital importance to both prevent an e-safety issue arising or to minimise the damage caused by an issue. 8
  10. 10. There have been no evaluations conducted to determine the impact of e-safety messaging work developed locally in Northern Ireland nor has there been any validation of some of the organisations delivering these messages. However, it is worthwhile noting that the evaluations of both Safer Internet Day and CEOP’s Thinuknow programme included Northern Ireland. For example, 23% of participating schools in the Thinkuknow evaluation were from Northern Ireland. Recommendations 6. We recommend that more strategic coordination of local e-safety work is undertaken to address the shortfalls identified in this study, namely to: - ensure greater accessibility of e-safety messages for children and young people, parents and practitioners; - improve consistency in the messaging; - understand the impact of messaging on children and young people, parents and practitioners; - ensure the visibility of Northern Ireland in the key UK e-safety organisations (UK Safer Internet Centre, UKCCIS and CEOP); and - inform and influence policy development on e-safety in Northern Ireland. 7. To achieve this level of strategic coordination we recommend the establishment of an esafety forum for Northern Ireland. The required level of strategic coordination will not be achieved by one organisation working alone. It will only be possible through effective collaboration across the local key players identified in this study and indeed the key UK wide organisations. There is a role for an independent organisation such as the SBNI to take the lead in developing this forum. Additional functions of such a forum could include: - promoting the voices of children and young people as valued participants in e-safety policy and practice; - influencing and supporting organisations in the development of effective e-safety policy and practice; - signpost practitioners, teachers and others working with children and young people to appropriate, useful and up to date e-safety messages; and - acting as the single point of contact which can direct children and young people, parents and professionals to required e-safety advice or resources. This should include the development of a comprehensive and user friendly website. 9
  11. 11. To summarise, our recommendations arising from this study are as follows: 1. We recommend that SBNI considers using the e-safety definition developed in this study or adopts an agreed definition going forward and encourages others working in the field to do the same. 2. We recommend that when developing future e-safety messaging work in Northern Ireland consideration is given to each of the four risk categories identified in this study. 3. We recommend that Northern Ireland capitalises fully on the extensive e-safety messaging work undertaken by the three leading organisations in the UK (UK Safer Internet Centre, CEOP and UKCCIS) and vice versa. 4. We recommend that Northern Ireland’s representation on UKCCIS, currently represented by the Department for Health, Social Services and Public Safety, be re-examined. E-safety is an issue that spans many government departments; therefore we feel it would be timely for an inter-departmental review of Northern Ireland’s representation on this important body. 5. We recommend that work begins on developing a policy framework and strategy for esafety in Northern Ireland. 6. We recommend that more strategic coordination of local e-safety work is undertaken to address the shortfalls identified in this study. 7. To achieve this level of strategic coordination we recommend the establishment of an esafety forum for Northern Ireland. 10
  12. 12. 2. Introduction Background The SBNI was established in 2012 following the publication of the Safeguarding Board Act (2011)1. The SBNI has replaced the Regional Child Protection Committee (RCPC) with an extended role to include the wider area of safeguarding as well as statutory child protection. The SBNI is made up of key partner organisations from the statutory, community and voluntary sectors. SBNI’s strategic mission is to work towards improving learning, enhancing practice and ensuring that children’s voices are at the centre of all that is done by the organisations and professionals who together make up the Child Protection System. By doing this, SBNI believe that the system will work in a more coordinated and effective way and year on year children will be better protected and kept safer. SBNI have set five strategic priorities for the period 2012-2017, namely: 1. To work in partnership to ensure children and young people are living in safety and with stability; 2. To protect and safeguard children by responding to new and emerging concerns; 3. To provide leadership and setting direction; 4. To drive improvements in the current child protection system; and 5. To build the capacity of the Safeguarding Board in the medium term. One of the objectives under Priority 2 above is that SBNI will: “...work with member agencies to develop a coordinated strategy and working model to help children at risk of: becoming criminalised through on-line activity; bullying through cyber activity, or sexually abused (through ‘sexting’ and on-line exploitation).” As an initial step towards fulfilling this objective, SBNI commissioned this research project to gather some evidence on the current state of play regarding e-safety messages in Northern Ireland, informed by literature on e-safety from both the UK and internationally. Aims and objectives In June 2013, NCB NI was commissioned by the Safeguarding Board for Northern Ireland (SBNI) to undertake a scoping study to explore current e-safety messages for children and young people, parents and practitioners in Northern Ireland. 1 http://www.legislation.gov.uk/nia/2011/7/contents/enacted 11
  13. 13. The overall aim of this study is to map existing messages on e-safety that are delivered to young people, parents/carers and practitioners in Northern Ireland. The specific objectives of this study are to: 1. Define e-safety and associated risks 2. Develop a profile of agencies delivering e-safety messages in the UK & Northern Ireland 3. Assess the nature, quality, access to and impact of e-safety messages in Northern Ireland 4. Make recommendations for improving e-safety messages in Northern Ireland 12
  14. 14. 3. Methodology Whilst the study methodology was originally intended to be a desk review, two issues became clear early on in the study: firstly, there is a lack of publically available information on e-safety messages in Northern Ireland and; secondly, there is so much information online about different aspects of esafety and associated risks it could prove challenging for a young person, parent or practitioner to access relevant e-safety messages. In order to fulfil the project’s objectives, the methodology was therefore extended to include: A survey of organisations working in the field of e-safety in Northern Ireland to understand the key players in the area of e-safety and the type of e-safety messages they are delivering. In addition, a series of follow-up phone calls/e-mails took place to fill any gaps identified; and A focus group with young people and another with parents to get a users’ perspective on the availability and usefulness of e-safety messages online. The paragraphs below provide more detail on the three main research methods used in the study, namely the desk review, survey of organisations and focus groups with parents and young people in NI. Desk review The desk review was conducted via an internet search using search terms that combined one or more of the following key words/phrases: Advice Children and young people Cyber bullying E-safety Internet safety Online safety Mobile phones Northern Ireland Northern Ireland Government Protecting children and young people Training courses Resources Risks Sexting Support United Kingdom United Kingdom Government 13
  15. 15. Literature was also sourced from key agencies/organisations known to work specifically in the field of e-safety, including: UKCCIS UK Safer Internet Centre CEOP EU Kids Online SBNI Survey of organisations in NI The survey of organisations was conducted via e-mail and ran for a period of four weeks in July 2013. The survey sought to gather information on the: Type of e-safety work being done by organisations; Target audience of e-safety work; and Nature and extent of partnership working in delivering e-safety work. The survey was sent to organisations on the following e-mail distribution lists: SBNI Board, Committee and Panel members (circa (c.) 30 members); NCB NI contact list2 (c. 80); Engage programme groups3 (c. 60); Youthnet members (c. 70); NIABF members (c. 25); and Child Care Research Forum (c.25). A press release promoting the survey was circulated on a range of NI wide publications including, Epipe (Youthnet’s e-newsletter); Northern Ireland Council for Voluntary Action’s (NICVA) enewsletter, and; NI4Kids (See appendix G for details of an article that NCB NI contributed to the most recent edition of this newsletter about the e-safety work we are carrying out on behalf of SBNI). The survey was also promoted using social media (through NCB NI’s Twitter and Facebook accounts) and was placed on the front page of NCB NI’s website. In total 31 survey responses were received, of which 25 were valid for inclusion in this report4. In terms of sector, 11 responses came from the voluntary and community sector; 10 statutory organisations responded, and four responses came from private sector organisations. 2 This includes youth organisations, children’s organisations, Health and Social Care Trust (HSCT) representatives, policy makers and Education and Library Board (ELB) representatives. 3 Engage is the programme delivered by NCB NI on behalf of the Big Lottery to support grantees of the Big Lottery’s Reaching Out Empowering Young People Programme. 4 In order to be included in the study, responding organisations needed to (i) be based in Northern Ireland; (ii) be currently delivering e-safety messages in NI, and; (III) have completed the survey in full. Responses from 6 organisations were not valid for inclusion in the study. Details of the organisations/entities whose responses were not included in the analysis contained in this paper can be found in Appendix A. 14
