An exploration of e-safety messages to young people, parents and practitioners in Northern Ireland
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An exploration of e-safety messages to young people, parents and practitioners in Northern Ireland

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Northern Ireland research reports highlights that one in five young people spend five hours or more on the internet every day, and call for better online protection to ensure a positive experience for ...

Northern Ireland research reports highlights that one in five young people spend five hours or more on the internet every day, and call for better online protection to ensure a positive experience for all.

The report "An exploration of e-safety messages to young people, parents and practitioners in Northern Ireland" is published here for ease of access and you can find the PDF here http://bgn.bz/sbni on their site.

This report was published in conjunctions with Internet Safety Day 2014.

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An exploration of e-safety messages to young people, parents and practitioners in Northern Ireland Document Transcript

  • 1. es ety af e s s a g es m content contact conduct commercialism An exploration of e-safety messages to young people, parents and practitioners in Northern Ireland Prepared by the National Children’s Bureau Northern Ireland (NCB NI) on behalf of the Safeguarding Board for Northern Ireland (SBNI) Final Report – January 2014
  • 2. Foreword The Safeguarding Board for Northern (SBNI) was set up in 2012 to co-ordinate and ensure that children and young people in NI are kept safe. Alongside the core business, two key issues were highlighted for strategic attention – Child Sexual Exploitation and e-safety. Publication of this report from the National Children’s Bureau Northern Ireland (NCB NI) marks the first stage in the Safeguarding Board’s work on the new and emerging concern of e-safety. The SBNI values engagement with young people and their e-safety concerns came through clearly in our consultation on the first SBNI strategic plan. Young people wanted on-line access to e-safety help and clear ways of reporting abuse. The focus group work with young people in this report illustrates the issues and risks faced by young people going online to find what e-safety advice they need. Information is easily accessible – but so is inappropriate content. Young people have also told us that they feel that parents have a key role in ensuring their children’s safety on the internet. It is interesting then that this report recalls that one parent likened looking for information on e-safety to looking up something the doctor tells you on the internet and being put off because “so much comes up when you do a search”. The extensive content of the report reflects the importance placed by many organisations on addressing issues such as internet and online safety, sexting, and cyberbullying for children and young people. The wide range of activity and initiatives identified in many ways reflects the risks involved. The report and recommendations highlight a clear need for strategic policy direction, leadership and co-ordination for e-safety in Northern Ireland. The SBNI accepts the recommendations and looks forward to working with everyone involved to make e-safety a reality. Sharon Beattie Director of Operations Safeguarding Board for Northern Ireland January 2014
  • 3. Table of Contents 1. Executive Summary ............................................................................................ 3 2. Introduction ...................................................................................................... 11 3. Methodology .................................................................................................... 13 4. What is e-safety and what are the risks of etechnology? ...................................................................................................... 17 5. Who is doing what on e-safety in the UK and internationally? ................................................................................................ 25 6. Who is doing what on e-safety in Northern Ireland?....................................... 34 7. User perspective of online e-safety messages ................................................. 57 8. Summary of key findings, conclusions and recommendations ............................................................................................ 64 List of acronyms ........................................................................................................ 71 Bibliography .............................................................................................................. 74 Appendix A: Additional survey responses ................................................................ 76 Appendix B: Other UK wide organisations delivering esafety messages ............................................................................................... 77 Appendix C: Contact details of survey respondents ................................................ 79 Appendix D: Survey Instrument ............................................................................... 81 Appendix E: Survey responses –overview of organisations and their e-safety work ............................................................. 90 Appendix F: Survey responses – theme of e-safety messages .......................................................................................................... 99 Appendix G: NI4Kids – NCB article about e-safety research .......................................................................................................... 100 Appendix H: NI organisations with e-safety messages on their website .................................................................................................. 101 2
  • 4. 1. Executive Summary Background In June 2013, The National Children’s Bureau (NCB NI) was commissioned by the Safeguarding Board for Northern Ireland (SBNI) to undertake a scoping study to explore current e-safety messages for children and young people, parents and practitioners in Northern Ireland. For most children and young people e-technology is part of everyday life and this has become even more apparent in the current research NCB NI is conducting on behalf of OFMDFM where findings show, for example, that four out of five young people (79%) go online everyday and in excess of one in five young people (22%) spend five hours or more online every day. Whilst the literature suggests that for most young people, going online is a positive experience, young people can also experience harm and can face harmful risks online. For example, research findings from the NSPCC (2013) show that one in five children had been the targets of cyber bullying in the last year and 10% of 11 to 16 year olds have been targeted by internet ‘trolls’. Given the extent of young people’s use of e-technology alongside these worrying statistics, e-safety is now becoming an increasingly important area of work and a priority of many organisations that work with children and young people. The overall aim of this study is to map existing messages on e-safety that are delivered to young people, parents/carers and practitioners in Northern Ireland. The specific objectives of this study are to: 1. Define e-safety and associated risks 2. Develop a profile of agencies delivering e-safety messages in the UK & Northern Ireland 3. Assess the nature, quality, access to and impact of e-safety messages in Northern Ireland 4. Make recommendations for improving e-safety messages in Northern Ireland Methodology The methodology comprised the following activities: A desk review to define e-safety and associated risks and to understand which organisations deliver e-safety messages in the UK and internationally; A survey of organisations working in the field of e-safety in Northern Ireland. The survey was open for completion for four weeks in July 2013 and resulted in 25 valid responses; and A focus group with young people and another with parents to get a user perspective on the availability and usefulness of e-safety messages online. 3
  • 5. Key findings, conclusions and recommendations The remainder of this executive summary takes each of the study’s objectives, in turn, and summarises the key findings, conclusions and subsequent recommendations relating to each. Objective 1: Defining e-safety and associated risks This study found no common definition of e-safety in the current literature, NCB NI therefore created the following definition for use throughout this study: “E-safety or electronic safety is about utilising electronic devices or e-technologies in a safe and responsible way. It is mainly concerned with the safeguarding of children and young people in the digital world and educating them so they feel safe when accessing etechnologies.” [NCB NI definition] Young people’s extensive use of e-technologies leaves no doubt over the importance of e-safety and the need for young people, and those who care for or work with them, to be able to take appropriate preventative action to minimise the associated risks. These risks have been defined in various ways and are becoming more commonly categorised as follows: Content risks: The child or young person is exposed to harmful material; Contact risks: The child or young person participates in adult initiated online activity; Conduct risks: The child or young person is a perpetrator or victim in peer-to-peer exchange; Commercial risks: The child or young person is exposed to inappropriate commercial advertising, marketing schemes or hidden costs. Recommendations: 1. We recommend that SBNI considers using the above e-safety definition or adopting an agreed definition going forward and encourages others working in the field to do the same. 2. We recommend that when developing future e-safety messaging work in Northern Ireland, consideration is given to each of the four risk categories identified above. Objective 2: Developing a profile of agencies delivering e-safety messages in the UK & Northern Ireland The study indentified three key organisations that are leading the UK’s work on e-safety: UK Safer Internet Centre which has three overall functions: An awareness centre to promote safe, responsible use of the internet and mobile devices to young people; a helpline for professionals working with children and a hotline for reporting online criminal content. The Centre also hosts the annual public awareness campaign – Safer Internet Day. The Centre 4
  • 6. comprises three organisations Childnet International, South West Grid for Learning (SWGfL) and the IWF (Internet Watch Foundation) CEOP (Child Exploitation and Online Protection Centre) is part of the UK policing structures and its key functions include tracking and bringing offenders to account either directly or in cooperation with local and international police forces, and working with children, parents/carers and practitioners to deliver the Thinkuknow internet safety programme UKCCIS (UK Council for Child Internet Safety) is the main umbrella organisation with a membership over 180 organisations across the government, industry, law enforcement, academia and charity sectors, that works in partnership to help keep children safe online. The Northern Ireland Minister for Health, Social Services and Public Safety (Edwin Poots MLA) sits on the Executive Board of UKCCIS. The impact of the above organisations’ work, specifically in the area of delivering e-safety messages, has been reported in a number of recent evaluations. The evaluation of Safer Internet Day 2013 found positive impacts on how children and young people behave online as well as on young people’s awareness and understanding of internet safety and information control. Similarly, an evaluation of CEOP’s Thinkuknow training programme found that young people are less likely to share information with strangers and are more likely to report online abuse as a result of taking part in the programme. This study found a wide range of organisations that are delivering e-safety work in Northern Ireland. The following paragraphs outline the key players identified, including a summary of their e-safety work: At Government level, there is no overarching policy which addresses e-safety. Much of the current work on e-safety is being led by OFMDFM. Some of the key activities of OFMDFM include: the current cross-departmental review on current and future actions in the field of e-safety to inform opportunities for a more coordinated approach across government management of the NI Direct website which provides advice and information on different aspects of e-safety for young people and parents local promotion of Internet Safety Day 2013 in collaboration with UK Safer Internet Centre. Prior to this, much of the concrete work delivered at government level on e-safety was in the form of guidance materials produced by the Department of Education for Northern Ireland (DE) and the Health and Social Care Board (HSCB). Across the statutory sector, the Western Health & Social Care Trust (WHSCT), C2K and the PSNI are leading the way on e-safety within their respective remits. 5
  • 7. WHSCT has delivered and developed a range of e-safety resources for children, parents and practitioners and is currently progressing the development of an internet safety portal. They have also delivered the above mentioned CEOP Thinkuknow e-safety training to 160 practitioners. C2K provides e-safety support for all teachers in Northern Ireland. They have developed resources such as videos and DVD’s and editable PowerPoint presentations for teachers to use in lessons. They have also developed support documentation for schools to devise their own e-safety policies. C2K also held six E-Safety Live briefings in conjunction with UK Safer Internet Centre in March of this year (2013). The PSNI also delivers CEOP’s Thinkuknow internet safety programme to primary and postprimary schools throughout NI as part of their Citizen and Safety Education (CASE) programme. The PSNI’s C district is working with the Saltmine Trust and the Police and Community Safety Partnerships to deliver a drama workshop to all local primary schools on aspects of e-safety. In the voluntary and community sector, NSPCC has delivered substantial work in this sector. For example: - NSPCC has staff trained as CEOP ambassadors and also deliver the CEOP Thinkuknow introduction and Ambassador training to other organisations - NSPCC undertakes research in the area of e-safety (findings from which are quoted in this report) and have developed guidelines for social media and sample online safety and ICT policies - NSPCC delivers the Childline Schools Service in NI primary schools which looks at online safety and cyber bullying - NSPCC Northern Ireland also recently submitted a briefing paper on internet safety to the children’s spokespersons for a Northern Ireland Assembly debate on internet safety (referenced in the main findings section of this report) Other notable organisations operating in the field include NIABF (Northern Ireland Anti-Bullying Forum) and Beat the Cyber Bully, both of which have undertaken substantive work specifically in the area of cyberbullying. NIABF’s work focuses specifically on cyber bullying and includes the development of over 20 different teaching resources for primary, post-primary and special schools, information leaflets for parents and media campaigns. Beat the Cyber Bully’s work in the area includes; workshops with young people in schools and in youth and community groups; parents awareness evenings and workshops; an ebook on cyber bullying; an online blog; and a presentation of evidence to the Culture, Arts and Leisure Committee’s investigation into Safeguarding Children in Sport. 6
  • 8. Recommendations: 3. We recommend that Northern Ireland capitalises fully on the extensive e-safety messaging work undertaken by the three leading organisations in the UK (UK Safer Internet Centre, CEOP and UKCCIS) and vice versa. Whilst some local organisations are already taking aspects of the work of the leading UK wide organisations forward, there is much more scope for this to be increased. Furthermore, given the extensive work carried out by NI’s key players, valuable learning from this should also be transferred to these UK wide organisations. As a basic starting point, it would be worthwhile exploring the following: - Does Northern Ireland have strong enough links with each of the above organisations in order that the sharing of effective practice takes place? - Is Safer Internet Day being fully exploited in Northern Ireland? - Are young people and practitioners both aware and making use of the various resources within the UK Safer Internet Centre – the awareness centre, helpline etc? 4. We recommend that Northern Ireland’s representation on UKCCIS, currently represented by the Department for Health, Social Services and Public Safety, be re-examined. E-safety is an issue that spans many government departments; therefore we feel it would be timely for an inter-departmental review of Northern Ireland’s representation on this important body. 5. We recommend that work begins on developing a policy framework and strategy for esafety in Northern Ireland. Objective 3: To assess the nature, quality, access to and impact of e-safety messages in Northern Ireland The nature of e-safety messages in Northern Ireland E-safety messages tend to be delivered in one of the four following ways: Resources to help educate children and young people, and those who care for and work with them, about e-safety (such as videos, leaflets, checklists, books, website information); Training materials to help professionals educate children and young people, and those who care for and work with them, about e-safety (such as handbooks, manuals, session plans); Training courses that are delivered in a variety of formats to children and young people and those who care for or work with them; and 7
  • 9. Public awareness campaigns on e-safety to raise awareness and educate children and young people and those who work with and care for them (such as PR and advertising, press releases, TV and radio footage, print media etc). E-safety work in Northern Ireland targets children and young people, parents and practitioners on an almost equal level and much of it is delivered in partnership. The most common themes of e-safety messages in Northern Ireland are using mobile phones, cyber bullying, use of privacy and personal information, and ‘sexting’. Quality, access to and impact of e-safety messages in Northern Ireland Much of the work done locally on e-safety messaging is inaccessible in that it has a cost associated or it is not apparent on the websites of delivering organisations. This made an assessment of quality difficult. The only e-safety theme on which sufficient information exists to conduct a comparative analysis of quality is cyber bullying. Our assessment of cyber bullying messages delivered by a sample of 5 leading organisations found a high level of inconsistency in the number of messages delivered. Only four of the sixteen messages sampled were consistent across organisations’ websites or literature and some messages are advocated by only one of the organisations. This level of inconsistency raises two important issues: How reliable are the messages? (i.e. how accurate, up to date and appropriate are they?) How do children and young people, their parents and those working with them decide which messages to trust? To explore the issue of accessibility further, our focus groups with young people and parents found that: In the case of children and young people, accessing useful advice online is relatively easy provided that effective search terminology is used Children and young people run the risk of accessing inappropriate content when searching for advice on e-safety issues online Parents might not use the internet to access advice on e-safety issues and may instead contact organisations, such as NSPCC, which they know deal with e-safety issues The extent to which parents communicate with their children and discuss what is happening in their lives is of vital importance to both prevent an e-safety issue arising or to minimise the damage caused by an issue. 8
  • 10. There have been no evaluations conducted to determine the impact of e-safety messaging work developed locally in Northern Ireland nor has there been any validation of some of the organisations delivering these messages. However, it is worthwhile noting that the evaluations of both Safer Internet Day and CEOP’s Thinuknow programme included Northern Ireland. For example, 23% of participating schools in the Thinkuknow evaluation were from Northern Ireland. Recommendations 6. We recommend that more strategic coordination of local e-safety work is undertaken to address the shortfalls identified in this study, namely to: - ensure greater accessibility of e-safety messages for children and young people, parents and practitioners; - improve consistency in the messaging; - understand the impact of messaging on children and young people, parents and practitioners; - ensure the visibility of Northern Ireland in the key UK e-safety organisations (UK Safer Internet Centre, UKCCIS and CEOP); and - inform and influence policy development on e-safety in Northern Ireland. 7. To achieve this level of strategic coordination we recommend the establishment of an esafety forum for Northern Ireland. The required level of strategic coordination will not be achieved by one organisation working alone. It will only be possible through effective collaboration across the local key players identified in this study and indeed the key UK wide organisations. There is a role for an independent organisation such as the SBNI to take the lead in developing this forum. Additional functions of such a forum could include: - promoting the voices of children and young people as valued participants in e-safety policy and practice; - influencing and supporting organisations in the development of effective e-safety policy and practice; - signpost practitioners, teachers and others working with children and young people to appropriate, useful and up to date e-safety messages; and - acting as the single point of contact which can direct children and young people, parents and professionals to required e-safety advice or resources. This should include the development of a comprehensive and user friendly website. 9
  • 11. To summarise, our recommendations arising from this study are as follows: 1. We recommend that SBNI considers using the e-safety definition developed in this study or adopts an agreed definition going forward and encourages others working in the field to do the same. 2. We recommend that when developing future e-safety messaging work in Northern Ireland consideration is given to each of the four risk categories identified in this study. 3. We recommend that Northern Ireland capitalises fully on the extensive e-safety messaging work undertaken by the three leading organisations in the UK (UK Safer Internet Centre, CEOP and UKCCIS) and vice versa. 4. We recommend that Northern Ireland’s representation on UKCCIS, currently represented by the Department for Health, Social Services and Public Safety, be re-examined. E-safety is an issue that spans many government departments; therefore we feel it would be timely for an inter-departmental review of Northern Ireland’s representation on this important body. 5. We recommend that work begins on developing a policy framework and strategy for esafety in Northern Ireland. 6. We recommend that more strategic coordination of local e-safety work is undertaken to address the shortfalls identified in this study. 7. To achieve this level of strategic coordination we recommend the establishment of an esafety forum for Northern Ireland. 10
  • 12. 2. Introduction Background The SBNI was established in 2012 following the publication of the Safeguarding Board Act (2011)1. The SBNI has replaced the Regional Child Protection Committee (RCPC) with an extended role to include the wider area of safeguarding as well as statutory child protection. The SBNI is made up of key partner organisations from the statutory, community and voluntary sectors. SBNI’s strategic mission is to work towards improving learning, enhancing practice and ensuring that children’s voices are at the centre of all that is done by the organisations and professionals who together make up the Child Protection System. By doing this, SBNI believe that the system will work in a more coordinated and effective way and year on year children will be better protected and kept safer. SBNI have set five strategic priorities for the period 2012-2017, namely: 1. To work in partnership to ensure children and young people are living in safety and with stability; 2. To protect and safeguard children by responding to new and emerging concerns; 3. To provide leadership and setting direction; 4. To drive improvements in the current child protection system; and 5. To build the capacity of the Safeguarding Board in the medium term. One of the objectives under Priority 2 above is that SBNI will: “...work with member agencies to develop a coordinated strategy and working model to help children at risk of: becoming criminalised through on-line activity; bullying through cyber activity, or sexually abused (through ‘sexting’ and on-line exploitation).” As an initial step towards fulfilling this objective, SBNI commissioned this research project to gather some evidence on the current state of play regarding e-safety messages in Northern Ireland, informed by literature on e-safety from both the UK and internationally. Aims and objectives In June 2013, NCB NI was commissioned by the Safeguarding Board for Northern Ireland (SBNI) to undertake a scoping study to explore current e-safety messages for children and young people, parents and practitioners in Northern Ireland. 1 http://www.legislation.gov.uk/nia/2011/7/contents/enacted 11
  • 13. The overall aim of this study is to map existing messages on e-safety that are delivered to young people, parents/carers and practitioners in Northern Ireland. The specific objectives of this study are to: 1. Define e-safety and associated risks 2. Develop a profile of agencies delivering e-safety messages in the UK & Northern Ireland 3. Assess the nature, quality, access to and impact of e-safety messages in Northern Ireland 4. Make recommendations for improving e-safety messages in Northern Ireland 12
  • 14. 3. Methodology Whilst the study methodology was originally intended to be a desk review, two issues became clear early on in the study: firstly, there is a lack of publically available information on e-safety messages in Northern Ireland and; secondly, there is so much information online about different aspects of esafety and associated risks it could prove challenging for a young person, parent or practitioner to access relevant e-safety messages. In order to fulfil the project’s objectives, the methodology was therefore extended to include: A survey of organisations working in the field of e-safety in Northern Ireland to understand the key players in the area of e-safety and the type of e-safety messages they are delivering. In addition, a series of follow-up phone calls/e-mails took place to fill any gaps identified; and A focus group with young people and another with parents to get a users’ perspective on the availability and usefulness of e-safety messages online. The paragraphs below provide more detail on the three main research methods used in the study, namely the desk review, survey of organisations and focus groups with parents and young people in NI. Desk review The desk review was conducted via an internet search using search terms that combined one or more of the following key words/phrases: Advice Children and young people Cyber bullying E-safety Internet safety Online safety Mobile phones Northern Ireland Northern Ireland Government Protecting children and young people Training courses Resources Risks Sexting Support United Kingdom United Kingdom Government 13
  • 15. Literature was also sourced from key agencies/organisations known to work specifically in the field of e-safety, including: UKCCIS UK Safer Internet Centre CEOP EU Kids Online SBNI Survey of organisations in NI The survey of organisations was conducted via e-mail and ran for a period of four weeks in July 2013. The survey sought to gather information on the: Type of e-safety work being done by organisations; Target audience of e-safety work; and Nature and extent of partnership working in delivering e-safety work. The survey was sent to organisations on the following e-mail distribution lists: SBNI Board, Committee and Panel members (circa (c.) 30 members); NCB NI contact list2 (c. 80); Engage programme groups3 (c. 60); Youthnet members (c. 70); NIABF members (c. 25); and Child Care Research Forum (c.25). A press release promoting the survey was circulated on a range of NI wide publications including, Epipe (Youthnet’s e-newsletter); Northern Ireland Council for Voluntary Action’s (NICVA) enewsletter, and; NI4Kids (See appendix G for details of an article that NCB NI contributed to the most recent edition of this newsletter about the e-safety work we are carrying out on behalf of SBNI). The survey was also promoted using social media (through NCB NI’s Twitter and Facebook accounts) and was placed on the front page of NCB NI’s website. In total 31 survey responses were received, of which 25 were valid for inclusion in this report4. In terms of sector, 11 responses came from the voluntary and community sector; 10 statutory organisations responded, and four responses came from private sector organisations. 2 This includes youth organisations, children’s organisations, Health and Social Care Trust (HSCT) representatives, policy makers and Education and Library Board (ELB) representatives. 3 Engage is the programme delivered by NCB NI on behalf of the Big Lottery to support grantees of the Big Lottery’s Reaching Out Empowering Young People Programme. 4 In order to be included in the study, responding organisations needed to (i) be based in Northern Ireland; (ii) be currently delivering e-safety messages in NI, and; (III) have completed the survey in full. Responses from 6 organisations were not valid for inclusion in the study. Details of the organisations/entities whose responses were not included in the analysis contained in this paper can be found in Appendix A. 14
  • 16. Focus groups with parents and young people One focus group was conducted with parents and another with young people in order to obtain a user’s perspective on e-safety messages available online. Whilst the focus group methodology is obviously not representative of both populations, the findings nevertheless provide a useful insight into how parents and young people might go about finding messages to address e-safety issues. The specific e-safety themes examined in the focus groups were cyber bullying5, sexting6, and offensive content. These themes were chosen as they have been identified by EU Kids Online as key areas of risk7 and interestingly two of them (cyber bullying and sexting) were found to be key areas of the safety work carried out by organisations that were surveyed as part of this study. Focus group with young people To test how easy or challenging it can be for young people to access appropriate advice and guidance about e-safety issues, a group of Young NCB NI8 members were invited to take part in a focus group that explored the above three e-safety themes. Specifically, for each scenario, young people were asked to put themselves in the position of the young person in the scenario and were given five minutes to: Type in an exact phrase or words into an internet search engine to search for advice/guidance relating directly to the issue in the scenario; Record the websites visited and make notes on the ease with which they could find advice/guidance on the particular issue; and Record any of the advice/guidance and its usefulness in terms of addressing the specific e-safety issue. Focus group with parents In total, five parents (all female) took part in the focus group and all were accessed through a local community group that runs support programmes for parents. The focus groups explored how they would use the internet to get e-safety advice looking specifically at two scenarios related to contemporary e-safety issues, namely, cyber bullying and sexting. Focus group participants were asked to put themselves in the position of a parent whose child is experiencing a particular e-safety issue and were given five minutes to undertake the same tasks as were given to the young people. 5 ‘Cyber bullying’ is bullying that takes place through new technologies, such as mobile phones and the internet (NIABF – What is cyber bullying?) 6 ‘Sexting’ is the exchange of sexual messages or images and creating, sharing and forwarding sexually suggestive nude or nearly nude images http://www.nspcc.org.uk/inform/resourcesforprofessionals/sexualabuse/sextingresearch_wda89260.html 7 Livingstone, S., Haddon, L., Görzig, A., & Ólafsson, K. (2011) Risks and safety on the internet: The perspective of European children. London: LSE. Available online at: http:// www2.cnrs.fr/sites/en/fichier/rapport_english.pdf 8 Young NCB NI is a group for young people aged 18 and under. Members have the opportunity to join projects where they influence what happens and get their voices heard on issues that matter to them. 15
  • 17. Structure of this report The remaining chapters of this report are structured to reflect the findings in relation to each of the project’s objectives. As such: Chapter 4 defines e-safety and the risks relating to this; Chapter 5 examines the UK and international organisations and networks who are key players in the area of e-safety; Chapter 6 profiles the organisations involved in e-safety work in Northern Ireland and examines the nature, quality, access to and impact of e-safety messages delivered in Northern Ireland; Chapter 7 examines online e-safety messages from a user perspective; Chapter 8 concludes the study by summarising the key findings and making recommendations for improving e-safety messages in Northern Ireland. 16
  • 18. 4. What is e-safety and what are the risks of etechnology? Using the findings from the desk review, this chapter of the report examines what is meant by the term e-safety and explores the various risks associated with e-technology. What is e-safety? The desk review did not identify any agreed definition of e-safety that is used by all organisations working in the area of e-safety. Many of the definitions uncovered were written either by individual schools or organisations in respect to their e-safety policies or were written in online articles from an individual or organisational perspective. Two notable and helpful definitions did emerge from the research as outlined below. The first definition is an all-encompassing definition, whilst the latter definition is restricted to e-safety solely within a school context. “[e-safety relates to] all fixed and mobile technologies that children may encounter, now and in the future, which allow them access to content and communications that could raise e-safety issues or pose risks to their wellbeing and safety9.”(British Educational Communications and Technology Agency (Becta), 2008) “e-safety may be described as the school’s ability to protect and educate pupils and staff in their use of technology and to have the appropriate mechanisms to intervene and support any incident where appropriate10.” (Office for Standards in Education (OFSTED), 2012) Taking a broader view, the term e-safety could also be seen to concern educating children and young people to use e-technologies safely and protecting them from harm that they may encounter while using e-technologies. Taking on board the various angles from which e-safety can be viewed, we suggest the following for this study of e-safety: “E-safety or electronic safety is about utilising electronic devices or e-technologies in a safe and responsible way. It is mainly concerned with the safeguarding of children and young people in the digital world and educating them so they feel safe when accessing e- technologies.” [NCB NI definition] The term internet safety and e-safety are often used interchangeably. However, the term internet safety implies that it is just about the internet and computers, whereas e-safety includes all devices which have an online connection such as mobile phones, games consoles, cameras and televisions. 9 Becta (2008) Safeguarding Children in a Digital World: Developing an LSCB e-safety strategy. Conventry: Becta. This document is available online at: http://www.cns-school.org/pdfs/BEC1-15535.pdf 10 Ofsted (2012) Inspecting e-safety: briefing for inspectors. London: Ofsted. 17
  • 19. The Byron Review (2008)11, an independent review of the risks children face by the internet and video games, identified three strategic objectives for children’s safety on the internet, namely: reducing the availability of harmful and inappropriate material in the most popular part of the internet; restricting children’s access to harmful and inappropriate material; and building children’s resilience to the material to which they may be exposed so that they have the confidence and skills to navigate the online world more safely. This report has a focus on the third strategic objective which promotes e-safety from a digital citizenship perspective in that it looks at the messages that teach children and young people how to use e-technology appropriately and responsibly. The other objectives refer to the measures that have and continue to be put in place to protect children online such as e-safety strategies and policies and technical tools such as filters and parental controls (including the recent announcement by the UK Government that most households in the UK will have pornography automatically blocked by their internet provider unless they choose to receive it12.) Why is e-safety important? For most children and young people e-technology is part of everyday life and this has become even more apparent in the current research NCB NI is conducting on behalf of OFMDFM13 into young people’s access to and usage of computers (and other electronic devices) at home. The interim findings show that 96% of the 746 young people surveyed have access to a computer or laptop at home and 97% of young people have a broadband connection at home. In addition, four out of five young people (79%) go online everyday and in excess of one in five young people (22%) spend five hours or more online every day. Whilst the literature suggests that for most young people, going online is a positive experience14, young people can also experience harm and can face harmful risks online. To give some recent examples, research findings from the NSPCC15 in August 2013 show that one in five children had been the target of cyber bullying in the last year and 10% of 11 to 16 year olds have been targeted by internet ‘trolls’16. Other research undertaken by UKCCIS in 2012 shows that 11% of children have 11 Byron, T. (2008) Safer children in a digital world: The report of the Byron Review. DCSF: Nottingham. For more information, visit: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-23401076 13 NCB NI (Unpublished) Accessibility: Young People’s Home Computer and Internet Access Interim Report. Unpublished document. 14 Livingstone, S. & Haddon, L. (2012) Theoretical framework for children’s internet use in Livingstone, S., Haddon, L . & Görzig, A. (2012) Children, risk and safety on the internet: Research and policy challenges in comparative perspective. Bristol: Policy Press. 15 For more information see: http://www.theguardian.com/society/2013/aug/10/cyberbullies-target-children-nspccinternet-abuse-askfm 16 A troll is a person who sows discord on the Internet by starting arguments or upsetting people by posting inflammatory, extraneous, or off-topic messages in an online community (such as a forum, chat room, or blog), either accidentally or with the deliberate intent of provoking readers into an emotional response or of otherwise disrupting normal on-topic discussion. For more information on what the term means or implies see: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Troll_(Internet) 12 18