  16. 16. Focus groups with parents and young people One focus group was conducted with parents and another with young people in order to obtain a user’s perspective on e-safety messages available online. Whilst the focus group methodology is obviously not representative of both populations, the findings nevertheless provide a useful insight into how parents and young people might go about finding messages to address e-safety issues. The specific e-safety themes examined in the focus groups were cyber bullying5, sexting6, and offensive content. These themes were chosen as they have been identified by EU Kids Online as key areas of risk7 and interestingly two of them (cyber bullying and sexting) were found to be key areas of the safety work carried out by organisations that were surveyed as part of this study. Focus group with young people To test how easy or challenging it can be for young people to access appropriate advice and guidance about e-safety issues, a group of Young NCB NI8 members were invited to take part in a focus group that explored the above three e-safety themes. Specifically, for each scenario, young people were asked to put themselves in the position of the young person in the scenario and were given five minutes to: Type in an exact phrase or words into an internet search engine to search for advice/guidance relating directly to the issue in the scenario; Record the websites visited and make notes on the ease with which they could find advice/guidance on the particular issue; and Record any of the advice/guidance and its usefulness in terms of addressing the specific e-safety issue. Focus group with parents In total, five parents (all female) took part in the focus group and all were accessed through a local community group that runs support programmes for parents. The focus groups explored how they would use the internet to get e-safety advice looking specifically at two scenarios related to contemporary e-safety issues, namely, cyber bullying and sexting. Focus group participants were asked to put themselves in the position of a parent whose child is experiencing a particular e-safety issue and were given five minutes to undertake the same tasks as were given to the young people. 5 ‘Cyber bullying’ is bullying that takes place through new technologies, such as mobile phones and the internet (NIABF – What is cyber bullying?) 6 ‘Sexting’ is the exchange of sexual messages or images and creating, sharing and forwarding sexually suggestive nude or nearly nude images http://www.nspcc.org.uk/inform/resourcesforprofessionals/sexualabuse/sextingresearch_wda89260.html 7 Livingstone, S., Haddon, L., Görzig, A., & Ólafsson, K. (2011) Risks and safety on the internet: The perspective of European children. London: LSE. Available online at: http:// www2.cnrs.fr/sites/en/fichier/rapport_english.pdf 8 Young NCB NI is a group for young people aged 18 and under. Members have the opportunity to join projects where they influence what happens and get their voices heard on issues that matter to them. 15
  17. 17. Structure of this report The remaining chapters of this report are structured to reflect the findings in relation to each of the project’s objectives. As such: Chapter 4 defines e-safety and the risks relating to this; Chapter 5 examines the UK and international organisations and networks who are key players in the area of e-safety; Chapter 6 profiles the organisations involved in e-safety work in Northern Ireland and examines the nature, quality, access to and impact of e-safety messages delivered in Northern Ireland; Chapter 7 examines online e-safety messages from a user perspective; Chapter 8 concludes the study by summarising the key findings and making recommendations for improving e-safety messages in Northern Ireland. 16
  18. 18. 4. What is e-safety and what are the risks of etechnology? Using the findings from the desk review, this chapter of the report examines what is meant by the term e-safety and explores the various risks associated with e-technology. What is e-safety? The desk review did not identify any agreed definition of e-safety that is used by all organisations working in the area of e-safety. Many of the definitions uncovered were written either by individual schools or organisations in respect to their e-safety policies or were written in online articles from an individual or organisational perspective. Two notable and helpful definitions did emerge from the research as outlined below. The first definition is an all-encompassing definition, whilst the latter definition is restricted to e-safety solely within a school context. “[e-safety relates to] all fixed and mobile technologies that children may encounter, now and in the future, which allow them access to content and communications that could raise e-safety issues or pose risks to their wellbeing and safety9.”(British Educational Communications and Technology Agency (Becta), 2008) “e-safety may be described as the school’s ability to protect and educate pupils and staff in their use of technology and to have the appropriate mechanisms to intervene and support any incident where appropriate10.” (Office for Standards in Education (OFSTED), 2012) Taking a broader view, the term e-safety could also be seen to concern educating children and young people to use e-technologies safely and protecting them from harm that they may encounter while using e-technologies. Taking on board the various angles from which e-safety can be viewed, we suggest the following for this study of e-safety: “E-safety or electronic safety is about utilising electronic devices or e-technologies in a safe and responsible way. It is mainly concerned with the safeguarding of children and young people in the digital world and educating them so they feel safe when accessing e- technologies.” [NCB NI definition] The term internet safety and e-safety are often used interchangeably. However, the term internet safety implies that it is just about the internet and computers, whereas e-safety includes all devices which have an online connection such as mobile phones, games consoles, cameras and televisions. 9 Becta (2008) Safeguarding Children in a Digital World: Developing an LSCB e-safety strategy. Conventry: Becta. This document is available online at: http://www.cns-school.org/pdfs/BEC1-15535.pdf 10 Ofsted (2012) Inspecting e-safety: briefing for inspectors. London: Ofsted. 17
  19. 19. The Byron Review (2008)11, an independent review of the risks children face by the internet and video games, identified three strategic objectives for children’s safety on the internet, namely: reducing the availability of harmful and inappropriate material in the most popular part of the internet; restricting children’s access to harmful and inappropriate material; and building children’s resilience to the material to which they may be exposed so that they have the confidence and skills to navigate the online world more safely. This report has a focus on the third strategic objective which promotes e-safety from a digital citizenship perspective in that it looks at the messages that teach children and young people how to use e-technology appropriately and responsibly. The other objectives refer to the measures that have and continue to be put in place to protect children online such as e-safety strategies and policies and technical tools such as filters and parental controls (including the recent announcement by the UK Government that most households in the UK will have pornography automatically blocked by their internet provider unless they choose to receive it12.) Why is e-safety important? For most children and young people e-technology is part of everyday life and this has become even more apparent in the current research NCB NI is conducting on behalf of OFMDFM13 into young people’s access to and usage of computers (and other electronic devices) at home. The interim findings show that 96% of the 746 young people surveyed have access to a computer or laptop at home and 97% of young people have a broadband connection at home. In addition, four out of five young people (79%) go online everyday and in excess of one in five young people (22%) spend five hours or more online every day. Whilst the literature suggests that for most young people, going online is a positive experience14, young people can also experience harm and can face harmful risks online. To give some recent examples, research findings from the NSPCC15 in August 2013 show that one in five children had been the target of cyber bullying in the last year and 10% of 11 to 16 year olds have been targeted by internet ‘trolls’16. Other research undertaken by UKCCIS in 2012 shows that 11% of children have 11 Byron, T. (2008) Safer children in a digital world: The report of the Byron Review. DCSF: Nottingham. For more information, visit: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-23401076 13 NCB NI (Unpublished) Accessibility: Young People’s Home Computer and Internet Access Interim Report. Unpublished document. 14 Livingstone, S. & Haddon, L. (2012) Theoretical framework for children’s internet use in Livingstone, S., Haddon, L . & Görzig, A. (2012) Children, risk and safety on the internet: Research and policy challenges in comparative perspective. Bristol: Policy Press. 15 For more information see: http://www.theguardian.com/society/2013/aug/10/cyberbullies-target-children-nspccinternet-abuse-askfm 16 A troll is a person who sows discord on the Internet by starting arguments or upsetting people by posting inflammatory, extraneous, or off-topic messages in an online community (such as a forum, chat room, or blog), either accidentally or with the deliberate intent of provoking readers into an emotional response or of otherwise disrupting normal on-topic discussion. For more information on what the term means or implies see: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Troll_(Internet) 12 18