  • 20. encountered sexual images online, and 40% of young people reported to know friends that had engaged in ‘sexting’. The review also comments on the risk of online grooming, excessive gaming, gambling, harmful user generated content and misuse of personal data17. The Police Service for Northern Ireland has also found that more online crimes are being reported. In September 2013 the PSNI revealed that reported crimes on social network sites Facebook and Twitter in Northern Ireland increased from 71 in 2010 to 2,100 in 201218. Given the extent of young people’s use of e-technology and the worrying statistics presented in the above paragraph, e-safety is now becoming an increasingly important area of work and a priority of many organisations that work with children and young people. What are the e-technology risks for children and young people? Our review of the available literature suggests that there are many classifications of e-technology risks that children and young people are exposed to whilst online. Many of these classification systems have a degree of overlap and similarity, we outline in detail two of these classification systems below – relating to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and EU Kids Online. Internationally, the OECD19 has developed its own classification system for e-technology risks. It draws and builds upon the classifications used by other national and international bodies/entities (e.g. US Internet Safety Technical Task Force (ISTTF) and EU Kids Online). A common theme of the classification systems examined by the OECD is that they all without exception distinguish between risks related to harmful content and those that relate to harmful interactions. The three broad categories of online risks for children as identified by OECD are illustrated in Figure 1 below. In summary, it identifies: Internet technology risks, when the Internet is the medium through which the child is exposed to content or where an interaction takes place; Consumer-related risks to children online, where the child is targeted as a consumer online; and Information privacy and security risks, which are risks every internet user faces but are a particular risk for. OECD note that there is an interplay between some risk categories, for example, the risk of exposure to commercial content inappropriate for children stemming from online marketing may be a commercial and a privacy risk. 17 UKCCIS Evidence Group (2012) Children’s online activities: Risks and safety, the UK evidence base. London: UKCCIS. Available online at: http://www.saferinternet.org.uk/downloads/Research_Highlights/UKCCIS_Report_2012.pdf 18 http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-northern-ireland-24194419 19 OECD (2011) The Protection of Children Online: Risks Faced by Children Online and Policies to Protect Them in OECD Digital Economy Papers, No. 179. Paris: OECD. Available online at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5kgcjf71pl28-en. 19
  • 21. Figure 1: OECD categories of risk for children online 1. Information privacy and security risks Information privacy Personal data collected from children Over sharing Unforeseen/ long-term consequences Information security Malicious code; Commercial spyware; Online scams, and; Identify theft Content risks Illegal content; Harmful content; Harmful advice Contact risks: Cyber grooming; Online harassment; Illegal interaction; problematic content sharing Online risks for 2. Internet technology risks children Online marketing For child inappropriate or unsuitable products For illegal or age-restricted drugs HFSS food and drinks Overspending Fraudulent transactions Online fraud; Online scams, and; identify theft 3. Consumer related risks 1. Internet technology risks Source: OECD, 2011. The e-technology risk categories as defined by OECD are not widely used in the UK. A review of the literature, resources and information on e-safety in the UK found that the most common way to categorise potential areas of risk was through an adaptation of a classification developed by EU Kids Online20. This classification was included in the OECD review described above and was also examined as part of the Byron Review (2008). The EU Kids online classification system categorises potential e-technology risks for children and young people into three distinct areas, namely: Content risks: The child or young person is exposed to harmful material; Contact risks: The child or young person participates in adult initiated online activity; and Conduct risks: The child or young person is a perpetrator or victim in peer-to-peer exchange. 20 Hasebrink, U., Livingstone, S., Haddon, L., Kirwil, L., and Ponte, C. (2007) EU Kids Go Online: Comparing Children’s Online Activities and Risks across Europe. London: EU Kids Online. 20
  • 22. EU Kids Online distinguish between content risks where the child is positioned as the recipient of, usually mass produced images or text, from contact risks in which the child participates perhaps unwillingly or unwittingly in some way in e-technology risks. Both of these differ from conduct risks where the child is an actor in a peer to peer context more or less intentionally. Each of these three risk areas has four sub categories: Aggressive, Sexual, Values and Commercial. The risk areas and sub categories are summarised in Table 1 overleaf. 21
  • 23. Table 1: E-technology risks for children and young people (CYP) Aggressive Sexual Content risks: CYP exposed to: CYP exposed to: CYP is exposed to Violent content. Sexualised material which may cause harmful material. distress e.g. adult pornography. Hateful content. Unwelcome sexual content. Gory content. Illegal sexual material such as images of child abuse or extreme violence. Values CYP exposed to: Age inappropriate material. Bias, racist/hateful content. Inaccurate or misleading information. Websites which advocate unhealthy or dangerous behaviour e.g. proanorexia, pro-suicide sites. Commercial CYP exposed to: Adverts. Inappropriate commercial advertising. Spam. Sponsorship. Contact risks: CYP participates in adult initiated online activity. CYP is bullied, harassed or stalked by an adult. Accepting ‘friends’ who may not be who they say they are. They may also be people using the internet to threaten, intimidate or display bullying behaviour. CYP accepting ‘friends’ who may not be who they say they are they may, be sexual predators CYP meets adults strangers contacted online. CYP experiences online grooming (this is the process by which a child is socialised through social media and prepared for abuse). CYP experiences sexual abuse or exploitation from adults. CYP is encouraged to self-harm by adults. CYP is encouraged to get involved in unwelcome persuasions. CYP is encouraged to get involved in ideological persuasions e.g. far right groups. CYP discloses personal information i.e. names, ages, addresses, details of schools attended - including identifiable photos, or personal passwords. CYP activities online are tracked. CYP personal info is harvested. CYP is victim of a financial scam. Conduct risks: CYP is a perpetrator or victim in peer-topeer exchange or other harm that can arise from interactions online CYP experiencing or engaging in bullying or harassment with other CYP. Hostile peer activity. Can be anonymous e.g. flaming or trolling. Creating and uploading inappropriate or indecent material of themselves and/or other CYP. 21 Sexting . Sexual harassment from another CYP or to another CYP. Can be anonymous, e.g. flaming or trolling. CYP provides potentially harmful content or misleading information or advice to peers e.g. hate messages, anorexia/ bulimia sites, drug experiences and suicide sites. Can be anonymous, e.g. flaming or trolling. Reputational risk: posting inappropriate content online that may become public and permanent. Illegal downloading. Hacking. Gambling. Terrorism. Copyright infringement. Excessive engagement or addiction to online gaming. Source: Hasebrink et al, 2007 21 Sexting is when someone takes an indecent image of themselves, and sending it to their friends or boy/girlfriend via a mobile phone or some other form of technology. 22
  • 24. Table 1 has been produced based on current research from EU Kids Online6. However, other documents consulted in the desk review have adapted the classification to make it more useful when explaining categories of risk to children and young people, parents and carers and practitioners. In these documents the sub-categories of aggressive, sexual and values are removed and the sub category ‘Commercial’ is viewed as a risk category in its own right. These documents refer to the 4 C’s of risk Content, Contact, Conduct and Commercialism. This is the case, for example, in the award winning Know IT All22 resources produced by Childnet International. Furthermore, The UK Safer Internet Centre use the 4 C’s of risk to look at specific areas of e-safety, for example, when providing advice to parents on smart phones, gaming devices and internet enabled devices they state how the 4C risks apply to each technology. This is how they explain the relevance of the 4C’s to smart phones: Content: age-inappropriate material can be available to children; Contact: potential contact from someone who may wish to bully or abuse them; Conduct: children may be at risk because of their own and others’ behaviour; and Commercialism: young people can be unaware of hidden costs and advertising. 22 http://www.childnet.com/ufiles/cn_parentleafletV2.pdf 23
  • 25. Summary There is no common definition of e-safety at present. Analysis of existing phrases and terms used leads us to suggest the following definition: “E-safety or electronic safety is about utilising electronic devices or e-technologies in a safe and responsible way. It is mainly concerned with the safeguarding of children and young people in the digital world and educating them so they feel safe when accessing e- technologies.” [NCB NI definition] E-safety encompasses all fixed and mobile technologies that children and young people may encounter and includes all devices which have an online connection such as mobile phones, games consoles, cameras and televisions. The term internet safety implies it is just about the internet and computers. This report looks at e-safety from a digital citizenship perspective, i.e. it looks at the messages that aim to educate children and young people how to behave appropriately and responsibly online. E-safety is becoming increasingly important as e-technology is now an everyday part of the lives of children and young people. NCB NI’s most recent research regarding access to ICT has found that almost all children and young people now have access to a computer at home with an internet connection. Moreover, four out of five young people go online everyday and more than one fifth spend more than five hours online every day. Whilst going online is largely a positive experience for young people, as e-technology develops and young people’s usage of it increases, so too do the risks they face. Very recent research carried out by NSPCC found that one in five children had been targets of cyber bullying in the last year and 10% of 11-16 year olds had been targeted by internet ‘trolls’. Numerous organisations have developed classifications of the online risks faced by children and young people. The most common classifications used in the UK stem from work carried out by EU Kids Online which identified the following three risk categories: - Content risks: The child or young person is exposed to harmful material; - Contact risks: The child or young person participates in adult initiated online activity; and - Conduct risks: The child or young person is a perpetrator or victim in peer-to-peer exchange More recently, other notable organisations such as The UK Safer Internet Centre, have added ‘Commercialism’ as a fourth category and much of the e-safety literature in the UK refers to the 4C’s of e-safety, content, contact, conduct and commercialism. 24
  • 26. 5. Who is doing what on e-safety in the UK and internationally? The chapter describes some of the key organisations and networks both in the UK and internationally which have an e-safety remit. The roles of these organisations vary from providing representation and advocating for e-safety, delivering e-safety resources and/or training right through to enforcement of the law. An overview of these organisations/networks is provided below, highlighting the relationships that exist between them. Overview of Key UK and International organisations/networks working to keep children and young people safe online There are a significant number of organisations and networks operating in the area of e-safety both internationally and in the UK. Figure 2 provides an overview of the key e-safety organisations/networks identified in this study that work to keep everyone, but particularly children and young people, safe online. It also illustrates the relationships, both formal and informal, that exist between these organisations/networks. Figure 2: An overview of key UK and international/networks working in e-safety International networks EU Kids Online UK e-safety organisations UK Safer Internet Centre UKCCIS Virtual Global Taskforce [Global] Insafe [30 safer Internet Awareness Centres: EU + Iceland, Norway and Russia] Chairs • Edward Timpson MP • Damian Green MP • Ed Vaizey MP Executive Board •BBFC •Blackberry • BT • CEOP • CHIS • Facebook •FOSI • IWF • LSE • Northern Ireland Executive • NSPCC • Ofcom •Parentzone • UK Safer Internet Centre • Samsung • Scottish Executive • TalkTalk • Tesco • The Marie Collins Foundation •UKIE • Welsh Assembly Southwest Grid for Learning (SWGfL) Childnet Internet Watch Foundation (IWF) Wider membership Inhope c. 180 members in total • CEOP Serious Organised Crime Agency (SOCA) Key The organisation is a member of another organisation The organisation provides information/intelligence to another organisation The organisations are affiliated and provide information/intelligence in both directions Source: Various 25
  • 27. While none of these organisations have a base in Northern Ireland, in many cases Northern Ireland appears somewhere on their landscape i.e. some of the organisations have a representative from Northern Ireland on their board, some are currently delivering e-safety messages in Northern Ireland and some work in partnership with organisations based in Northern Ireland. The paragraphs below provide further details on each of the organisations and networks illustrated in Figure 2 above23. E-safety international networks The following points summarise the role of key international networks and the work that they do in the area of e-safety. EU Kids Online: Located in the UK, this 33-country thematic network aims to stimulate and coordinate investigation into children's online uses, activities, risks and safety. It employs multiple methods to map European children's and parents' changing experience of the internet. It also sustains an active dialogue with national and European policy stakeholders. The Virtual Global Taskforce (VGT) seeks to build an effective, international partnership of law enforcement agencies, non-government organisations and industry to help protect children from online child abuse. The UK is represented on the VGT by the Child Exploitation and Online Protection (CEOP) centre (a multi-agency service dedicated to tackling the exploitation of children). Insafe is a European network that includes 30 national Safer Internet Awareness centres in EU member states and in Iceland, Norway and Russia. In the UK, this is the UK Safer Internet Centre (described below). In the Republic of Ireland, The National Centre for Technology in Education (NCTE), part of the Department of Education and Skills, acts as technical coordinator for the Safer Internet Awareness centre. Every national centre implements awareness and educational campaigns, runs a helpline, and works closely with children and young people to ensure an evidence-based, multi-stakeholder approach to creating a better online environment. Safer Internet Day24 (SID) has been organised by Insafe in February of each year since 2004 to promote safer and more responsible use of online technology and mobile phones. In the UK, SID is coordinated by the UK Safer Internet Centre. In 2009, the concept of Safer Internet Day Committees was introduced to strengthen the bonds with countries outside the Insafe network and invest in a harmonised promotion of the campaign across the world. There are around 70 committees working closely with the Insafe coordination team, which is based in Brussels. Safer Internet Day 2013 was supported in Northern Ireland by OFMDFM. Junior Minister Bell visited two schools, Ballyclare High school and Fairview Integrated Primary School to raise awareness of the issue to primary and post-primary schools. In addition Junior Minister McCann 23 24 Appendix A provides details of other notable UK organisations identified in this study that work in the area of e-safety. http://www.saferinternetday.org 26
  • 28. addressed the Assembly debate on child internet safety on Safer Internet Day (5 February 2013) in response to a motion put forward by Sandra Overend, Member of Legislative Assembly (MLA)25. Inhope is the international association of internet hotlines. It coordinates a network of internet hotlines all over the world and is co-funded and supported by the European Commission Safer Internet Programme. When the Internet Watch Foundation (IWF – see below for more details) in the UK traces criminal content being hosted abroad, they pass that intelligence to the relevant Inhope hotline or law enforcement agency in that country so the website can be investigated by the relevant national law enforcement authorities and then removed (if appropriate). Key UK e-safety organisations and networks UK Council for Child Internet Safety (UKCCIS) is a group of over 180 organisations across the government, industry, law enforcement, academia and charity sectors, that work in partnership to help keep children safe online. The board of UKCCIS is chaired by government ministers. At present, Northern Ireland is represented on the UKCCIS by the Minister of the Department of Health, Social Services and Public Safety (DHSSPS), Edwin Poots, MLA, and members of his senior management team. UKCCIS work includes: — Development of a family friendly internet code of practice drawn up by service providers following a consultation about parental internet controls; — Provision of advice to industry providers on the use of effective internet safety messages26; — General provision of advice and guidance to industry providers on social networking27, moderation28, search29 and chat30; and — Development of the UKCCIS research evidence group which summarises key research on children and the internet. The group is hosted by the UK Safer Internet Centre. — Development of the first UK Child Internet Strategy Click Clever Click Safe (2009 -2011)31 The work of UKCCIS is informed by the reviews of Professor Tanya Byron in 200832 and 201033 on safer children in a digital world and Reg Bailey on the commercialisation and sexualisation of 25 http://www.niassembly.gov.uk/Assembly-Business/Official-Report/Reports-12-13/05-February-2013/#2 UKCCIS (2012) Advice on child internet safety 1.0: Universal guidelines for providers. London: UKCCIS. 27 UKCCIS (2010) Good practice guidance for the providers of social networking and other user-interactive services. London: UKCCIS. 28 UKCCIS (2010) Good practice guidance for the moderation of interactive services for children. London: UKCCIS. 29 UKCCIS (2010) Good practice guidance for the providers of search. London: UKCCIS. 30 UKCCIS (2010) Good practice guidance for the providers of chat services, instant messaging (IM) and internet connectivity content and hosting. London: UKCCIS. 31 http://dera.ioe.ac.uk/10648/1/click-clever_click-safe.pdf 32 Byron, T (2008) Safer Children in a Digital World: The report of the Byron Review. Nottingham: Department for Children, Schools and Families (DCSF). 33 Byron, T (2010) Do we have safer children in a digital world? A review of progress since the 2008 Byron Review. Nottingham: DCSF. 26 27
  • 29. children in 201134. It is also informed by a large body of evidence on e-safety which includes the work of Professor Sonia Livingstone, who directs the aforementioned EU Kids Online network. The UK Safer Internet Centre is coordinated by a partnership of three organisations, namely Childnet International, South West Grid for Learning (SWGfL) and the IWF. It is co-funded by the European Commission and has three overall e-safety functions as described below: — An awareness centre: in the UK this is the Insafe Awareness Centre. Insafe (described above) is a European network of awareness centres promoting safe, responsible use of the internet and mobile devices to young people; — A helpline: The UK Safer Internet Centre (see below) operates an e-safety helpline for professionals working with children in the UK. They also host Safetynet, a mailing list for anyone who wants to discuss and share information to support the development of e-safety good practice within educational organisations; and — A hotline: through the IWF (see below) the UK Safer Internet Centre operates the UK’s hotline for reporting online criminal content. In addition to the above, the UK Safer Internet Centre also engages in a range of other notable e-safety activities and events. For example, the UK Safer Internet Centre has: — Hosted the Safer Internet Day in the UK (see section on Insafe above); — Developed new educational and awareness raising resources for children, parents/carers and teachers to meet emerging trends in the fast-changing online environment, for example, they developed Online Safety Guidance for Ask.fm35. The guidance explains what Ask.fm is and gives a step by step guide on how to turn off anonymous posts and report inappropriate content; — Developed self-assessment tools with SWGfL for schools and other settings to evaluate their e-safety provision, including policy development; — Hosted the UKCCIS Evidence Group’s Research Highlight series, which summarises key research on children and the internet36; — Facilitated youth panels to give young people a voice on e-safety issues; — Contributed to and commissioned academic research into children’s media use37; — Developed the UK Safer Internet Centre website as a hub for information and advice, to reflect the range of work taking place across the UK; and — Delivered education sessions on e-safety to children, parents/carers and teachers in schools and other educational settings across England. In March of this year (2013) the UK Safer 34 Bailey R (2011) Letting Children be Children: Report of an Independent Review of the Commercialisation and Sexualisation. Nottingham: Department for Education. 35 http://www.saferinternet.org.uk/ufiles/ASK-FM-Online-Safety-Guidance-(Updated-Oct-2013).pdf 36 http://www.saferinternet.org.uk/research 37 This includes the recent Safer Internet Centre (2013) Have your say – young peoples’ perspectives about online rights and responsibilities. This can be accessed online at: http://www.saferinternet.org.uk/downloads/Safer_Internet_Day/2013/Have_your_Say_survey_-_Full_Report.pdf 28
  • 30. Internet Centre, in conjunction with C2K, held six E-Safety Live briefings in Northern Ireland38. The E-Safety Live briefings are two-hour sessions (no cost to participants) about a broad range of online safety subjects which provide participants with updates on emerging e-safety issues. Participants are also given access to an online resource area with links to all the materials referenced. The sessions are primarily aimed at senior leaders in organisations and those with a safeguarding responsibility but are open to anyone working with children and young people. A description of each of the three delivery agents that comprise the UK Safer Internet Centre is contained in Table 2 below. Table 2: UK Safer Internet Centre delivery organisations Organisation Description SWGfL The SWGfL is a not-for-profit, charitable trust company, funded by 15 local authorities across the South West of England. SWGfL is one of three partner organisations of the UK Safer Internet Centre and offers internet services for schools; provides teaching and learning resources on e-safety, and; provides e-safety training to teachers and other professionals. Examples of specific esafety services that SWGfL offers include: — E-safety Boost: E-safety Boost is an online safety toolkit that can be used to safeguard schools39; — 360 degree: 360 degree is a safe online self-review tool for schools that is free of charge40; and — Online Compass: Online Compass is simple tool that shows people what they need to do to make technology safer for the young people in their group41. IWF The IWF is the UK Hotline for reporting criminal online content. It is one of three partners of the UK Safer Internet Centre and it works in partnership with the online industry, law enforcement, government, and international partners to minimise the availability of harmful content, specifically: child sexual abuse images hosted anywhere in the world; criminally obscene adult content hosted in the UK, and; non-photographic child sexual abuse images hosted in the UK. Childnet The IWF supplies intelligence regarding child sexual abuse websites to the CEOP Centre (see below for more details). When IWF traces criminal content being hosted abroad, they pass that intelligence to the relevant Inhope Hotline or law enforcement agency in that country so the website can be investigated by the relevant national law enforcement authorities and then removed (if appropriate) Childnet International works in partnership with others around the world to 38 http://www.esafetylive.com/ http://boost.swgfl.org.uk 40 http://www.360safe.org.uk 41 http://www.onlinecompass.org.uk 39 29
  • 31. Organisation Description International help make the internet a safe place for children. It works directly with children and young people from the ages of 3 to 18 to find out about their experiences online; including the positive activities they are taking part in as well as sharing e-safety advice. Childnet International also works directly with parents/carers, teachers and other professionals to find out about their experiences online. The organisation produced the award-winning Know IT All suite of educational resources for children and young people, parents/carers, teachers and other professionals and also responds to policy issues on e-safety for children and young people. Childnet International hosts a number of e-safety websites including: — Kidsmart42: Kidsmart is a practical internet safety programme website for schools, young people, parents/carers and other agencies. It provides resources including lesson plans, leaflets, posters, activity days and interactive games. — Digizen43: Digizen provides information for educators, parents/carers, and young people to strengthen their awareness and understanding of what digital citizenship is and encourages users of technology to be/become responsible DIGItal citiZENS. It shares specific advice and resources on issues such as social networking and cyber bullying and how these relate to, and affect, their own and other people's online experiences and behaviours. — Chatdanger44: Chatdanger is a website that outlines the potential dangers of using interactive services online like chat and Instant Messenger (IM). — Sorted45 is a website that highlights some of the measures that can be taken to help users to maintain the security of their personal information and computer system. CEOP: The CEOP Centre delivers a multi-agency service dedicated to tackling the exploitation of children. It is part of UK policing (and has an affiliation with the Serious Organised Crime Agency, SOCA). CEOP is also a member agency of Virtual Global Taskforce (discussed above). Key functions of CEOP include: tracking and bringing offenders to account either directly or in cooperation with local and international police forces, and; working with children, parents/carers and practitioners to deliver the Thinkuknow internet safety programme. 42 http://www.kidsmart.org.uk http://www.digizen.org 44 http://www.chatdanger.com 45 http://www.childnet.com/sorted/index.aspx 43 30
  • 32. Thinkuknow is CEOP’s internet safety programme for children between the ages of 8 to 16, teachers and practitioners and for parents and carers. The programme includes films, leaflets, posters, the Thinkuknow website and a training pack for all child protection professionals in the UK. The website includes games, a cybercafé, information on emerging technology, chatting, gaming and blogging, and ultimately how to report anything that they think is suspicious. The PSNI deliver Thinkuknow as part of their Citizen and Safety Education (CASE) programme. This programme is delivered to schools upon request to PSNI. Thinkuknow deliver two different training courses across the UK (including Northern Ireland)46 for those who work directly with children and young people; the Thinkuknow Introduction course, and the Ambassador course. Participants in the Ambassador course are provided with the materials to train fellow professionals to deliver the Thinkuknow education programme to children and young people. CEOP has a help and advice centre and anyone who is concerned about a child’s safety online can report it through this centre. CEOP also actively encourages all organisations that have an online presence where children and young people congregate to adopt the CEOP ‘Report Abuse’ button. Impact of e-safety messaging in the UK Two of the key UK organisations delivering e-safety messages, the UK Safer Internet Centre and CEOP have conducted evaluations to determine the impact of their work. The following paragraphs summarise key findings from their evaluations that look specifically at the impact of their e-safety messaging work. Safer Internet Day 2013: Campaign Evaluation47 Safer Internet Day in the UK is coordinated by UK Safer Internet Centre. The key findings of an evaluation of the reach and impact of Safer Internet Day 2013 are as follows: - - In total, 23% of children, 13% of teenagers and 4% of adults that had heard about the Safer Internet Day campaign said they were now more aware of internet safety. The largest effect was on girls who were now 10% more aware of internet safety than boys. - 47 Of those who were aware of Safer Internet Day, two-fifths said they would change their behaviour online as a result of the campaign. This includes 42% of children, 44% of teenagers and 40% of adults. - 46 56% of children, 37% of teenagers and 42% of adults said they would talk to someone in their family about using the internet safely after finding out about Safer Internet Day. Teenagers who were aware of Safer Internet Day showed a greater understanding of information control. https://www.thinkuknow.co.uk/teachers/training/ http://www.saferinternet.org.uk/downloads/Research_Highlights/UKCCIS_RH51_Safer_Internet_Day_Evaluation.pdf 31
  • 33. - Adults concern about internet safety was relatively unchanged from before and after the campaign. Evaluation of CEOP’s Thinkuknow Education Programme48 Key findings from the evaluation of CEOP Thinkuknow Education Programme were as follows: - Young people who have had Thinkuknow training were more likely to say they would report abuse online via CEOP or ChildLine. - 48 Young people who have had some safety advice in the past two years are slightly less likely to share personal details with strangers. One quarter (24%) of children who received Thinkuknow training self-reported that the training had made them significantly more careful online and 45% self-reported that the training had made them moderately more careful online. Overall, 69% of children who had received Thinkuknow training reported that the training had made them more careful online. http://www.saferinternet.org.uk/downloads/Research_Highlights/UKCCIS_RH_2_Think_U_Know_Evaluation.pdf 32
  • 34. Summary There are three key organisations leading the UK’s work on e-safety: - UKCCIS (UK Council for Child Internet Safety) - the main umbrella organisation with a membership over 180 organisations across the government, industry, law enforcement, academia and charity sectors, who work in partnership to help keep children safe online. The Northern Ireland Minister for Health, Social Services and Public Safety (Edwin Poots MLA) sits on the Executive Board of UKCCIS. - UK Safer Internet Centre which has three overall functions: An awareness centre to promote safe, responsible use of the internet and mobile devices to young people; a helpline for professionals working with children and a hotline for reporting online criminal content. The Centre also hosts the annual public awareness campaign – Safer Internet Day. The Centre comprises three organisations Childnet International, South West Grid for Learning (SWGfL) and the IWF (Internet Watch Foundation) - CEOP (Child Exploitation and Online Protection Centre) is part of the UK policing structures and its key functions include: tracking and bringing offenders to account either directly or in cooperation with local and international police forces, and; working with children, parents/carers and practitioners to deliver the Thinkuknow internet safety programme The evaluations of Internet Safety Day 2013 and the CEOP Thinkuknow education programme have shown that e-safety messages have an impact on how children and young people behave online. The Internet Safety Day evaluation showed that the campaign resulted in young people having a greater understanding of internet safety and information control. Similarly the CEOP evaluation found that young people would be less likely to share information with strangers after taking part in the programme and it also showed that young people would be more likely to report online abuse. 33
  • 35. 6. Who is doing what on e-safety in Northern Ireland? The chapter profiles the organisations involved in e-safety work in Northern Ireland and examines the nature, quality, access to and impact of e-safety messages delivered in Northern Ireland. It begins by providing an overview of the current policy and practice context for e-safety in Northern Ireland and then goes on to: Provide an overview of organisations delivering e-safety messages; Assess the nature and target audience of e-safety messages; Explore the extent of partnership working in delivering e-safety messages; Analyse the e-safety messages on survey respondents’ websites; Assess the quality of e-safety messaging using cyber bullying as a case study; and Present the key players in Northern Ireland’s e-safety arena. E-safety policy and practice context At present, there is no overarching policy or strategy which addresses e-safety for children and young people per se and there is also no explicit reference to e-safety in OFMDFM’s Ten Year Strategy for Children and Young People49. It is, however, mentioned in a Cross-departmental statement on the protection of children and young people by the Northern Ireland Executive (OFMDFM 2009). The statement contains a section (see paragraphs 3.21–3.30, under ‘Safeguarding across jurisdictions’) on ‘Safeguarding in the online world’50. This statement refers to the extent to which young people use the internet, and highlights the significant role to be played by the CEOP in policing the virtual environment and producing a set of resources guiding children and adults in the safe use of the internet. Moreover, OFMDFM is currently undertaking a cross-departmental review on child e-safety. The purpose of the review is to identify current and proposed future actions which Departments intend to take to support child e-safety. The review will also inform opportunities for a more coordinated approach across government. The findings are currently under consideration. Most of the concrete work of statutory organisations to date in the area of e-safety has been in the form of guidance materials produced by Department of Education for Northern Ireland (DE) and the Health and Social Care Board (HSCB). For example, in 2007, DE released a circular on the acceptable use of the internet and digital technologies in schools. This was updated in 2011 and provided 49 OFMDFM (2006) Our Children and Young People – Our Pledge A Ten Year Strategy For Children And Young People In Northern Ireland 2006 – 2016. Available online at: http://www.ofmdfmni.gov.uk/ten-year-strategy.pdf 50 OFMDFM (2009) Safeguarding Children – A cross-departmental statement on the protection of children and young people by the Northern Ireland Executive. Belfast: OFMDFM. 34
  • 36. advice and guidance on arrangements for preventing the accessing of inappropriate material on the internet, the use of materials from blocked websites, and the provision of information to parents51. In 2005, the HSCB produced regional policies and procedures under the former Area Child Protection Committees (now replaced by SBNI). Part of these policies looked at the risks posed by developments in communications technology52. In terms of the NI curriculum, there is a statutory requirement for children and young people to be taught about e-safety in school. E-safety is integrated across the curriculum for pupils in Key Stage 1 and Key Stage 2. It states in the curriculum that 'Pupils should demonstrate, when and where appropriate, knowledge and understanding of e-safety including acceptable online behaviour’53. Overview of organisations delivering e-safety messages in Northern Ireland The remainder of this chapter draws largely upon the findings of the survey undertaken as part of this study to explore current e-safety messages for children and young people, parents and practitioners. The survey was conducted via email and was open for four weeks in July 2013. It was promoted widely through email distribution lists, NI publications and social media. It yielded 25 valid responses with a good spread from across the statutory, voluntary and community and private sectors. In terms of the statutory sector, the 10 organisations that responded were as follows: OFMDFM; Three (of the five) Health and Social Care Trusts (HSCTs); Two (of the five) Education and Library Boards (ELBs) – these responses came from Welfare and Child Protection Support Service for Schools (CPSSS) teams; Two (of the eight) Police Service of Northern Ireland (PSNI) districts54; One of Belfast’s four District Policing and Community Safety Partnerships (DPCSP)55; and C2K, which is managed by the Western Education and Library Board (WELB) on behalf of the other education and library boards and the Department of Education. In total, 11 voluntary and community sector organisations responded to the survey including: Autism Northern Ireland; British Association for Adoption and Fostering (BAAF); 51 Department of Education (2007) Acceptable use of the internet and digital technologies in schools. Available online at: http://www.deni.gov.uk/22-acceptable_use_of_the_internet_de_circular.pdf DE (2011) Internet safety [Circular]. Available online at: http://www.deni.gov.uk/circular_internet_safety.pdf 52 Area Child Protection Committee (2005) Regional Policy and procedures. Available online at: http://www.dhsspsni.gov.uk/acpcregionalstrategy.pdf 53 http://www.nicurriculum.org.uk/key_stages_1_and_2/skills_and_capabilities/uict/planning_for_assessment/eSafety.asp 54 Whilst an overall response from the PSNI was received, the survey was incomplete and therefore not valid for inclusion in this report. 55 There are 26 Policing and Community Safety Partnerships (PCSP), one for each Council area. Belfast has one PCSP and four District Policing and Community Safety Partnerships (DPCSPs) covering the North, South, East and West area commands within the city. 35