  20. 20. encountered sexual images online, and 40% of young people reported to know friends that had engaged in ‘sexting’. The review also comments on the risk of online grooming, excessive gaming, gambling, harmful user generated content and misuse of personal data17. The Police Service for Northern Ireland has also found that more online crimes are being reported. In September 2013 the PSNI revealed that reported crimes on social network sites Facebook and Twitter in Northern Ireland increased from 71 in 2010 to 2,100 in 201218. Given the extent of young people’s use of e-technology and the worrying statistics presented in the above paragraph, e-safety is now becoming an increasingly important area of work and a priority of many organisations that work with children and young people. What are the e-technology risks for children and young people? Our review of the available literature suggests that there are many classifications of e-technology risks that children and young people are exposed to whilst online. Many of these classification systems have a degree of overlap and similarity, we outline in detail two of these classification systems below – relating to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and EU Kids Online. Internationally, the OECD19 has developed its own classification system for e-technology risks. It draws and builds upon the classifications used by other national and international bodies/entities (e.g. US Internet Safety Technical Task Force (ISTTF) and EU Kids Online). A common theme of the classification systems examined by the OECD is that they all without exception distinguish between risks related to harmful content and those that relate to harmful interactions. The three broad categories of online risks for children as identified by OECD are illustrated in Figure 1 below. In summary, it identifies: Internet technology risks, when the Internet is the medium through which the child is exposed to content or where an interaction takes place; Consumer-related risks to children online, where the child is targeted as a consumer online; and Information privacy and security risks, which are risks every internet user faces but are a particular risk for. OECD note that there is an interplay between some risk categories, for example, the risk of exposure to commercial content inappropriate for children stemming from online marketing may be a commercial and a privacy risk. 17 UKCCIS Evidence Group (2012) Children’s online activities: Risks and safety, the UK evidence base. London: UKCCIS. Available online at: http://www.saferinternet.org.uk/downloads/Research_Highlights/UKCCIS_Report_2012.pdf 18 http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-northern-ireland-24194419 19 OECD (2011) The Protection of Children Online: Risks Faced by Children Online and Policies to Protect Them in OECD Digital Economy Papers, No. 179. Paris: OECD. Available online at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5kgcjf71pl28-en. 19
  21. 21. Figure 1: OECD categories of risk for children online 1. Information privacy and security risks Information privacy Personal data collected from children Over sharing Unforeseen/ long-term consequences Information security Malicious code; Commercial spyware; Online scams, and; Identify theft Content risks Illegal content; Harmful content; Harmful advice Contact risks: Cyber grooming; Online harassment; Illegal interaction; problematic content sharing Online risks for 2. Internet technology risks children Online marketing For child inappropriate or unsuitable products For illegal or age-restricted drugs HFSS food and drinks Overspending Fraudulent transactions Online fraud; Online scams, and; identify theft 3. Consumer related risks 1. Internet technology risks Source: OECD, 2011. The e-technology risk categories as defined by OECD are not widely used in the UK. A review of the literature, resources and information on e-safety in the UK found that the most common way to categorise potential areas of risk was through an adaptation of a classification developed by EU Kids Online20. This classification was included in the OECD review described above and was also examined as part of the Byron Review (2008). The EU Kids online classification system categorises potential e-technology risks for children and young people into three distinct areas, namely: Content risks: The child or young person is exposed to harmful material; Contact risks: The child or young person participates in adult initiated online activity; and Conduct risks: The child or young person is a perpetrator or victim in peer-to-peer exchange. 20 Hasebrink, U., Livingstone, S., Haddon, L., Kirwil, L., and Ponte, C. (2007) EU Kids Go Online: Comparing Children’s Online Activities and Risks across Europe. London: EU Kids Online. 20
  22. 22. EU Kids Online distinguish between content risks where the child is positioned as the recipient of, usually mass produced images or text, from contact risks in which the child participates perhaps unwillingly or unwittingly in some way in e-technology risks. Both of these differ from conduct risks where the child is an actor in a peer to peer context more or less intentionally. Each of these three risk areas has four sub categories: Aggressive, Sexual, Values and Commercial. The risk areas and sub categories are summarised in Table 1 overleaf. 21
  23. 23. Table 1: E-technology risks for children and young people (CYP) Aggressive Sexual Content risks: CYP exposed to: CYP exposed to: CYP is exposed to Violent content. Sexualised material which may cause harmful material. distress e.g. adult pornography. Hateful content. Unwelcome sexual content. Gory content. Illegal sexual material such as images of child abuse or extreme violence. Values CYP exposed to: Age inappropriate material. Bias, racist/hateful content. Inaccurate or misleading information. Websites which advocate unhealthy or dangerous behaviour e.g. proanorexia, pro-suicide sites. Commercial CYP exposed to: Adverts. Inappropriate commercial advertising. Spam. Sponsorship. Contact risks: CYP participates in adult initiated online activity. CYP is bullied, harassed or stalked by an adult. Accepting ‘friends’ who may not be who they say they are. They may also be people using the internet to threaten, intimidate or display bullying behaviour. CYP accepting ‘friends’ who may not be who they say they are they may, be sexual predators CYP meets adults strangers contacted online. CYP experiences online grooming (this is the process by which a child is socialised through social media and prepared for abuse). CYP experiences sexual abuse or exploitation from adults. CYP is encouraged to self-harm by adults. CYP is encouraged to get involved in unwelcome persuasions. CYP is encouraged to get involved in ideological persuasions e.g. far right groups. CYP discloses personal information i.e. names, ages, addresses, details of schools attended - including identifiable photos, or personal passwords. CYP activities online are tracked. CYP personal info is harvested. CYP is victim of a financial scam. Conduct risks: CYP is a perpetrator or victim in peer-topeer exchange or other harm that can arise from interactions online CYP experiencing or engaging in bullying or harassment with other CYP. Hostile peer activity. Can be anonymous e.g. flaming or trolling. Creating and uploading inappropriate or indecent material of themselves and/or other CYP. 21 Sexting . Sexual harassment from another CYP or to another CYP. Can be anonymous, e.g. flaming or trolling. CYP provides potentially harmful content or misleading information or advice to peers e.g. hate messages, anorexia/ bulimia sites, drug experiences and suicide sites. Can be anonymous, e.g. flaming or trolling. Reputational risk: posting inappropriate content online that may become public and permanent. Illegal downloading. Hacking. Gambling. Terrorism. Copyright infringement. Excessive engagement or addiction to online gaming. Source: Hasebrink et al, 2007 21 Sexting is when someone takes an indecent image of themselves, and sending it to their friends or boy/girlfriend via a mobile phone or some other form of technology. 22
  24. 24. Table 1 has been produced based on current research from EU Kids Online6. However, other documents consulted in the desk review have adapted the classification to make it more useful when explaining categories of risk to children and young people, parents and carers and practitioners. In these documents the sub-categories of aggressive, sexual and values are removed and the sub category ‘Commercial’ is viewed as a risk category in its own right. These documents refer to the 4 C’s of risk Content, Contact, Conduct and Commercialism. This is the case, for example, in the award winning Know IT All22 resources produced by Childnet International. Furthermore, The UK Safer Internet Centre use the 4 C’s of risk to look at specific areas of e-safety, for example, when providing advice to parents on smart phones, gaming devices and internet enabled devices they state how the 4C risks apply to each technology. This is how they explain the relevance of the 4C’s to smart phones: Content: age-inappropriate material can be available to children; Contact: potential contact from someone who may wish to bully or abuse them; Conduct: children may be at risk because of their own and others’ behaviour; and Commercialism: young people can be unaware of hidden costs and advertising. 22 http://www.childnet.com/ufiles/cn_parentleafletV2.pdf 23