  • 37. Barnardo's Safe Choices Project; Beam Creative network; Cookstown and Dungannon’s Women's Aid; Mencap‘s Livenet Project; Nexus NI; NIABF; Northern Ireland Association for the Care and Resettlement of Offenders (NIACRO); NSPCC; and Voice of Young People in Care (VOYPIC). The organisations are quite varied in nature with many whose remit includes services for adults as well as children and young people and others who provide services to specific groups of young people. Seven of the voluntary sector organisations provide services to people that the UKCCIS evidence group found may be more vulnerable to certain online risks 56. More specifically: Two provide services to people with learning difficulties (Autism NI and Mencap); Two help those who have suffered sexual violence (Nexus and Barnardo’s Safe Choices); Two work with people who have been separated from their birth parents (VOYPIC and BAAF); and One provides services to women and children affected by domestic violence (Cookstown and Dungannon Women’s Aid). Similarly, the focus of all of NSPCC’s work is vulnerable children and NIACRO work with young people who are at risk of or who have a criminal background. There are other organisations in the voluntary sector that specialise in certain aspects of e-safety work, for example, NIABF focus much of their work on cyber bullying. In terms of the four UK wide charities – namely BAAF, NSPCC, Barnardo’s and Mencap - responses were submitted from their NI offices and therefore represented their work on e-safety specifically in NI. Four private sector organisations responded to the survey, including: Beat the Cyber Bully; No Bullying; Cyber safety Advice; and 56 UKCCIS (2012) Children’s Online Activities: Risks and Safety, The UK Evidence Base. London: UKCCIS. Available online at: http://www.saferinternet.org.uk/downloads/Research_Highlights/UKCCIS_Report_2012.pdf 36
  • 38. X-Ray data. In terms of the above organisations’ specific work on e-safety: X-Ray Data and No Bullying are subsidiaries of a parent company called Treze. Each of the subsidiaries focus on different aspects of e-safety with X-Ray Data focusing on the use of technology to help keep children and young people safe online whereas No Bullying provides information on e-safety to teachers, parents and children. Beat The Cyber Bully is a project founded by Wayne Denner, a youth motivational speaker on digital and social media. Cyber Safety Advice is a project of an IT consultancy company, PC Clean. It has developed three workshops for parents, teachers and children respectively on aspects of e-safety. The nature and target audience of e-safety messages being delivered The desk research aspect of this study identified four main methods of delivering e-safety messages: Resources to help educate children and young people, and those who care for and work with them, about e-safety (such as videos, leaflets, checklists, books, website information). Training materials to help professionals educate children and young people, and those who care for and work with them, about e-safety (such as handbooks, manuals, session plans). Training courses that are delivered in a variety of formats to children and young people and those who care for or work with them. Public awareness campaigns on e-safety to raise awareness and educate children and young people and those who work with and care for them (such as PR and advertising, press releases, TV and radio footage, print media etc). In the survey, organisations were asked to indicate: which of the above methods they use to deliver their e-safety work; the specific e-safety themes covered under each method; and the target audience of each method. 37
  • 39. Table 3 provides a breakdown of the methods used by organisations that responded to the survey. Table 3: Breakdown of methods used to deliver e-safety work Sector Total e-safety messages number Resources Training of survey materials responses Voluntary and 11 7 3 community sector Statutory sector 10 6 2 Training courses 11 Public Awareness Campaigns 4 8 4 Private sector 4 4 3 2 3 Total 25 17 8 21 11 Source: NCB NI e-safety survey, 2013. Table 3 above shows that, on the whole, the vast majority of organisations across all sectors deliver e-safety messages using a variety of the four methods identified. Training courses Training courses were the most common type of delivery method, with over four-fifths (21 out of 25) of responding organisations reporting that they had used this method. Six of the organisations (PSNI C-district, PSNI E district, WHSCT, Mencap’s Livenet Project, NIACRO and NSPCC) reported having staff trained as CEOP ambassadors. CEOP Ambassadors are qualified to deliver the Thinkuknow education programme to children and young people and to train fellow professionals to deliver the Thinkuknow education programme. In addition, NSPCC provide CEOP Thinkuknow and CEOP Ambassador training to other organisations in Northern Ireland. In the majority of cases (16 of the 21 organisations), the training courses are solely dedicated to esafety with the remaining organisations delivering e-safety modules as part of a wider course. In terms of themes, the most common areas of e-safety covered in the courses are use of mobile phones; sexting; cyber bullying; privacy and personal information, online reputation and keeping information secure online. The majority of the organisations reported delivering training courses in a typical workshop or presentation style format. However, two of the organisations (Beam Creative Network and PSNI C District, in association with Saltmine Trust) reported delivering the training using drama plays. 38
  • 40. Table 4 below provides an overview of the target audience of e-safety training courses delivered by organisations. Table 4: Target audience of e-safety training courses [21 organisations] Target group No. of courses Primary school children Post primary school children Children with SEN Parents and carers Teachers Other professionals and practitioners 8 10 4 9 7 10 Source: NCB NI e-safety survey, 2013. Table 4 above shows that training courses exist for the range of audiences, including children with special educational needs, with no gaps identified for any particular audience. Resources Resources were the next most commonly used method for delivering e-safety messages. Table 5 overleaf shows that almost three-quarters (18 out of 25) of organisations reporting having developed their own resources. Resource types varied and included online safety games; comic books; eBooks; leaflets; videos; pens; guidance on aspects of e-safety and information on websites. In terms of themes, the most common e-safety themes covered by resources were safer social networking; cyber bullying; privacy and personal information and use of mobile phones. Examples of some of the themed resources include: ‘Social Networking and You’57 (BAAF) Advice on social networking for people separated from their birth parents ‘What is Cyber Bullying?’58 (NIABF) A leaflet on cyber bullying for parents and carers; ‘How to Beat the Cyber Bully’59 (Beat the Cyber Bully) EBook on cyber bullying for parents and educators; and ‘GAA Social Media Policy and Guidelines’60 (NSPCC with Gaelic Athletic Association). 57 http://www.baaf.org.uk/bookshop/book_snay http://niabf.org.uk/images/stories/cyber_bullying_leaflet_2011.pdf 59 http://beatthecyberbully.com/ 60 http://www.gaa.ie/content/documents/publications/digital_media/Social_Media_Policies_Guidelines_2012_Final.pdf 58 39
  • 41. Table 5: Target audience of e-safety resources [18 organisations] Target group No. of resources Primary school children Post primary school children Children with SEN Parents and carers Teachers Other professionals and practitioners 10 13 9 12 12 11 Source: NCB NI e-safety survey, 2013. Table 5 above shows that resources exist for the range of audiences including, for example, children with SEN. Our analysis reveals that there are no gaps for any of the particular groups. Some examples of resources targeted at particular audiences are as follows: Mencap’s Livenet project developed an e-safety comic book for young people with a learning disability61; South Belfast DPCSP have produced a pen with e-safety messages for young people; and C2K has developed videos and DVDs to support professional development of teachers. Public awareness messages Nearly one-half (11 out of 25) of respondents stated that their organisation had delivered public awareness campaigns on e-safety in the last 12 months. The format of campaigns varied and included, for example, press releases and premium PR (Public Relations) marketing. For example: OFMDFM issued a press release to promote Internet Safer Day 2013; WHSCT issued press releases publicising e-safety conferences; No Bullying used premium marketing from PR web to issue a press release daily for 12 months on anti-bullying; In terms of themes, the most common e-safety themes covered by public awareness messages were cyber bullying, use of mobile phones, sexting, online grooming and privacy and personal information. Some of the themed public awareness messages include: 61 http://www.livenet.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/esafety-comic.pdf 40
  • 42. Media campaign on understanding the cyber playground, which had a focus on how cyber bullying is still bullying (NIABF); Feature on UTV live tonight on impact of online pornography (Beat the Cyber Bully); and Articles in local press about e-safety, cyber bullying, online gaming and social networking (PSNI C District). The respondents were asked to report on the target audience for their public awareness messages. The findings can be seen in Table 6. Table 6: Target audience of public awareness messages [11 organisations] No. of public Target group messages Primary school children Post primary school children Children with SEN Parents and carers Teachers Other professionals and practitioners awareness 4 7 3 10 7 6 Source: NCB NI e-safety survey, 2013. Most of the organisations’ public awareness campaigns were targeted at parents (10 out of 11). A high number were also targeted at post primary school aged children (7 out of 11) with a lesser number targeted at primary school aged children (4 out of 11). Training materials Developing training materials was the least common method reported of delivering e-safety messages. Almost one-third (8 out of 25) of the responding organisations reported that they had developed training materials and in most cases these had been developed for others to use in training children, young people, practitioners and teachers on e-safety. For example, NIABF and C2K have produced lesson plans for teachers to use in school to educate pupils about different aspects of e-safety, for example, cyber bullying. NIABF plans are available to schools and organisations that register for Anti-Bullying week each year, while C2K lesson plans are available to all teachers in Northern Ireland through C2K services for schools. The most common e-safety themes covered by training materials were sexting, cyber bullying, online grooming, safer social networking and use of mobile phones. Respondents were asked to report the target audience for their e-safety training materials and this is illustrated in Table 7. 41
  • 43. Table 7: Target audience of e-safety training materials [8 organisations] No. of e-safety Target group materials Primary school children Post-primary school children Children with SEN Parents and carers Teachers Other professionals and practitioners training 4 5 2 5 6 4 Source: NCB NI e-safety survey, 2013 Table 7 above shows that training materials exist for the range of audiences with no gaps for any audience. Most training materials have been developed for teachers with 6 out of 8 organisations developing materials for them. C2k, No Bullying, X Ray Data and NIABF all described the lesson plans they have developed for teachers. It is clear from the findings above that there are many organisations delivering a range of e-safety content in Northern Ireland. Appendix E provides more detailed information on each of the organisations, including the e-safety messages used and examples of some of their key work in the area of e-safety. Partnership working in delivering e-safety messages The survey also explored the levels of partnership working that exist across organisations delivering e-safety messages in Northern Ireland. On the whole, the majority of organisations (21 out of 25) reported working in partnership to some degree. Interestingly, when respondents were asked to identify the organisations that they work in partnership with, many respondents reported working with the large UK-wide bodies discussed in the initial sections of this chapter. For example: Six organisations work alongside CEOP to deliver the Thinkuknow training and a few other organisations reported working with CEOP to develop resources and training materials (including PSNI C-district, PSNI E-district, WHSCT, Mencap’s Livenet Project, NIACRO and NSPCC). Three organisations (C2K, BHSCT (Belfast Health and Social Care Trust) and OFMDFM) also reported working with the UK Safer Internet Centre to develop their e-safety content. The survey also identified various levels of partnership working in Northern Ireland, including: 42
  • 44. Mencap’s Livenet project which is a joint initiative between Mencap, Citizens Online, The Chartered Institute for IT and British Computer Society. NIABF which is a membership organisation and as such all of its work, including that on e-safety, is developed with the members. The PSNI - who were reported as working with many organisations including the various DCPSPs, the Saltmine Trust, and the various Health & Social Care Trusts The Western Health & Social Care Trust – who have worked with the PSNI, Nexus NI and the Western Education & Library Board. Other examples of partnership working tended to involve two or, at most, three organisations working together on specific projects. Survey respondents from private sector organisations also reported working in partnership, however they did not identify the specific organisations or individuals with whom they work. E-safety messaging – an analysis of survey respondents’ websites To assess the e-safety messages that exist in NI in greater detail, we undertook a search of the websites of organisations that responded to the survey. Overall, the key findings51 from this exercise are that: Only half of the organisations (13 out of 25) had messages about e-safety on their websites that could be easily accessed (i.e. that had no cost attached and was easy to locate on the website). The organisations are as follows:- BAAF - Barnardo’s Safe Choices - Beat the Cyber Bully - C2K - Cyber Safety Advice - Mencap’s Livenet - NIABF - No Bullying - NSPCC NI - OFMDFM’s main website and through their managed website NI Direct - PSNI’s main website and also through their UrZone website - Western Health and Social Care Trust (WHSCT) - X Ray data Only eight organisations had information about the e-safety training they offer on their websites, this is despite 21 organisations stating in the survey that they offer training courses. 43
  • 45. The greatest amount of information on e-safety was found on the NI Direct website. NI Direct is the official Government website for Northern Ireland citizens. It aims to make it easier for NI Citizens to access government information and services. It is managed by the Executive Information Service of OFMDFM. The website provides a wide range of e-safety messages targeted at both parents and young people including information on cyber bullying; downloading and illegal file sharing; internet terms and language; online gaming; mobile phones and identity fraud. They also have a downloadable poster and leaflet promoting the Click Clever, Click Safe campaign. In addition, they provide signposting to a wide range of Northern Ireland and UK websites for more information. The main OFMDFM site refers very briefly to e-safety. It is in reference to ‘Sophie Safe’ one of the Super Six characters that was developed by OFMDFM to help translate the 10 Year Children’s Strategy to younger readers. OFMDFM also signpost to other organisations in the UK and NI for more information. The main PSNI website contains general tips on keeping safe online and information for parents on parental controls and where to keep a computer. They also have a site for young people ‘UrZone’. This site provides information to young people on how to keep safe online, phishing, chatroom safety, viruses, trojans and software – both PSNI sites signpost to other NI and UK organisations working in the area of e-safety. Interestingly, the main PSNI website provides advice that parents should keep their children’s computers in a family room so they can monitor what their children are doing online. According to UKCCIS, this advice is now viewed as outdated as young people access the internet from so many other e-technologies such as mobile phones and tablet computers.62 The e-safety training they offer could only be found through press releases on their website that promoted the internet safety talks that they have delivered in schools. Nonetheless, we know from the previous sections that the PSNI deliver CEOP’s Thinkuknow internet safety programme to primary and post primary schools throughout NI as part of their Citizen and Safety Education (CASE) programme. BAAF, NSPCC and Barnardo's do not refer in great detail to e-safety in the NI sections of their websites; however e-safety is covered on their main websites. Barnardo’s have general information for parents and young people on how to keep safe online and more specific information on sexual exploitation. BAAF’s content focuses on advice for people who have been separated from their birth families making contact online. NSPCC’s main website provides very detailed information on different aspects of e-safety for parents, young people and practitioners. This includes general information for parents on keeping their children safe online and more specific information on sexting, bullying and sexual exploitation. They have guidance and resources for schools and teachers and safeguarding information for all people that work with children and young people. They refer children and young people to their Childline website for advice which can be tailored to their needs. The e-safety training offered by NSPCC and BAAF is found through their main websites. 62 UKCCIS Evidence Group (2012) Children’s Online Activities: Risks and Safety, The UK Evidence Base. London: UKCCIS. Available online at: http://www.saferinternet.org.uk/downloads/Research_Highlights/UKCCIS_Report_2012.pdf 44
  • 46. No Bullying has a wide range of articles on their website which are targeted at young people, teachers, parents and health professionals. The subjects covered include general internet safety; cyber bullying; sexting; educating children and developing cyber bullying policies. Most of their articles refer to international (mainly American) websites and use international statistics and case studies. The X-Ray data site promotes software to protect children online; it does not contain any esafety messages but signposts to the No Bullying web site. Two private sector organisations Beat the Cyber Bully and Cyber Safety Advice have blogs which are regularly updated on different aspects of e-safety. The blogs provide comment on news reports on e-safety issues and technological developments. Beat The Cyber Bully has also developed a free eBook ‘How to Beat the Cyber Bully63’ which is downloadable from their website. Both organisations promote their e-safety training through their websites. Neither of the organisations appear to signpost to other websites for further information. However, Beat the Cyber Bully stated in their survey response that they are due to launch a new website which will contain more information on e-safety. The NIABF website provides extensive information on cyber bullying for young people, parents and practitioners. The website contains downloadable resources and lesson plans for teachers and a downloadable leaflet for parents ‘What is cyber bullying64’? The website promotes bespoke training that is offered on demand and also signposts to other NI and UK websites. The Western HSCT website provides a downloadable resource for young people in care ‘Be Internet Safe Booklet65’. The website also has information for practitioners on e-safety training available and conferences the organisation has held on the topic. The main C2K website contains a limited amount of information on e-safety rather they signpost to other NI and UK organisations resources and websites. The Department of Education’s website, for example, includes a variety of information on e-safety. It contains two circulars on internet safety ‘2011/12 Internet Safety’ and ‘2007/1 Acceptable use of the internet and digital technologies in schools’66. DE’s website also provides guidance for schools and teachers, including their responsibilities; codes of practice; internet safety education for pupils; social software and child protection specifically relating to cyber bullying, grooming and child pornography. DE’s website also provides signposting to a wide range of Northern Ireland and UK websites for more information. Mencap’s Livenet website promotes two e-safety resources, a downloadable e-safety comic book67 for young people and a video and song to promote Internet Safety Day 201368. They also promote their e-safety workshops for children young people and adults with a learning 63 See footnote 55 See footnote 54 65 http://www.westerntrust.hscni.net/pdf/Internet_Safety_Booklet_final.pdf 66 See footnote 47 67 See footnote 57 68 http://www.livenet.org.uk/sing-a-long_2126 64 45
  • 47. disability and families, carers, staff and volunteers supporting people with a learning disability. In addition they signpost to other UK resources and websites. What is very clear from all of the points above is the extent to which organisations signpost users to other local and UK websites for further information. Our analysis shows that the websites most commonly signposted are the CEOP main website69 and their educational website Thinkuknow70 (8 out of 13 organisations). Whilst The UK Safer Internet Centre 71 website is only signposted by one organisation, the websites of its affiliated organisations such as Childnet72, Internet Watch Foundation73, Kidsmart74, and Chatdanger75 are signposted by seven of the 13 organisations. The NSPCC’s76 website and the associated Childline77 site are also frequently signposted (6 of the 13 organisations). The survey findings identified the most common themes of e-safety covered by organisations in Northern Ireland as cyber bullying; privacy and personal information; the use of mobile phones; and sexting. The search of the organisations websites confirmed this finding. In the website search the most content available was on cyber bullying. 69 http://www.ceop.police.uk/ http://www.thinkuknow.co.uk/ 71 http://www.saferinternet.org.uk/ 72 http://www.childnet.com/ 73 https://www.iwf.org.uk/ 74 http://www.kidsmart.org.uk/ 75 http://www.chatdanger.com/ 76 http://www.nspcc.org.uk/ 77 http://www.childline.org.uk 70 46
  • 48. Assessing the quality of e-safety messaging: ‘Cyber bullying’ – a case study Whilst the previous sections report the findings from our analysis of the quantity and type of esafety messages on websites in NI, this section takes our analysis one step further and assesses the quality of e-safety messages using the cyber bullying theme as a case study. The cyber bulling theme was chosen due to the quantity of related safety messages available across websites – it is the only e-safety theme, at present, which has sufficient coverage on NI websites to conduct such a detailed analysis of quality. Cyber bullying messages – the terminology At a very high level, the first finding to report is the level of confusion and inconsistency that exists regarding the terminology used in cyber bullying messages. For example, both No Bullying and Beat the Cyber Bully use the terms ‘bully’ and ‘victim’ in their literature. One of No Bullying’s messages on cyber bullying is that children may be the bully as well as the victim: “There are several methods of cyber bullying and the bully may change roles going from the bully to the victim and back again” 78 (No Bullying) Beat the Cyber Bully has the term ‘bully’ in the name of their organsiation and in the title of their ebook ‘Tips On How To Beat The Cyber Bully’79. Whereas other organisations, for example, NIABF80 recommend that children should not be labelled as a ‘victim’ or ‘bully/perpetrator’ rather they recommend the use of the terms ‘the child who has been bullied’ or ‘target of bullying’ and ‘child who is displaying bullying behaviour’81. This conflicting terminology will not be overly applicable to parents and young people. However, at an organisational level this will be an issue as organisations will have to decide what language they use in their work with children and young people. Cyber bullying messages for parents Looking more in depth at the safety messages for parents in relation to cyber bullying, Table 8 overleaf presents a sample of 16 different messages taken from the website literature of 5 relevant organisations: 78 http://nobullying.com/cyber-bullying-prevention/ See footnote 55 80 The Northern Ireland Anti-Bullying Forum (NIABF) has a membership of over twenty regional statutory and voluntary organisations all acting together to end bullying of children and young people. 81 NIABF Defining Bullying http://niabf.org.uk/images/stories/documents/resources/labelling.pdf 79 47
  • 49. NIABF82 NI Direct83 No Bullying84 Beat the Cyber Bully85 Childnet86 As well as the four NI based organistions above, Childnet - the UK wide organistion - was also selected for inclusion due to the extensive work it has conducted on cyber bullying. Table 8 illustrates that whilst not conflicting in their advice, the levels of inconsistency that exist across the sampled messages is an issue. For example, only 4 of the 16 (a quarter) messages are present in the literature from all five organisations therefore a parent looking at each of these 5 organisation’s websites would be faced with the challenge of deciphering 16 different messages and deciding which messages to take on board. Furthermore, we would suggest that those messages such as having rules in place for children’s use of computers, having the family computer in a public place but being aware that young people can access the internet through other devices and discouraging children from having e-technologies in their bedroom at night; are all important for parents, yet they are only advocated by one organisation. 82 83 http://niabf.org.uk/images/stories/cyber_bullying_leaflet_2011.pdf http://www.nidirect.gov.uk/index/information-and-services/parents/your-childs-health-and-safety/internet-safety/cyberbullyingkeep-your-child-safe-on-computers-and-mobile-phones.htm 84 http://nobullying.com/what-is-cyber-bullying/ 84 http://nobullying.com/an-examination-of-cyber-bullying-in-the-uk-part-i/ 84 http://nobullying.com/cyber-bullying-faq-part-i/ 84 http://nobullying.com/cyber-bullying-faq-part-ii/ 84 http://nobullying.com/cyber-bullying-faq-part-iii/ 84 http://nobullying.com/cyber-bullying-prevention/ 85 Ebook Tips on how to Beat the Cyber Bully http://beatthecyberbully.com/ 86 http://www.childnet.com/ufiles/cyberbullying_teachers.pdf 86 http://digizen.org/downloads/cyberbullyingOverview.pdf 48
  • 50. Table 8: A sample of cyber bullying messages directed at parents Childnet NIABF Cyber bullying messages for parents NI Direct No Bullying Your child might be cyber bullying others as well as experiencing cyber bullying Be alert to your child seeming upset after using the internet or their mobile phone Talk with your children and understand the ways in which they are using the internet and their mobile phone. Use the tools on the service and turn on in-built internet safety features. Remind your child not to retaliate Y Y N Y Beat the Cyber Bully N Y N Y Y N Y Y Y Y Y Y N Y N N Y Y Y Y Y Keep the evidence of offending emails, text messages or online conversations. Report cyber bullying Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Agree rules for using computers including what to do if they think they are experiencing cyber bullying Make sure your child knows how to behave online, teach them about ‘Netiquette’ Have family computer in a public place, but be aware that many children and young people use smart phones and other devices to access the internet Try to discourage children and young people from having e-technologies in bedroom at night. Remind your child never to give out their password Discuss with child that they should avoid giving name, email address or phone number outside family and friend circle Do a Google search to find out if there are any inappropriate pictures, posts or information about your child Don’t bar the internet N Y N N N N Y N Y N N Y N N N N Y N N N Y Y Y Y N N N Y Y N N N N Y N N N N N Y Signpost places where they can go for help Y Y Y N N 49
  • 51. Cyber bullying messages for children and young people Table 9 below shows eight different e-safety messages for children and young people on how to protect themselves from cyber bullying and what to do if they are experiencing cyber bullying. These messages were identified through literature from the following five organisations: Childnet87 NI Direct88 No Bullying89 Beat the Cyber Bully90 Western Health and Social Care Trust91 Table 9: Cyber bullying messages targeted at children and young people Cyber bullying messages for children and Childnet NI Direct No young people Bullying Always respect others – be careful what you say Y online and what images you send. Think before you send – whatever you send can Y be made public very quickly and could stay online forever. Treat your password like your toothbrush – Y keep it to yourself. Only give your mobile number or personal website address to trusted friends. Block the bully – learn how to block or report Y someone who is behaving badly Don’t retaliate or reply Y Save the evidence – learn how to keep records Y of offending messages, pictures or online conversations. Make sure you tell an adult you trust, or call a Y helpline like Childline Try changing your online user ID or nickname N 87 87 N Y Beat the WHSCT Cyber Bully Y N Y Y N N Y Y N N Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y N N N http://www.childnet.com/ufiles/cyberbullying_teachers.pdf http://digizen.org/downloads/cyberbullyingOverview.pdf 88 http://www.nidirect.gov.uk/index/information-and-services/young-people/health-safety-and-relationships/bullying/cyberbullyingan-introduction.htm 89 http://nobullying.com/what-is-cyber-bullying/ 89 http://nobullying.com/an-examination-of-cyber-bullying-in-the-uk-part-i/ 89 http://nobullying.com/cyber-bullying-faq-part-i/ 89 http://nobullying.com/cyber-bullying-faq-part-ii/ 89 http://nobullying.com/cyber-bullying-faq-part-iii/ 89 http://nobullying.com/cyber-bullying-prevention/ 90 Ebook Tips on how to Beat the Cyber Bully http://beatthecyberbully.com/ 91 http://www.westerntrust.hscni.net/pdf/Internet_Safety_Booklet_final.pdf 50
  • 52. Table 9 illustrates that whilst not conflicting in their advice, the levels of inconsistency that exist across the sampled messages to young people is an issue. However, the inconsistency is not to the same extent as in the messages to parents. Half of the messages (four out of eight) are present in the literature from all five organisations and three of the messages are advocated by three or four of the organisations. Only one of the messages ‘try changing your online user ID or nickname’ was included by only one of the organisations examined. While there is less inconsistency with the messages to young people than to parents it may still be challenging for a young person to decipher all eight messages from the five different organisations and decide which to advice to follow. 51
  • 53. Key players in Northern Ireland’s e-safety arena Looking across all the findings reported in this chapter, a number of key organisations appear to dominate the e-safety arena in Northern Ireland. At a Government level, OFMDFM are taking the lead in this area. As well as undertaking the aforementioned cross-departmental review on current and future actions, they — work on a cross departmental basis and with a number of national bodies, charities and regional organisations who promote internet safety. The Children and Young People’s Unit (CYPU) helps to promote a cross departmental/agency approach to identify appropriate measures to promote child e-safety; — manage the NI Direct website through the Executive Information Service, this website has advice and information on different aspects of e-safety for young people and parents; — assisted with the development of a set of questions on e-safety in ARK’s (Access Research Knowledge) Kids Life and Times Survey; — promoted Internet Safety Day 2013 in collaboration with UK Safer Internet Centre; and — have addressed Assembly Questions on the issue of e-safety. In the statutory sector, the WHSCT and C2K are leading the way in health and education respectively and the PSNI are also very involved in this arena. WHSCT has delivered a wide range of work in this area, including: hosting two conferences on e-safety; developing e-safety resources for children, parents and practitioners, and; progressing the development of an internet safety portal. In addition, it has worked with a range of stakeholders (Headliners, WELB and Nexus NI) to provide training to schools, youth groups and practitioners. They have also delivered CEOP Thinkuknow e-safety training to 160 practitioners. The breadth of their work is evident in the following quotation: “The Western Trust was the first health Trust in Northern Ireland to recognise internet safety as an issue for children and vulnerable adults. We have worked tirelessly with partner organisations to highlight this and are aiming to provide training and awareness raising to all population groups in the West. We have recognised that practitioners and parents often admit to a gap in knowledge and are working towards an evidence based package of training and resources that will fill that void and increase awareness.” (WHSCT representative) C2K provide e-safety support for all teachers in Northern Ireland. They have developed resources such as videos and DVD’s and editable PowerPoint presentations for teachers to use in lessons. They have also developed support documentation for schools to devise their own e-safety policies. C2K also held six E-Safety Live briefings in conjunction with UK Safer Internet Centre in March of this year (2013) 52
  • 54. The PSNI deliver CEOP’s Thinkuknow internet safety programme to primary and postprimary schools throughout NI as part of their Citizen and Safety Education (CASE) programme. They work in partnership with many organisations on e-safety including the Health and Social Care Trusts and Police and Community Safety Partnerships. The C district are working with the Saltmine Trust and the Police and Community Safety Partnerships to deliver a drama workshop to all local primary schools on aspects of e-safety. In the voluntary and community sector, NSPCC appear to have delivered the most work in this sector. NSPCC commission and deliver a range of information, resources and services for the sector. This includes messages on e-safety in a variety of formats (e.g. face-to-face training, presentations). They undertake research in the area and have developed guidelines for social media and sample online safety and ICT policies. They also deliver Childline Schools Service in NI primary schools which covers online safety and cyber bullying and they not only have staff trained as CEOP ambassadors they also deliver the CEOP Thinkuknow introduction and Ambassador training to other organisations. In addition NSPCC Northern Ireland submitted a briefing paper on internet safety to the children’s spokespersons for a Northern Ireland Assembly debate on internet safety in February 201392. In terms of e-safety themes, the theme covered by most organisations is cyber bullying. Extensive work does not appear to have been completed by any local organisation on other esafety themes, such as sexting, privacy and personal information and the use of mobile phones. NIABF appear to have the most expertise in the area of cyber bullying, although it has also emerged that the private sector organisation Beat the Cyber Bully is undertaking significant work on this topic. NIABF has developed over 20 different teaching resources on cyber-bullying for primary, post-primary and special schools. They have developed a cyber bullying leaflet for parents and carers and developed and delivered workshops on the topic to this audience. They have also developed and delivered workshops on cyber bullying to young people. In addition, NIABF have delivered media campaigns on understanding the cyber playground, recognising and dealing with bullying behaviours online and promoting responsible online behaviour. Beat the Cyber Bully facilitate workshops with young people in schools and in youth and community groups on e-safety. They also deliver parents awareness evenings and facilitate parent workshops on e-safety. They have written an ebook on cyber bullying and developed e-safety leaflets. They also keep an online blog on current e-safety issues. They have presented evidence to the Culture, Arts and Leisure Committee’s investigation into Safeguarding Children in Sport and they have delivered e-safety messages through national and local media. 92 http://www.nspcc.org.uk/Inform/policyandpublicaffairs/northernireland/consultations/ni-internet-safetyday_wdf94543.pdf 53
  • 55. Impact of e-safety messages in Northern Ireland There have been no evaluations conducted to examine the impact of e-safety messaging work developed locally in Northern Ireland or validation of some of the organisations delivering these messages. However, it is worthwhile noting that the evaluations done of both Safer Internet Day and CEOP’s Thinuknow programme had an NI sample. For example, 23% of participating schools in the Thinkuknow evaluation were from Northern Ireland. 54
  • 56. Summary There is no overarching policy in Northern Ireland which addresses e-safety. OFMDFM is currently undertaking a cross-departmental review on child e-safety. The purpose of the review is to identify current and proposed future actions which Departments intend to take to support child e-safety. The review will also inform opportunities for a more coordinated approach across government. The findings are currently under consideration. E-safety messages are delivered in four main ways, namely via: - Resources to help educate children and young people, and those who care for and work with them, about e-safety (such as videos, leaflets, checklists, books, website information); - Training materials to help professionals educate children and young people, and those who care for and work with them, about e-safety (such as handbooks, manuals, session plans); - Training courses that are delivered in a variety of formats to children and young people and those who care for or work with them; and - Public awareness campaigns on e-safety to raise awareness and educate children and young people and those who work with and care for them (such as PR and advertising, press releases, TV and radio footage, print media etc). Analysis of responses found that training courses and resources are the most common methods use to deliver e-safety messages in NI. In addition, regardless of delivery method, the survey found that a similar number of e-safety messages are targeted at children and young people (including those with SEN) as are targeted at parents/carers and at professionals. Much of the esafety work in the voluntary and community sector is targeted at children and young people who are more vulnerable to certain online risks, e.g. children with a learning disability. The results of the survey suggest that there are a wide range of organisations delivering e-safety messages across Northern Ireland that span the statutory, community and voluntary, and private sectors. There are varying levels of collaboration on e-safety with examples of extensive partnership working being undertaken. Regardless of delivery method, the most common areas/themes covered by organisations in this area include: cyber bullying; privacy and personal information; the use of mobile phones; and sexting. Analysis undertaken by NCB NI of survey respondents’ websites shows that one-half of these organisations did not have information about e-safety on their websites that was accessible i.e. available at no cost or easily located on the website. 55