  25. 25. Summary There is no common definition of e-safety at present. Analysis of existing phrases and terms used leads us to suggest the following definition: “E-safety or electronic safety is about utilising electronic devices or e-technologies in a safe and responsible way. It is mainly concerned with the safeguarding of children and young people in the digital world and educating them so they feel safe when accessing e- technologies.” [NCB NI definition] E-safety encompasses all fixed and mobile technologies that children and young people may encounter and includes all devices which have an online connection such as mobile phones, games consoles, cameras and televisions. The term internet safety implies it is just about the internet and computers. This report looks at e-safety from a digital citizenship perspective, i.e. it looks at the messages that aim to educate children and young people how to behave appropriately and responsibly online. E-safety is becoming increasingly important as e-technology is now an everyday part of the lives of children and young people. NCB NI’s most recent research regarding access to ICT has found that almost all children and young people now have access to a computer at home with an internet connection. Moreover, four out of five young people go online everyday and more than one fifth spend more than five hours online every day. Whilst going online is largely a positive experience for young people, as e-technology develops and young people’s usage of it increases, so too do the risks they face. Very recent research carried out by NSPCC found that one in five children had been targets of cyber bullying in the last year and 10% of 11-16 year olds had been targeted by internet ‘trolls’. Numerous organisations have developed classifications of the online risks faced by children and young people. The most common classifications used in the UK stem from work carried out by EU Kids Online which identified the following three risk categories: - Content risks: The child or young person is exposed to harmful material; - Contact risks: The child or young person participates in adult initiated online activity; and - Conduct risks: The child or young person is a perpetrator or victim in peer-to-peer exchange More recently, other notable organisations such as The UK Safer Internet Centre, have added ‘Commercialism’ as a fourth category and much of the e-safety literature in the UK refers to the 4C’s of e-safety, content, contact, conduct and commercialism. 24
  26. 26. 5. Who is doing what on e-safety in the UK and internationally? The chapter describes some of the key organisations and networks both in the UK and internationally which have an e-safety remit. The roles of these organisations vary from providing representation and advocating for e-safety, delivering e-safety resources and/or training right through to enforcement of the law. An overview of these organisations/networks is provided below, highlighting the relationships that exist between them. Overview of Key UK and International organisations/networks working to keep children and young people safe online There are a significant number of organisations and networks operating in the area of e-safety both internationally and in the UK. Figure 2 provides an overview of the key e-safety organisations/networks identified in this study that work to keep everyone, but particularly children and young people, safe online. It also illustrates the relationships, both formal and informal, that exist between these organisations/networks. Figure 2: An overview of key UK and international/networks working in e-safety International networks EU Kids Online UK e-safety organisations UK Safer Internet Centre UKCCIS Virtual Global Taskforce [Global] Insafe [30 safer Internet Awareness Centres: EU + Iceland, Norway and Russia] Chairs • Edward Timpson MP • Damian Green MP • Ed Vaizey MP Executive Board •BBFC •Blackberry • BT • CEOP • CHIS • Facebook •FOSI • IWF • LSE • Northern Ireland Executive • NSPCC • Ofcom •Parentzone • UK Safer Internet Centre • Samsung • Scottish Executive • TalkTalk • Tesco • The Marie Collins Foundation •UKIE • Welsh Assembly Southwest Grid for Learning (SWGfL) Childnet Internet Watch Foundation (IWF) Wider membership Inhope c. 180 members in total • CEOP Serious Organised Crime Agency (SOCA) Key The organisation is a member of another organisation The organisation provides information/intelligence to another organisation The organisations are affiliated and provide information/intelligence in both directions Source: Various 25
  27. 27. While none of these organisations have a base in Northern Ireland, in many cases Northern Ireland appears somewhere on their landscape i.e. some of the organisations have a representative from Northern Ireland on their board, some are currently delivering e-safety messages in Northern Ireland and some work in partnership with organisations based in Northern Ireland. The paragraphs below provide further details on each of the organisations and networks illustrated in Figure 2 above23. E-safety international networks The following points summarise the role of key international networks and the work that they do in the area of e-safety. EU Kids Online: Located in the UK, this 33-country thematic network aims to stimulate and coordinate investigation into children's online uses, activities, risks and safety. It employs multiple methods to map European children's and parents' changing experience of the internet. It also sustains an active dialogue with national and European policy stakeholders. The Virtual Global Taskforce (VGT) seeks to build an effective, international partnership of law enforcement agencies, non-government organisations and industry to help protect children from online child abuse. The UK is represented on the VGT by the Child Exploitation and Online Protection (CEOP) centre (a multi-agency service dedicated to tackling the exploitation of children). Insafe is a European network that includes 30 national Safer Internet Awareness centres in EU member states and in Iceland, Norway and Russia. In the UK, this is the UK Safer Internet Centre (described below). In the Republic of Ireland, The National Centre for Technology in Education (NCTE), part of the Department of Education and Skills, acts as technical coordinator for the Safer Internet Awareness centre. Every national centre implements awareness and educational campaigns, runs a helpline, and works closely with children and young people to ensure an evidence-based, multi-stakeholder approach to creating a better online environment. Safer Internet Day24 (SID) has been organised by Insafe in February of each year since 2004 to promote safer and more responsible use of online technology and mobile phones. In the UK, SID is coordinated by the UK Safer Internet Centre. In 2009, the concept of Safer Internet Day Committees was introduced to strengthen the bonds with countries outside the Insafe network and invest in a harmonised promotion of the campaign across the world. There are around 70 committees working closely with the Insafe coordination team, which is based in Brussels. Safer Internet Day 2013 was supported in Northern Ireland by OFMDFM. Junior Minister Bell visited two schools, Ballyclare High school and Fairview Integrated Primary School to raise awareness of the issue to primary and post-primary schools. In addition Junior Minister McCann 23 24 Appendix A provides details of other notable UK organisations identified in this study that work in the area of e-safety. http://www.saferinternetday.org 26
  28. 28. addressed the Assembly debate on child internet safety on Safer Internet Day (5 February 2013) in response to a motion put forward by Sandra Overend, Member of Legislative Assembly (MLA)25. Inhope is the international association of internet hotlines. It coordinates a network of internet hotlines all over the world and is co-funded and supported by the European Commission Safer Internet Programme. When the Internet Watch Foundation (IWF – see below for more details) in the UK traces criminal content being hosted abroad, they pass that intelligence to the relevant Inhope hotline or law enforcement agency in that country so the website can be investigated by the relevant national law enforcement authorities and then removed (if appropriate). Key UK e-safety organisations and networks UK Council for Child Internet Safety (UKCCIS) is a group of over 180 organisations across the government, industry, law enforcement, academia and charity sectors, that work in partnership to help keep children safe online. The board of UKCCIS is chaired by government ministers. At present, Northern Ireland is represented on the UKCCIS by the Minister of the Department of Health, Social Services and Public Safety (DHSSPS), Edwin Poots, MLA, and members of his senior management team. UKCCIS work includes: — Development of a family friendly internet code of practice drawn up by service providers following a consultation about parental internet controls; — Provision of advice to industry providers on the use of effective internet safety messages26; — General provision of advice and guidance to industry providers on social networking27, moderation28, search29 and chat30; and — Development of the UKCCIS research evidence group which summarises key research on children and the internet. The group is hosted by the UK Safer Internet Centre. — Development of the first UK Child Internet Strategy Click Clever Click Safe (2009 -2011)31 The work of UKCCIS is informed by the reviews of Professor Tanya Byron in 200832 and 201033 on safer children in a digital world and Reg Bailey on the commercialisation and sexualisation of 25 http://www.niassembly.gov.uk/Assembly-Business/Official-Report/Reports-12-13/05-February-2013/#2 UKCCIS (2012) Advice on child internet safety 1.0: Universal guidelines for providers. London: UKCCIS. 27 UKCCIS (2010) Good practice guidance for the providers of social networking and other user-interactive services. London: UKCCIS. 28 UKCCIS (2010) Good practice guidance for the moderation of interactive services for children. London: UKCCIS. 29 UKCCIS (2010) Good practice guidance for the providers of search. London: UKCCIS. 30 UKCCIS (2010) Good practice guidance for the providers of chat services, instant messaging (IM) and internet connectivity content and hosting. London: UKCCIS. 31 http://dera.ioe.ac.uk/10648/1/click-clever_click-safe.pdf 32 Byron, T (2008) Safer Children in a Digital World: The report of the Byron Review. Nottingham: Department for Children, Schools and Families (DCSF). 33 Byron, T (2010) Do we have safer children in a digital world? A review of progress since the 2008 Byron Review. Nottingham: DCSF. 26 27