  • 57. The websites most commonly signposted by survey respondents are the CEOP main website and their educational website Thinkuknow. The UK Safer Internet Centre website is only signposted by one organisation, however, the websites of its affiliated organisations such as Childnet, Internet Watch Foundation, Kidsmart, and Chatdanger are commonly signposted. The NSPCC’s website and the associated Childline site are also frequently signposted. E-safety advice which is now considered unsuitable was found on one website. Locating the family computer in a common area of a house is no longer considered to be helpful advice given the proliferation of portable electronic devices that children own or have access to. There was only enough content on websites to do a quality assessment on cyber bullying. An analysis of cyber bullying messages for parents and young people showed that importantly there was no conflicting advice but equally importantly there was inconsistency in the number of messages delivered by different organisations. This inconsistency could pose a challenge for a parent or young person when deciphering the different messages and deciding which ones to trust. At a very high level, there is confusion and inconsistency that exists regarding the terminology used in cyber bullying messages. Some organisations use the terms ‘victim’ and ‘bully’. Whereas other organisations, for example, NIABF recommend that children should not be labelled as a ‘victim’ or ‘bully/perpetrator’ rather they recommend the use of the terms ‘the child who has been bullied’ or ‘target of bullying’ and ‘child who is displaying bullying behaviour’. This conflicting terminology will not be overly applicable to parents and young people. However, at an organisational level this will be an issue as organisations will have to decide what language they use in their work with children and young people. A key number of organisations appear to dominate the e-safety arena in Northern Ireland. These are OFMDFM, Western HSCT, C2K, PSNI, NSPCC, NIABF and Beat the Cyber Bully. There have been no evaluations conducted to examine the impact of e-safety messaging work developed locally in Northern Ireland or validation of some of the organisations delivering these messages. 56
  • 58. 7. User perspective of online e-safety messages This chapter of the report examines online safety messages from the perspective of the user, namely young people and parents. This perspective was captured through a separate focus group with both users which explored scenarios about contemporary e-safety issues. The key findings from the discussions are detailed below. Whilst the findings are obviously not representative of parents and young people as a whole, they provide a useful and realistic insight into how both groups would approach an e-safety issue. A young person’s perspective on e-safety messages available online To test how easy or challenging it can be for young people to access appropriate advice and guidance about contemporary e-safety issues online, a small number of Young NCB members were invited to take part in a focus group to explore three e-safety scenarios relating to cyber bullying; sexting and offensive messaging. The young people were asked to put themselves in the position of the young person portrayed in the scenario and to use the internet to search for advice. The findings of this exercise are summarised below with some relevant quotes added to support the findings. Cyber bullying The scenario Ellie is 14 years old and has an Ask.fm account. Normally she loves having it; she has lots of friends on it and really enjoys talking to people on it. Recently, however, she has started to get lots of nasty messages from a person she doesn’t know. The messages have upset her but she doesn’t want to close her Ask.fm account. Search terms The young people used a wide variety of terms to search for advice/guidance. Most young people used whole or partial sentence structures to search for advice. The following search terms were used: Help for cyberbullying; What to do if you have been cyberbullied; Girl bullied on ask.fm advice; Girl bullied on ask.fm; Advice for internet bullying; Bully advice for kids; Cyber bullying advice; and If I get bullied online on ask.fm how do I stop it without deleting. 57
  • 59. Usefulness of advice Overall, all of the young people were able to find information/advice in relation to cyber bullying using a number of searches. Whilst not all of the information accessed on websites was thought to be useful, each young person accessed at least one, and in most cases two, websites that contained useful information. “The help guide has a range of measures which were helpful and they also had explanations.” (Young Person) “Yes it helped... because it is Childline and they always have advice.” (Young person) “Yes, the advice is helpful as it’s made for teens.” (Young person) “Yes, if you follow the steps, you can shorten the bullying.” (Young person) Sexting The scenario Molly is 15 years old. When she was going out with her boyfriend for 6 months he asked her to send him some naked photos of herself. Molly sent the naked photos to him. They broke up shortly afterwards and she has since found out that he sent the photos to other people. Search terms The young people used a wide variety of terms to search for advice/guidance and tended to use these within full or partial sentence structures, such as: Help I’ve sent naked photos; What to do if you sent naked photos; Sexting advice; 15 year old girl sends photos; My 15 year old took nude pictures of herself and sent them to her boyfriend what can I do to help; Nudity bullying online pics sent and posted online advice; Usefulness of advice Overall, young people were easily able to find content relevant to the scenario. However, the appropriateness of this content varied. Some young people found advice which they thought would be useful if faced with such a situation whereas others found advice which they thought actively promoted ‘sexting’. For example, one website located by the young people provided hints/tips on how to ‘sext’ safely – whilst the website in question is not targeted at children and young people, 58
  • 60. the fact that they came across it so easily highlights the issues and risks faced by young people when going online to find support on these issues. “It gives you advice and it’s up to you to make a choice.” (Young person) “It gives dangers of sexting, which is helpful for adults and teenagers... it gives parents advice on using cyber monitors... it also has a video from CEOP which is very good.” (Young person) “The first search I did was ‘help I’ve sent naked photos’ and the website I looked at is not useful at all; it tells you what photographs to take, e.g. use good lighting – this encourages sexting, and provides no advice at all.” (Young person) “No helpful advice [on the website]” (Young person) Offensive messaging The scenario One of your friends Jason is 15 years old. He uses Facebook a lot and frequently posts photographs of himself and his friends getting drunk and smoking cigarettes. He also sometimes posts insulting and offensive messages on his wall and also writes inappropriate comments on other people’s posts. You and your other friends don’t like his online behaviour so you want to find some information and advice to help deal with Jason’s issue. Search terms The young people used a wide variety of terms to search for advice/guidance and again tended to use these in full sentence structures. The following search terms were used: How do I deal with inappropriate comments on Facebook; How to deal with people posting offensive comments on Facebook; Facebook inappropriate comments; 15 year old boy drinking on Facebook; A friend of mine is posting offensive things on Facebook what can I do; and Reporting abusive behaviour on Facebook Usefulness of advice Overall, all of the young people easily found at least one piece of information/advice that was helpful and met their needs. In this case, the ease with which young people could find useful information seemed to be aided by the use of the word ‘Facebook’ in the search terms. “All Facebook [a particular website] is very helpful... [it gives advice on] direct actions to take.” (Young person) 59
  • 61. “It was very easy... because it shows all of the information that I need.” (Young person) “Yes – it’s all there.” (Young person) “Yes – it told you what you could do and was the first page to come up.” (Young person) On the whole, the focus group with young people found that accessing useful advice on e-safety issues is relatively easy. All of the young people in the group used effective search terminology that enabled them to access such advice. However, the focus group also found that young people are also at risk of accessing inappropriate content which may put them at greater risk. A parent’s perspective on e-safety messages available online A similar focus group was also conducted with a group of parents to explore how they would find advice and guidance on e-safety issues online. The focus group examined two scenarios related to contemporary e-safety issues, namely: cyber bullying and sexting. Accessing e-safety advice It is interesting to note that the majority of parents in the focus group stated they were not regular users of a computer and all of the parents commented that they would never use an internet search engine to find information on such issues. These parents felt that the amount of information available online would act as a barrier to being able to access the most appropriate advice. “There’s just too much information that doesn’t help any situation, I know if you try to look up something the doctor told you on the internet you end up thinking you’re going to die.” (Parent) “I wouldn’t know which stuff to look at because so much comes up when you do a search.” (Parent) Some of the parents in the group expressed very negative views towards the internet. These views had been informed by recent stories in the media about online grooming and children taking their own lives due to cyber bullying. “They should never have made the internet.” (Parent) When asked about how they would address such e-safety concerns, participants reported on the importance of parents talking to their children to find out what is going on in their lives. Participants also felt that if a parent has a good relationship with their child, e-safety issues would be less likely to arise. “You don’t need the internet to tell you what to do if your child is being bullied.” (Parent) Further discussion with the parents suggested that their general knowledge on e-safety had been acquired through talking to other people within their community and through traditional media such as TV and newspapers. 60
  • 62. “You just know about it [cyber bullying] you hear about it from talking to your friends and other mums and from reading the newspapers.” (Parent) Despite these views, the participating parents were given access to an internet search engine and were asked to search for information, putting themselves in the position of the parents in the two scenarios. Cyber bullying The scenario Your daughter is 13 and she getting nasty messages on social networking sites from people she knows and also from strangers. Focus group participants all immediately recognised that the scenario was a bullying issue and all agreed that they would use the search term ‘bullying’ to try to access information. Usefulness of advice Using this search term returned so many results that focus group participants struggled to choose which website they would access to find guidance. Only one of the parents stated that regardless of the type of e-safety issue, she would go to the websites of well known organisations like NSPCC and Childline for advice as she felt the information on their websites could be trusted, a view that other focus group participants then shared. “I would go to the likes of NSPCC because they’re a big organisation and you know you can trust them.”(Parent) Sexting The scenario Your son is 15, he has received a naked picture on his phone of a girl he knows. The girl is also 15, you know the girl and her parents. The following search terms were used by focus group participants: What to do if you son is receiving a dirty picture on his phone? What to do child sexting? Usefulness of the advice Participants found that the results of the above searches identified too much information online about the topic and made it difficult for them to decide what was relevant and met their needs. Similar to the findings from the first scenario above, focus group participants again stated they 61
  • 63. would go to the websites of well known organisations such as NSPCC to obtain information that they could trust. “I’d go to NSPCC again; you wouldn’t know what information you would find out on the other organisations websites.” (Parent) 62
  • 64. Summary The focus group with young people found that accessing useful advice on e-safety issues is relatively easy. All of the young people in the group used effective search terminology that enabled them to access such advice. However, the focus found that young people are also at risk of accessing inappropriate content which may put them their safety at greater risk. The focus group with this particular group of parents found that the internet would not be a source of information that they would use if faced with an e-safety issue. This could perhaps be explained by the fact that this group of parents were not users of ICT or the internet in general. If they did have to use the internet to access advice or support, these parents indicated that they would access the websites of well known and trusted organisations such as the NSPCC/Childline. Parents also raised the importance of communicating with their children and discussing what is happening in their lives as a key way of preventing and resolving these types of issues. 63
  • 65. 8. Summary of key findings, conclusions and recommendations This is the first study that examines e-safety messaging in Northern Ireland and as such has presented its challenges in terms of working through the overwhelming amount of information that exists on the topic generally, contrasted with the difficulties in accessing sufficient information on relevant work carried out locally. That said, through the application of a range of research methods, the study has unearthed many notable findings from which a number of key conclusions and recommendations can be made. The remainder of this final chapter takes each of the study’s objectives, in turn, and summarises the key findings, conclusions and subsequent recommendations relating to each. Objective 1: Defining e-safety and associated risks This study found no common definition of e-safety in the current literature, NCB NI therefore created the following definition for use throughout this study: “E-safety or electronic safety is about utilising electronic devices or e-technologies in a safe and responsible way. It is mainly concerned with the safeguarding of children and young people in the digital world and educating them so they feel safe when accessing etechnologies.” [NCB NI definition] Young people’s extensive use of e-technologies leaves no doubt over the importance of e-safety and the need for young people, and those who care for or work with them, to be able to take appropriate preventative action to minimise the associated risks. These risks have been defined in various ways and are becoming more commonly categorised as follows: Content risks: The child or young person is exposed to harmful material; Contact risks: The child or young person participates in adult initiated online activity; and Conduct risks: The child or young person is a perpetrator or victim in peer-to-peer exchange Commercial risks: The child or young person is exposed to inappropriate commercial advertising, marketing schemes or hidden costs. Recommendations: 1. We recommend that SBNI considers using the above e-safety definition or adopting an agreed definition going forward and encourages others working in the field to do the same. 64
  • 66. 2. We recommend that when developing future e-safety messaging work in Northern Ireland consideration is given to each of the four risk categories identified above. Objective 2: Developing a profile of agencies delivering e-safety messages in the UK & Northern Ireland The study identified three key organisations that are leading the UK’s work on e-safety: UK Safer Internet Centre which has three overall functions: An awareness centre to promote safe, responsible use of the internet and mobile devices to young people; a helpline for professionals working with children and a hotline for reporting online criminal content. The Centre also hosts the annual public awareness campaign – Safer Internet Day. The Centre comprises there organisations Childnet International, South West Grid for Learning (SWGfL) and the IWF (Internet Watch Foundation) CEOP (Child Exploitation and Online Protection Centre) is part of the UK policing structures and its key functions include tracking and bringing offenders to account either directly or in cooperation with local and international police forces, and working with children, parents/carers and practitioners to deliver the Thinkuknow internet safety programme UKCCIS (UK Council for Child Internet Safety) is the main umbrella organisation with a membership over 180 organisations across the government, industry, law enforcement, academia and charity sectors, that work in partnership to help keep children safe online. The Northern Ireland Minister for Health, Social Services and Public Safety (Edwin Poots MLA) sits on the Executive Board of UKCCIS. The impact of the above organisations’ work, specifically in the area of delivering e-safety messages, has been reported in a number of recent evaluations. The evaluation of Safer Internet Day 2013 found positive impacts on how children and young people behave online as well as on young people’s awareness and understanding of internet safety and information control. Similarly, an evaluation of CEOP’s Thinkuknow training programme found that young people are less likely to share information with strangers and are more likely to report online abuse as a result of taking part in the programme. This study found a wide range of organisations that are delivering e-safety work in Northern Ireland. The following paragraphs outline the key players identified, including a summary of their e-safety work: At Government level, there is no overarching policy which addresses e-safety. Much of the current work on e-safety is being led by OFMDFM. Some of the key activities of OFMDFM include: the current cross-departmental review on current and future actions in the field of e-safety to inform opportunities for a more coordinated approach across government management of the NI Direct website which provides advice and information on different aspects of e-safety for young people and parents 65
  • 67. local promotion of Internet Safety Day 2013 in collaboration with UK Safer Internet Centre. Prior to this much of the concrete work delivered at government level on e-safety was in the form of guidance materials produced by the Department of Education for Northern Ireland (DE) and the Health and Social Care Board (HSCB). Across the statutory sector, the Western Health & Social Care Trust (WHSCT), C2K and the PSNI are leading the way on e-safety within their respective remits. WHSCT has delivered and developed a range of e-safety resources for children, parents and practitioners and is currently progressing the development of an internet safety portal. They have also delivered the above mentioned CEOP Thinkuknow e-safety training to 160 practitioners. C2K provides e-safety support for all teachers in Northern Ireland. They have developed resources such as videos and DVD’s and editable PowerPoint presentations for teachers to use in lessons. They have also developed support documentation for schools to devise their own e-safety policies. C2k also held six E-Safety Live briefings in conjunction with UK Safer Internet Centre in March of this year (2013). The PSNI also delivers CEOP’s Thinkuknow internet safety programme to primary and post primary schools throughout NI as part of their Citizen and Safety Education (CASE) programme. The PSNI’s C district is working with Saltmine trust and the Police and Community Safety Partnerships to deliver a drama workshop to all local primary schools on aspects of e-safety. In the voluntary and community sector, NSPCC has delivered substantial work in this sector. For example: NSPCC has staff trained as CEOP ambassadors and also deliver the CEOP Thinkuknow introduction and Ambassador training to other organisations NSPCC undertakes research in the area of e-safety (findings from which are quoted in this report) and have developed guidelines for social media and sample online safety and ICT policies NSPCC delivers the Childline Schools Service in NI primary schools which looks at online safety and cyber bullying NSPCC Northern Ireland also recently submitted a briefing paper on internet safety to the children’s spokespersons for a Northern Ireland Assembly debate on internet safety (referenced in the main findings section of this report) 66