  29. 29. children in 201134. It is also informed by a large body of evidence on e-safety which includes the work of Professor Sonia Livingstone, who directs the aforementioned EU Kids Online network. The UK Safer Internet Centre is coordinated by a partnership of three organisations, namely Childnet International, South West Grid for Learning (SWGfL) and the IWF. It is co-funded by the European Commission and has three overall e-safety functions as described below: — An awareness centre: in the UK this is the Insafe Awareness Centre. Insafe (described above) is a European network of awareness centres promoting safe, responsible use of the internet and mobile devices to young people; — A helpline: The UK Safer Internet Centre (see below) operates an e-safety helpline for professionals working with children in the UK. They also host Safetynet, a mailing list for anyone who wants to discuss and share information to support the development of e-safety good practice within educational organisations; and — A hotline: through the IWF (see below) the UK Safer Internet Centre operates the UK’s hotline for reporting online criminal content. In addition to the above, the UK Safer Internet Centre also engages in a range of other notable e-safety activities and events. For example, the UK Safer Internet Centre has: — Hosted the Safer Internet Day in the UK (see section on Insafe above); — Developed new educational and awareness raising resources for children, parents/carers and teachers to meet emerging trends in the fast-changing online environment, for example, they developed Online Safety Guidance for Ask.fm35. The guidance explains what Ask.fm is and gives a step by step guide on how to turn off anonymous posts and report inappropriate content; — Developed self-assessment tools with SWGfL for schools and other settings to evaluate their e-safety provision, including policy development; — Hosted the UKCCIS Evidence Group’s Research Highlight series, which summarises key research on children and the internet36; — Facilitated youth panels to give young people a voice on e-safety issues; — Contributed to and commissioned academic research into children’s media use37; — Developed the UK Safer Internet Centre website as a hub for information and advice, to reflect the range of work taking place across the UK; and — Delivered education sessions on e-safety to children, parents/carers and teachers in schools and other educational settings across England. In March of this year (2013) the UK Safer 34 Bailey R (2011) Letting Children be Children: Report of an Independent Review of the Commercialisation and Sexualisation. Nottingham: Department for Education. 35 http://www.saferinternet.org.uk/ufiles/ASK-FM-Online-Safety-Guidance-(Updated-Oct-2013).pdf 36 http://www.saferinternet.org.uk/research 37 This includes the recent Safer Internet Centre (2013) Have your say – young peoples’ perspectives about online rights and responsibilities. This can be accessed online at: http://www.saferinternet.org.uk/downloads/Safer_Internet_Day/2013/Have_your_Say_survey_-_Full_Report.pdf 28
  30. 30. Internet Centre, in conjunction with C2K, held six E-Safety Live briefings in Northern Ireland38. The E-Safety Live briefings are two-hour sessions (no cost to participants) about a broad range of online safety subjects which provide participants with updates on emerging e-safety issues. Participants are also given access to an online resource area with links to all the materials referenced. The sessions are primarily aimed at senior leaders in organisations and those with a safeguarding responsibility but are open to anyone working with children and young people. A description of each of the three delivery agents that comprise the UK Safer Internet Centre is contained in Table 2 below. Table 2: UK Safer Internet Centre delivery organisations Organisation Description SWGfL The SWGfL is a not-for-profit, charitable trust company, funded by 15 local authorities across the South West of England. SWGfL is one of three partner organisations of the UK Safer Internet Centre and offers internet services for schools; provides teaching and learning resources on e-safety, and; provides e-safety training to teachers and other professionals. Examples of specific esafety services that SWGfL offers include: — E-safety Boost: E-safety Boost is an online safety toolkit that can be used to safeguard schools39; — 360 degree: 360 degree is a safe online self-review tool for schools that is free of charge40; and — Online Compass: Online Compass is simple tool that shows people what they need to do to make technology safer for the young people in their group41. IWF The IWF is the UK Hotline for reporting criminal online content. It is one of three partners of the UK Safer Internet Centre and it works in partnership with the online industry, law enforcement, government, and international partners to minimise the availability of harmful content, specifically: child sexual abuse images hosted anywhere in the world; criminally obscene adult content hosted in the UK, and; non-photographic child sexual abuse images hosted in the UK. Childnet The IWF supplies intelligence regarding child sexual abuse websites to the CEOP Centre (see below for more details). When IWF traces criminal content being hosted abroad, they pass that intelligence to the relevant Inhope Hotline or law enforcement agency in that country so the website can be investigated by the relevant national law enforcement authorities and then removed (if appropriate) Childnet International works in partnership with others around the world to 38 http://www.esafetylive.com/ http://boost.swgfl.org.uk 40 http://www.360safe.org.uk 41 http://www.onlinecompass.org.uk 39 29
  31. 31. Organisation Description International help make the internet a safe place for children. It works directly with children and young people from the ages of 3 to 18 to find out about their experiences online; including the positive activities they are taking part in as well as sharing e-safety advice. Childnet International also works directly with parents/carers, teachers and other professionals to find out about their experiences online. The organisation produced the award-winning Know IT All suite of educational resources for children and young people, parents/carers, teachers and other professionals and also responds to policy issues on e-safety for children and young people. Childnet International hosts a number of e-safety websites including: — Kidsmart42: Kidsmart is a practical internet safety programme website for schools, young people, parents/carers and other agencies. It provides resources including lesson plans, leaflets, posters, activity days and interactive games. — Digizen43: Digizen provides information for educators, parents/carers, and young people to strengthen their awareness and understanding of what digital citizenship is and encourages users of technology to be/become responsible DIGItal citiZENS. It shares specific advice and resources on issues such as social networking and cyber bullying and how these relate to, and affect, their own and other people's online experiences and behaviours. — Chatdanger44: Chatdanger is a website that outlines the potential dangers of using interactive services online like chat and Instant Messenger (IM). — Sorted45 is a website that highlights some of the measures that can be taken to help users to maintain the security of their personal information and computer system. CEOP: The CEOP Centre delivers a multi-agency service dedicated to tackling the exploitation of children. It is part of UK policing (and has an affiliation with the Serious Organised Crime Agency, SOCA). CEOP is also a member agency of Virtual Global Taskforce (discussed above). Key functions of CEOP include: tracking and bringing offenders to account either directly or in cooperation with local and international police forces, and; working with children, parents/carers and practitioners to deliver the Thinkuknow internet safety programme. 42 http://www.kidsmart.org.uk http://www.digizen.org 44 http://www.chatdanger.com 45 http://www.childnet.com/sorted/index.aspx 43 30
  32. 32. Thinkuknow is CEOP’s internet safety programme for children between the ages of 8 to 16, teachers and practitioners and for parents and carers. The programme includes films, leaflets, posters, the Thinkuknow website and a training pack for all child protection professionals in the UK. The website includes games, a cybercafé, information on emerging technology, chatting, gaming and blogging, and ultimately how to report anything that they think is suspicious. The PSNI deliver Thinkuknow as part of their Citizen and Safety Education (CASE) programme. This programme is delivered to schools upon request to PSNI. Thinkuknow deliver two different training courses across the UK (including Northern Ireland)46 for those who work directly with children and young people; the Thinkuknow Introduction course, and the Ambassador course. Participants in the Ambassador course are provided with the materials to train fellow professionals to deliver the Thinkuknow education programme to children and young people. CEOP has a help and advice centre and anyone who is concerned about a child’s safety online can report it through this centre. CEOP also actively encourages all organisations that have an online presence where children and young people congregate to adopt the CEOP ‘Report Abuse’ button. Impact of e-safety messaging in the UK Two of the key UK organisations delivering e-safety messages, the UK Safer Internet Centre and CEOP have conducted evaluations to determine the impact of their work. The following paragraphs summarise key findings from their evaluations that look specifically at the impact of their e-safety messaging work. Safer Internet Day 2013: Campaign Evaluation47 Safer Internet Day in the UK is coordinated by UK Safer Internet Centre. The key findings of an evaluation of the reach and impact of Safer Internet Day 2013 are as follows: - - In total, 23% of children, 13% of teenagers and 4% of adults that had heard about the Safer Internet Day campaign said they were now more aware of internet safety. The largest effect was on girls who were now 10% more aware of internet safety than boys. - 47 Of those who were aware of Safer Internet Day, two-fifths said they would change their behaviour online as a result of the campaign. This includes 42% of children, 44% of teenagers and 40% of adults. - 46 56% of children, 37% of teenagers and 42% of adults said they would talk to someone in their family about using the internet safely after finding out about Safer Internet Day. Teenagers who were aware of Safer Internet Day showed a greater understanding of information control. https://www.thinkuknow.co.uk/teachers/training/ http://www.saferinternet.org.uk/downloads/Research_Highlights/UKCCIS_RH51_Safer_Internet_Day_Evaluation.pdf 31
  33. 33. - Adults concern about internet safety was relatively unchanged from before and after the campaign. Evaluation of CEOP’s Thinkuknow Education Programme48 Key findings from the evaluation of CEOP Thinkuknow Education Programme were as follows: - Young people who have had Thinkuknow training were more likely to say they would report abuse online via CEOP or ChildLine. - 48 Young people who have had some safety advice in the past two years are slightly less likely to share personal details with strangers. One quarter (24%) of children who received Thinkuknow training self-reported that the training had made them significantly more careful online and 45% self-reported that the training had made them moderately more careful online. Overall, 69% of children who had received Thinkuknow training reported that the training had made them more careful online. http://www.saferinternet.org.uk/downloads/Research_Highlights/UKCCIS_RH_2_Think_U_Know_Evaluation.pdf 32
  34. 34. Summary There are three key organisations leading the UK’s work on e-safety: - UKCCIS (UK Council for Child Internet Safety) - the main umbrella organisation with a membership over 180 organisations across the government, industry, law enforcement, academia and charity sectors, who work in partnership to help keep children safe online. The Northern Ireland Minister for Health, Social Services and Public Safety (Edwin Poots MLA) sits on the Executive Board of UKCCIS. - UK Safer Internet Centre which has three overall functions: An awareness centre to promote safe, responsible use of the internet and mobile devices to young people; a helpline for professionals working with children and a hotline for reporting online criminal content. The Centre also hosts the annual public awareness campaign – Safer Internet Day. The Centre comprises three organisations Childnet International, South West Grid for Learning (SWGfL) and the IWF (Internet Watch Foundation) - CEOP (Child Exploitation and Online Protection Centre) is part of the UK policing structures and its key functions include: tracking and bringing offenders to account either directly or in cooperation with local and international police forces, and; working with children, parents/carers and practitioners to deliver the Thinkuknow internet safety programme The evaluations of Internet Safety Day 2013 and the CEOP Thinkuknow education programme have shown that e-safety messages have an impact on how children and young people behave online. The Internet Safety Day evaluation showed that the campaign resulted in young people having a greater understanding of internet safety and information control. Similarly the CEOP evaluation found that young people would be less likely to share information with strangers after taking part in the programme and it also showed that young people would be more likely to report online abuse. 33
  35. 35. 6. Who is doing what on e-safety in Northern Ireland? The chapter profiles the organisations involved in e-safety work in Northern Ireland and examines the nature, quality, access to and impact of e-safety messages delivered in Northern Ireland. It begins by providing an overview of the current policy and practice context for e-safety in Northern Ireland and then goes on to: Provide an overview of organisations delivering e-safety messages; Assess the nature and target audience of e-safety messages; Explore the extent of partnership working in delivering e-safety messages; Analyse the e-safety messages on survey respondents’ websites; Assess the quality of e-safety messaging using cyber bullying as a case study; and Present the key players in Northern Ireland’s e-safety arena. E-safety policy and practice context At present, there is no overarching policy or strategy which addresses e-safety for children and young people per se and there is also no explicit reference to e-safety in OFMDFM’s Ten Year Strategy for Children and Young People49. It is, however, mentioned in a Cross-departmental statement on the protection of children and young people by the Northern Ireland Executive (OFMDFM 2009). The statement contains a section (see paragraphs 3.21–3.30, under ‘Safeguarding across jurisdictions’) on ‘Safeguarding in the online world’50. This statement refers to the extent to which young people use the internet, and highlights the significant role to be played by the CEOP in policing the virtual environment and producing a set of resources guiding children and adults in the safe use of the internet. Moreover, OFMDFM is currently undertaking a cross-departmental review on child e-safety. The purpose of the review is to identify current and proposed future actions which Departments intend to take to support child e-safety. The review will also inform opportunities for a more coordinated approach across government. The findings are currently under consideration. Most of the concrete work of statutory organisations to date in the area of e-safety has been in the form of guidance materials produced by Department of Education for Northern Ireland (DE) and the Health and Social Care Board (HSCB). For example, in 2007, DE released a circular on the acceptable use of the internet and digital technologies in schools. This was updated in 2011 and provided 49 OFMDFM (2006) Our Children and Young People – Our Pledge A Ten Year Strategy For Children And Young People In Northern Ireland 2006 – 2016. Available online at: http://www.ofmdfmni.gov.uk/ten-year-strategy.pdf 50 OFMDFM (2009) Safeguarding Children – A cross-departmental statement on the protection of children and young people by the Northern Ireland Executive. Belfast: OFMDFM. 34
  36. 36. advice and guidance on arrangements for preventing the accessing of inappropriate material on the internet, the use of materials from blocked websites, and the provision of information to parents51. In 2005, the HSCB produced regional policies and procedures under the former Area Child Protection Committees (now replaced by SBNI). Part of these policies looked at the risks posed by developments in communications technology52. In terms of the NI curriculum, there is a statutory requirement for children and young people to be taught about e-safety in school. E-safety is integrated across the curriculum for pupils in Key Stage 1 and Key Stage 2. It states in the curriculum that 'Pupils should demonstrate, when and where appropriate, knowledge and understanding of e-safety including acceptable online behaviour’53. Overview of organisations delivering e-safety messages in Northern Ireland The remainder of this chapter draws largely upon the findings of the survey undertaken as part of this study to explore current e-safety messages for children and young people, parents and practitioners. The survey was conducted via email and was open for four weeks in July 2013. It was promoted widely through email distribution lists, NI publications and social media. It yielded 25 valid responses with a good spread from across the statutory, voluntary and community and private sectors. In terms of the statutory sector, the 10 organisations that responded were as follows: OFMDFM; Three (of the five) Health and Social Care Trusts (HSCTs); Two (of the five) Education and Library Boards (ELBs) – these responses came from Welfare and Child Protection Support Service for Schools (CPSSS) teams; Two (of the eight) Police Service of Northern Ireland (PSNI) districts54; One of Belfast’s four District Policing and Community Safety Partnerships (DPCSP)55; and C2K, which is managed by the Western Education and Library Board (WELB) on behalf of the other education and library boards and the Department of Education. In total, 11 voluntary and community sector organisations responded to the survey including: Autism Northern Ireland; British Association for Adoption and Fostering (BAAF); 51 Department of Education (2007) Acceptable use of the internet and digital technologies in schools. Available online at: http://www.deni.gov.uk/22-acceptable_use_of_the_internet_de_circular.pdf DE (2011) Internet safety [Circular]. Available online at: http://www.deni.gov.uk/circular_internet_safety.pdf 52 Area Child Protection Committee (2005) Regional Policy and procedures. Available online at: http://www.dhsspsni.gov.uk/acpcregionalstrategy.pdf 53 http://www.nicurriculum.org.uk/key_stages_1_and_2/skills_and_capabilities/uict/planning_for_assessment/eSafety.asp 54 Whilst an overall response from the PSNI was received, the survey was incomplete and therefore not valid for inclusion in this report. 55 There are 26 Policing and Community Safety Partnerships (PCSP), one for each Council area. Belfast has one PCSP and four District Policing and Community Safety Partnerships (DPCSPs) covering the North, South, East and West area commands within the city. 35
  37. 37. Barnardo's Safe Choices Project; Beam Creative network; Cookstown and Dungannon’s Women's Aid; Mencap‘s Livenet Project; Nexus NI; NIABF; Northern Ireland Association for the Care and Resettlement of Offenders (NIACRO); NSPCC; and Voice of Young People in Care (VOYPIC). The organisations are quite varied in nature with many whose remit includes services for adults as well as children and young people and others who provide services to specific groups of young people. Seven of the voluntary sector organisations provide services to people that the UKCCIS evidence group found may be more vulnerable to certain online risks 56. More specifically: Two provide services to people with learning difficulties (Autism NI and Mencap); Two help those who have suffered sexual violence (Nexus and Barnardo’s Safe Choices); Two work with people who have been separated from their birth parents (VOYPIC and BAAF); and One provides services to women and children affected by domestic violence (Cookstown and Dungannon Women’s Aid). Similarly, the focus of all of NSPCC’s work is vulnerable children and NIACRO work with young people who are at risk of or who have a criminal background. There are other organisations in the voluntary sector that specialise in certain aspects of e-safety work, for example, NIABF focus much of their work on cyber bullying. In terms of the four UK wide charities – namely BAAF, NSPCC, Barnardo’s and Mencap - responses were submitted from their NI offices and therefore represented their work on e-safety specifically in NI. Four private sector organisations responded to the survey, including: Beat the Cyber Bully; No Bullying; Cyber safety Advice; and 56 UKCCIS (2012) Children’s Online Activities: Risks and Safety, The UK Evidence Base. London: UKCCIS. Available online at: http://www.saferinternet.org.uk/downloads/Research_Highlights/UKCCIS_Report_2012.pdf 36
  38. 38. X-Ray data. In terms of the above organisations’ specific work on e-safety: X-Ray Data and No Bullying are subsidiaries of a parent company called Treze. Each of the subsidiaries focus on different aspects of e-safety with X-Ray Data focusing on the use of technology to help keep children and young people safe online whereas No Bullying provides information on e-safety to teachers, parents and children. Beat The Cyber Bully is a project founded by Wayne Denner, a youth motivational speaker on digital and social media. Cyber Safety Advice is a project of an IT consultancy company, PC Clean. It has developed three workshops for parents, teachers and children respectively on aspects of e-safety. The nature and target audience of e-safety messages being delivered The desk research aspect of this study identified four main methods of delivering e-safety messages: Resources to help educate children and young people, and those who care for and work with them, about e-safety (such as videos, leaflets, checklists, books, website information). Training materials to help professionals educate children and young people, and those who care for and work with them, about e-safety (such as handbooks, manuals, session plans). Training courses that are delivered in a variety of formats to children and young people and those who care for or work with them. Public awareness campaigns on e-safety to raise awareness and educate children and young people and those who work with and care for them (such as PR and advertising, press releases, TV and radio footage, print media etc). In the survey, organisations were asked to indicate: which of the above methods they use to deliver their e-safety work; the specific e-safety themes covered under each method; and the target audience of each method. 37
  39. 39. Table 3 provides a breakdown of the methods used by organisations that responded to the survey. Table 3: Breakdown of methods used to deliver e-safety work Sector Total e-safety messages number Resources Training of survey materials responses Voluntary and 11 7 3 community sector Statutory sector 10 6 2 Training courses 11 Public Awareness Campaigns 4 8 4 Private sector 4 4 3 2 3 Total 25 17 8 21 11 Source: NCB NI e-safety survey, 2013. Table 3 above shows that, on the whole, the vast majority of organisations across all sectors deliver e-safety messages using a variety of the four methods identified. Training courses Training courses were the most common type of delivery method, with over four-fifths (21 out of 25) of responding organisations reporting that they had used this method. Six of the organisations (PSNI C-district, PSNI E district, WHSCT, Mencap’s Livenet Project, NIACRO and NSPCC) reported having staff trained as CEOP ambassadors. CEOP Ambassadors are qualified to deliver the Thinkuknow education programme to children and young people and to train fellow professionals to deliver the Thinkuknow education programme. In addition, NSPCC provide CEOP Thinkuknow and CEOP Ambassador training to other organisations in Northern Ireland. In the majority of cases (16 of the 21 organisations), the training courses are solely dedicated to esafety with the remaining organisations delivering e-safety modules as part of a wider course. In terms of themes, the most common areas of e-safety covered in the courses are use of mobile phones; sexting; cyber bullying; privacy and personal information, online reputation and keeping information secure online. The majority of the organisations reported delivering training courses in a typical workshop or presentation style format. However, two of the organisations (Beam Creative Network and PSNI C District, in association with Saltmine Trust) reported delivering the training using drama plays. 38
  40. 40. Table 4 below provides an overview of the target audience of e-safety training courses delivered by organisations. Table 4: Target audience of e-safety training courses [21 organisations] Target group No. of courses Primary school children Post primary school children Children with SEN Parents and carers Teachers Other professionals and practitioners 8 10 4 9 7 10 Source: NCB NI e-safety survey, 2013. Table 4 above shows that training courses exist for the range of audiences, including children with special educational needs, with no gaps identified for any particular audience. Resources Resources were the next most commonly used method for delivering e-safety messages. Table 5 overleaf shows that almost three-quarters (18 out of 25) of organisations reporting having developed their own resources. Resource types varied and included online safety games; comic books; eBooks; leaflets; videos; pens; guidance on aspects of e-safety and information on websites. In terms of themes, the most common e-safety themes covered by resources were safer social networking; cyber bullying; privacy and personal information and use of mobile phones. Examples of some of the themed resources include: ‘Social Networking and You’57 (BAAF) Advice on social networking for people separated from their birth parents ‘What is Cyber Bullying?’58 (NIABF) A leaflet on cyber bullying for parents and carers; ‘How to Beat the Cyber Bully’59 (Beat the Cyber Bully) EBook on cyber bullying for parents and educators; and ‘GAA Social Media Policy and Guidelines’60 (NSPCC with Gaelic Athletic Association). 57 http://www.baaf.org.uk/bookshop/book_snay http://niabf.org.uk/images/stories/cyber_bullying_leaflet_2011.pdf 59 http://beatthecyberbully.com/ 60 http://www.gaa.ie/content/documents/publications/digital_media/Social_Media_Policies_Guidelines_2012_Final.pdf 58 39
  41. 41. Table 5: Target audience of e-safety resources [18 organisations] Target group No. of resources Primary school children Post primary school children Children with SEN Parents and carers Teachers Other professionals and practitioners 10 13 9 12 12 11 Source: NCB NI e-safety survey, 2013. Table 5 above shows that resources exist for the range of audiences including, for example, children with SEN. Our analysis reveals that there are no gaps for any of the particular groups. Some examples of resources targeted at particular audiences are as follows: Mencap’s Livenet project developed an e-safety comic book for young people with a learning disability61; South Belfast DPCSP have produced a pen with e-safety messages for young people; and C2K has developed videos and DVDs to support professional development of teachers. Public awareness messages Nearly one-half (11 out of 25) of respondents stated that their organisation had delivered public awareness campaigns on e-safety in the last 12 months. The format of campaigns varied and included, for example, press releases and premium PR (Public Relations) marketing. For example: OFMDFM issued a press release to promote Internet Safer Day 2013; WHSCT issued press releases publicising e-safety conferences; No Bullying used premium marketing from PR web to issue a press release daily for 12 months on anti-bullying; In terms of themes, the most common e-safety themes covered by public awareness messages were cyber bullying, use of mobile phones, sexting, online grooming and privacy and personal information. Some of the themed public awareness messages include: 61 http://www.livenet.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/esafety-comic.pdf 40
  42. 42. Media campaign on understanding the cyber playground, which had a focus on how cyber bullying is still bullying (NIABF); Feature on UTV live tonight on impact of online pornography (Beat the Cyber Bully); and Articles in local press about e-safety, cyber bullying, online gaming and social networking (PSNI C District). The respondents were asked to report on the target audience for their public awareness messages. The findings can be seen in Table 6. Table 6: Target audience of public awareness messages [11 organisations] No. of public Target group messages Primary school children Post primary school children Children with SEN Parents and carers Teachers Other professionals and practitioners awareness 4 7 3 10 7 6 Source: NCB NI e-safety survey, 2013. Most of the organisations’ public awareness campaigns were targeted at parents (10 out of 11). A high number were also targeted at post primary school aged children (7 out of 11) with a lesser number targeted at primary school aged children (4 out of 11). Training materials Developing training materials was the least common method reported of delivering e-safety messages. Almost one-third (8 out of 25) of the responding organisations reported that they had developed training materials and in most cases these had been developed for others to use in training children, young people, practitioners and teachers on e-safety. For example, NIABF and C2K have produced lesson plans for teachers to use in school to educate pupils about different aspects of e-safety, for example, cyber bullying. NIABF plans are available to schools and organisations that register for Anti-Bullying week each year, while C2K lesson plans are available to all teachers in Northern Ireland through C2K services for schools. The most common e-safety themes covered by training materials were sexting, cyber bullying, online grooming, safer social networking and use of mobile phones. Respondents were asked to report the target audience for their e-safety training materials and this is illustrated in Table 7. 41
  43. 43. Table 7: Target audience of e-safety training materials [8 organisations] No. of e-safety Target group materials Primary school children Post-primary school children Children with SEN Parents and carers Teachers Other professionals and practitioners training 4 5 2 5 6 4 Source: NCB NI e-safety survey, 2013 Table 7 above shows that training materials exist for the range of audiences with no gaps for any audience. Most training materials have been developed for teachers with 6 out of 8 organisations developing materials for them. C2k, No Bullying, X Ray Data and NIABF all described the lesson plans they have developed for teachers. It is clear from the findings above that there are many organisations delivering a range of e-safety content in Northern Ireland. Appendix E provides more detailed information on each of the organisations, including the e-safety messages used and examples of some of their key work in the area of e-safety. Partnership working in delivering e-safety messages The survey also explored the levels of partnership working that exist across organisations delivering e-safety messages in Northern Ireland. On the whole, the majority of organisations (21 out of 25) reported working in partnership to some degree. Interestingly, when respondents were asked to identify the organisations that they work in partnership with, many respondents reported working with the large UK-wide bodies discussed in the initial sections of this chapter. For example: Six organisations work alongside CEOP to deliver the Thinkuknow training and a few other organisations reported working with CEOP to develop resources and training materials (including PSNI C-district, PSNI E-district, WHSCT, Mencap’s Livenet Project, NIACRO and NSPCC). Three organisations (C2K, BHSCT (Belfast Health and Social Care Trust) and OFMDFM) also reported working with the UK Safer Internet Centre to develop their e-safety content. The survey also identified various levels of partnership working in Northern Ireland, including: 42
  44. 44. Mencap’s Livenet project which is a joint initiative between Mencap, Citizens Online, The Chartered Institute for IT and British Computer Society. NIABF which is a membership organisation and as such all of its work, including that on e-safety, is developed with the members. The PSNI - who were reported as working with many organisations including the various DCPSPs, the Saltmine Trust, and the various Health & Social Care Trusts The Western Health & Social Care Trust – who have worked with the PSNI, Nexus NI and the Western Education & Library Board. Other examples of partnership working tended to involve two or, at most, three organisations working together on specific projects. Survey respondents from private sector organisations also reported working in partnership, however they did not identify the specific organisations or individuals with whom they work. E-safety messaging – an analysis of survey respondents’ websites To assess the e-safety messages that exist in NI in greater detail, we undertook a search of the websites of organisations that responded to the survey. Overall, the key findings51 from this exercise are that: Only half of the organisations (13 out of 25) had messages about e-safety on their websites that could be easily accessed (i.e. that had no cost attached and was easy to locate on the website). The organisations are as follows:- BAAF - Barnardo’s Safe Choices - Beat the Cyber Bully - C2K - Cyber Safety Advice - Mencap’s Livenet - NIABF - No Bullying - NSPCC NI - OFMDFM’s main website and through their managed website NI Direct - PSNI’s main website and also through their UrZone website - Western Health and Social Care Trust (WHSCT) - X Ray data Only eight organisations had information about the e-safety training they offer on their websites, this is despite 21 organisations stating in the survey that they offer training courses. 43
  45. 45. The greatest amount of information on e-safety was found on the NI Direct website. NI Direct is the official Government website for Northern Ireland citizens. It aims to make it easier for NI Citizens to access government information and services. It is managed by the Executive Information Service of OFMDFM. The website provides a wide range of e-safety messages targeted at both parents and young people including information on cyber bullying; downloading and illegal file sharing; internet terms and language; online gaming; mobile phones and identity fraud. They also have a downloadable poster and leaflet promoting the Click Clever, Click Safe campaign. In addition, they provide signposting to a wide range of Northern Ireland and UK websites for more information. The main OFMDFM site refers very briefly to e-safety. It is in reference to ‘Sophie Safe’ one of the Super Six characters that was developed by OFMDFM to help translate the 10 Year Children’s Strategy to younger readers. OFMDFM also signpost to other organisations in the UK and NI for more information. The main PSNI website contains general tips on keeping safe online and information for parents on parental controls and where to keep a computer. They also have a site for young people ‘UrZone’. This site provides information to young people on how to keep safe online, phishing, chatroom safety, viruses, trojans and software – both PSNI sites signpost to other NI and UK organisations working in the area of e-safety. Interestingly, the main PSNI website provides advice that parents should keep their children’s computers in a family room so they can monitor what their children are doing online. According to UKCCIS, this advice is now viewed as outdated as young people access the internet from so many other e-technologies such as mobile phones and tablet computers.62 The e-safety training they offer could only be found through press releases on their website that promoted the internet safety talks that they have delivered in schools. Nonetheless, we know from the previous sections that the PSNI deliver CEOP’s Thinkuknow internet safety programme to primary and post primary schools throughout NI as part of their Citizen and Safety Education (CASE) programme. BAAF, NSPCC and Barnardo's do not refer in great detail to e-safety in the NI sections of their websites; however e-safety is covered on their main websites. Barnardo’s have general information for parents and young people on how to keep safe online and more specific information on sexual exploitation. BAAF’s content focuses on advice for people who have been separated from their birth families making contact online. NSPCC’s main website provides very detailed information on different aspects of e-safety for parents, young people and practitioners. This includes general information for parents on keeping their children safe online and more specific information on sexting, bullying and sexual exploitation. They have guidance and resources for schools and teachers and safeguarding information for all people that work with children and young people. They refer children and young people to their Childline website for advice which can be tailored to their needs. The e-safety training offered by NSPCC and BAAF is found through their main websites. 62 UKCCIS Evidence Group (2012) Children’s Online Activities: Risks and Safety, The UK Evidence Base. London: UKCCIS. Available online at: http://www.saferinternet.org.uk/downloads/Research_Highlights/UKCCIS_Report_2012.pdf 44

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