  • 68. Other notable organisations operating in the field include NIABF (Northern Ireland Anti-Bullying Forum) and Beat the Cyber Bully, both of which have undertaken substantive work specifically in the area of cyberbullying. NIABF’s work focuses specifically on cyber bullying and includes the development of over 20 different teaching resources for primary, post-primary and special schools, information leaflets for parents and media campaigns. Beat the Cyber Bully’s work in the area includes; workshops with young people in schools and in youth and community groups; parents awareness evenings and workshops; an ebook on cyber bullying; an online blog; and a presentation of evidence to the Culture, Arts and Leisure Committee’s investigation into Safeguarding Children in Sport. Recommendations: 3. We recommend that Northern Ireland capitalises fully on the extensive e-safety messaging work undertaken by the three leading organisations in the UK (UK Safer Internet Centre, CEOP and UKCCIS) and vice versa. Whilst some local organisations are already taking aspects of the work of the leading UK wide organisations forward, there is much more scope for this to be increased. Furthermore, given the extensive work carried out by NI’s key players, valuable learning from this should also be transferred to these UK wide organisations. As a basic starting point, it would be worthwhile exploring the following: - Does Northern Ireland have strong enough links with each of the above organisations in order that the sharing of effective practice takes place? - Is Safer Internet Day being fully exploited in Northern Ireland? - Are young people and practitioners both aware and making use of the various resources within the UK Safer Internet Centre – the awareness centre, helpline etc? 4. We recommend that Northern Ireland’s representation on UKCCIS, currently represented by the Department for Health, Social Services and Public Safety, be re-examined. E-safety is an issue that spans many government departments; therefore we feel it would be timely for an inter-departmental review of Northern Ireland’s representation on this important body. 5. We recommend that work begins on developing a policy framework and strategy for esafety in Northern Ireland. 67
  • 69. Objective 3: To assess the nature, quality, access to and impact of e-safety messages in Northern Ireland The nature of e-safety messages in Northern Ireland E-safety messages tend to be delivered in one of the four following ways: Resources to help educate children and young people, and those who care for and work with them, about e-safety (such as videos, leaflets, checklists, books, website information); Training materials to help professionals educate children and young people, and those who care for and work with them, about e-safety (such as handbooks, manuals, session plans); Training courses that are delivered in a variety of formats to children and young people and those who care for or work with them; and Public awareness campaigns on e-safety to raise awareness and educate children and young people and those who work with and care for them (such as PR and advertising, press releases, TV and radio footage, print media etc). E-safety work in Northern Ireland targets children and young people, parents and practitioners on an almost equal level and much of it is delivered in partnership. The most common themes of e-safety messages in Northern Ireland are using mobile phones, cyber bullying, use of privacy and personal information and ‘sexting’. Quality, access to and impact of e-safety messages in Northern Ireland Much of the work done locally on e-safety messaging is inaccessible in that it has a cost associated or it is not apparent on the websites of delivering organisations. This made an assessment of quality difficult. The only e-safety theme on which sufficient information exists to conduct a comparative analysis of quality is cyber bullying. Our assessment of cyber bullying messages delivered by a sample of 5 leading organisations found a high level of inconsistency in the number of messages delivered. Only four of the sixteen messages sampled were consistent across organisations websites/literature and some messages are advocated by only one of the organisations. This level of inconsistency raises two important issues: How reliable are the messages? (i.e. how accurate, up to date and appropriate are they?) How do children and young people, their parents and those working with them decide which messages to trust? To explore the issue of accessibility further, our focus groups with young people and parents found that: 68
  • 70. In the case of children and young people, accessing useful advice online is relatively easy provided that effective search terminology is used Children and young people run the risk of accessing inappropriate content when searching for advice on e-safety issues online Parents might not use the internet to access advice on e-safety issues and may instead contact organisations, such as NSPCC, which they know deal with e-safety issues The extent to which parents communicate with their children and discuss what is happening in their lives is of vital importance to both prevent an e-safety issue arising or to minimise the damage caused by an issue. There have been no evaluations conducted to examine the impact of e-safety messaging work developed locally in Northern Ireland or validation of some of the organisations delivering these messages. However, it is worthwhile noting that the evaluations done of both Safer Internet Day and CEOP’s Thinuknow programme included Northern Ireland. For example, 23% of participating schools in the Thinkuknow evaluation were from Northern Ireland. Recommendations 6. We recommend that more strategic coordination of local e-safety work is undertaken to address the shortfalls identified in this study, namely to: - ensure greater accessibility of e-safety messages for children and young people, parents and practitioners; - improve consistency in the messaging; - understand the impact of messaging on children and young people, parents and practitioners; - ensure the visibility of Northern Ireland in the key UK e-safety organisations (UK Safer Internet Centre, UKCCIS and CEOP); and - inform and influence policy development on e-safety in Northern Ireland. 7. To achieve this level of strategic coordination we recommend the establishment of an esafety forum for Northern Ireland. The required level of strategic coordination will not be achieved by one organisation working alone. It will only be possible through effective collaboration across the local key players identified in this study and indeed the key UK wide organisations. There is a role for an independent organisation such as the SBNI to take the lead in developing this forum. 69
  • 71. Additional functions of such a forum could include: - promoting the voices of children and young people as valued participants in e-safety policy and practice; - influencing and supporting organisations in the development of effective e-safety policy and practice; - signpost practitioners, teachers and others working with children and young people to appropriate, useful and up to date e-safety messages; and - acting as the single point of contact which can direct children and young people, parents and professionals to required e-safety advice or resources. This should include the development of a comprehensive and user friendly website. 70
  • 72. List of acronyms Acronym Description ARK Access Research Knowledge BAAF British Association for Adoption and Fostering Becta British Educational Communications and Technology Agency [No longer exists as an entity] BHSCT Belfast Health and Social Care Trust CAPS Child and Parent Support CASE Citizen and Safety Education programme CEOP Child Exploitation and Online Protection centre CHIS Children’s Charities Coalition on Internet Safety CPSSS Child Protection Support Service for Schools CPSU Child Protection in Sport Unit CYP Children and Young People CYPU Children and Young Peoples Unit DCSF Department for Children Schools and Families [Superseded by The Department for Education (DE) DE Department of Education DHSSPS Department for Health, Social Services and Public Safety DPCSP District Policing and Community Safety Partnerships ELB Education and Library Board HID Health Improvement Department 71
  • 73. Acronym Description HSCB Health and Social Care Board HSCT Health and Social Care Trust ICT Information and Communications Technology IM Instant Messenger ISTTF Internet Safety Technical Task Force (United States based) IWF Internet Watch Foundation MLA Member of Legislative Assembly NCB NI National Children’s Bureau (Northern Ireland) NCTE National Centre for Technology in Education NI Northern Ireland NIABF Northern Ireland Anti-Bullying Forum NIACRO Northern Ireland Association for the Care and Resettlement of Offenders NICVA Northern Ireland Council for Voluntary Action NSPCC National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children OECD Economic Co-operation and Development OFMDFM Office of the First Minister and Deputy First Minister OFSTED Office for Standards in Education PHA Public Health Agency PSNI Police Service for Northern Ireland PR Public Relations SBNI Safeguarding Board for Northern Ireland 72
  • 74. Acronym Description SEN Special Educational Needs SID Safer Internet Day SOCA Serious Organised Crime Agency SWGfL South West Grid for Learning UKCCIS UK Council for Child Internet Safety VGT Virtual Global Taskforce VOYPIC Voice of Young People in Care WELB Western Education and Library Board 73
  • 75. Bibliography Area Child Protection Committee (2005) Regional policy and procedures. Available online at: http://www.dhsspsni.gov.uk/acpcregionalstrategy.pdf Bailey, R. (2011) Letting children be children: Report of an independent review of the commercialisation and sexualisation. Nottingham: Department for Education. BBC (2013) Online pornography to be blocked by default, PM announces. News articles available online at http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-23401076 BBC (2013) 2,100 cyber crimes reported in Northern Ireland in 2012. News article available online at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-northern-ireland-24194419 Byron, T. (2008) Safer children in a digital world: The report of the Byron Review. DCSF: Nottingham. Byron, T. (2010) Do we have safer children in a digital world? A review of progress since the 2008 Byron Review. DCSF: Nottingham. Department of Education (2007) Acceptable use of the internet and digital technologies in schools. Available online at: http://www.deni.gov.uk/22-acceptable_use_of_the_internet_de_circular.pdf Department of Education (2011) Internet safety circular 2011/22. Available online at: http://www.deni.gov.uk/circular_internet_safety.pdf Fursland, E. (2013) Social networking and you. London: BAAF. Hasebrink, U., Livingstone, S., Haddon, L., Kirwil, L., and Ponte, C. (2007) EU Kids Go Online: Comparing children’s online activities and risks across Europe. London: EU Kids Online. Livingstone, S. & Haddon, L. (2012) Theoretical framework for children’s internet use in Livingstone, S. Haddon, L . and Görzig, A. (2012) Children, risk and safety on the internet: Research and policy challenges in comparative perspective. The Policy Press: Bristol. Livingstone, S., Haddon, L., Görzig, A., & Ólafsson, K. (2011) Risks and safety on the internet: The perspective of European children. London: LSE. Available online at: http:// www2.cnrs.fr/sites/en/fichier/rapport_english.pdf Northern Ireland Assembly (2013) Official Report (Hansard) (Volume 81, No 6 Session. Available online at: http://www.niassembly.gov.uk/Assembly-Business/Official-Report/Reports-12-13/05February-2013/#2 OECD (2011) The Protection of Children Online: Risks Faced by Children Online and Policies to Protect Them in OECD Digital Economy Papers, No. 179. Paris: OECD. Available online at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5kgcjf71pl28-en. 74
  • 76. OFMDFM (2006) Our Children and Young People – Our Pledge A Ten Year Strategy For Children And Young People In Northern Ireland 2006 – 2016. Belfast: OFMDFM. Available online at: http://www.ofmdfmni.gov.uk/ten-year-strategy.pdf OFMDFM (2009) Safeguarding Children – A cross-departmental statement on the protection of children and young people by the Northern Ireland Executive. Belfast: OFMDFM. Safeguarding Board Act (Northern-Ireland) 2011 Chapter http://www.legislation.gov.uk/nia/2011/7/contents/enacted 7 available online at Safer Internet Centre (2013) Have Your Say Young People’ Perspectives about online rights and responsibilities. London: Safer Internet Centre. UKCCIS (2010) Good practice guidance for the moderation of interactive services for children. London: UKCCIS UKCCIS (2010) Good practice guidance for the providers of chat services, instant messaging (IM) and internet connectivity content and hosting. London: UKCCIS UKCCIS (2010) Good practice guidance for the providers of search. London: UKCCIS UKCCIS (2010) Good practice guidance for the providers of social networking and other userinteractive services. London: UKCCIS. UKCCIS (2012) Advice on child internet safety 1.0: Universal guidelines for providers. London: UKCCIS. UKCCIS Evidence Group (2012) Children’s Online Activities: Risks and Safety, The UK Evidence Base. London: UKCCIS. Available online at: http://www.saferinternet.org.uk/downloads/Research_Highlights/UKCCIS_Report_2012.pdf UKCCIS (2013) Safer Internet Day 2013: Campaign evaluation Research Highlights for Children’s Online Safety No. 51 July 2013 Available online at http://www.saferinternet.org.uk/downloads/Research_Highlights/UKCCIS_RH51_Safer_Internet_D ay_Evaluation.pdf UKCCIS (2010) Exploring Online Safety Knowledge and Evaluating CEOP’s Think U Know Education Programme Research Highlights for Children’s Online Safety No. 2 November 2010 Available online at http://www.saferinternet.org.uk/downloads/Research_Highlights/UKCCIS_RH_2_Think_U_Know_E valuation.pdf 75
  • 77. Appendix A: Additional survey responses Reason not included in main Response received report Website Internal work only. Does not produce or deliver resources, training materials, training Youth Justice Agency - courses or public awareness Woodlands JJC messages http://www.youthjusticeagencyni.gov.uk Internal work only. Does not produce or deliver resources, training materials, training courses or public awareness Belfast City Council messages http://www.belfastcity.gov.uk Internal work only. Does not produce or deliver resources, training materials, training courses or public awareness BHSCT - CAHMS messages PSNI (general) Incomplete survey No Northern Ireland base UKCCIS (included in chapter 2) http://www.saferinternet.org.uk/ Digital me, SAFE - The No Northern Ireland base certificate in social (included in appendix B) http://www.safesocialnetworking.org networking 76
  • 78. Appendix B: Other UK wide organisations delivering e-safety messages Organisation/ entity Website and other notes General information about keeping safe online Microsoft safety and http://www.microsoft.com/security/online-privacy/resources.aspx security centre Get safe online http://www.getsafeonline.org/ UK’s leading source of unbiased, factual and easy-to-understand information on online safety. Know the net http://www.knowthenet.org.uk This is an impartial website that helps individuals, families and businesses get the most out of the internet. It is funded by Nominet- the not-for-profit organisation responsible for the smooth and secure running of the UK internet infrastructure. BBC Webwise http://www.bbc.co.uk/webwise This website provides advice on making the most of being online ParentPort http://www.parentport.org.uk/ ParentPort is run by the UK’s media regulators. It sets and enforces standards across the media to protect children from inappropriate material. Information for parents Vodafone Parenting Digital http://www.vodafone.com/content/parents.html Facebook safety centre Family http://www.facebook.com/safety The Digital Parenting website and magazines offer parents information and advice about the latest digital technologies and the kind of challenges children and teenagers might face whilst being online. This website provides safety information, tools and resources. Support for schools and organisations E-safety support http://www.e-safetysupport.com/ E-safety Support is an online service that offers help to deliver consistent, outstanding e-safety practice in schools to keep pupils safe online and meet Ofsted requirements. The Safe Network http://www.safenetwork.org.uk The Safe Network provides safeguarding information related to activities outside the home – from after-school art clubs to weekend reading groups, including advice about keeping safe online. 77
  • 79. SAFE - The certificate http://www.digitalme.co.uk in social networking This gives young people a real-life way of learning e-safety through social networking. Practical activities develop young people’s skills, confidence and safety awareness online. European Pedagogical http://www.epict.co.uk/ ICT Licence This allows participants to demonstrate effective education practices in online safeguarding, within the context of their immediate organisation, and to encourage children and young people to develop their own sense of responsibility online. Cyber bullying BBC www.bbc.co.uk/schools/parents/cyber_bullying/ Cyber Bullying advice for parents Kidscape www.kidscape.org.uk UK charity with a specific focus to prevent bullying and child sexual abuse Respect Me www.respectme.org.uk Scotland’s anti-bullying service Beat Bullying www.beatbullying.org Beat Bullying is a UK website for young people to support each other online Anti Bullying Alliance http://www.anti-bullyingalliance.org.uk/ (ABA) The Anti-bullying Alliance is a coalition of UK organisations and individuals working together to stop bullying and create safe environments in which children and young people can live, grow, play and learn. Networks UK Children’s Charities http://www.chis.org.uk Coalition on Internet CHIS promote safe and equal access to the internet and associated digital Safety (CHIS) technologies for all children and young people. Its members are: Action for Children, BAAF, Beat Bullying, Barnardo's, Children England, Children's Society, ECPAT UK, Kidscape, NCB, NSPCC, and Stop It Now! Internationally, CHIS principally works through the European NGO Alliance for Child Safety Online93 93 http://www.enacso.eu 78
  • 80. Appendix C: respondents Contact Statutory sector organisations Website BELB welfare http://www.belb.org.uk details Twitter - of survey Facebook www.facebook.com/Belfas ttrust - BHSCT C2k OFMDFM http://www.belfasttrust.hscni.net http://www.c2kni.org.uk http://www.ofmdfmni.gov.uk PSNI C District http://www.psni.police.uk PSNI E District South Belfast District Policing and Community Partnership SEELB - Welfare Southern Health and Social Care Trust http://www.psni.police.uk @Belfasttrust @c2k_info @PoliceService NI @PoliceService NI http://www.belfastcity.gov.uk/pcs p - - - - - www.facebook.com/Weste rnHSCTrust WHSCT http://www.westerntrust.hscni.net Voluntary and community sector organisations Website - Autism Ireland @AutismNIPAP A @BAAFAdoptio n Northern http://www.autismni.org BAAF Barnardo's Safe Choices NI Beam Creative network Cookstown and Dungannons Women's Aid http://www.baaf.org.uk http://Barnardos.org.uk/safechoice s http://ww.beamcreativenetwork.c om Mencap - Livenet http://www.nexusinstitute.org http://www.endbullying.org.uk http://www.niacro.co.uk http://www.nspcc.org.uk http://www.voypic.org VOYPIC http://www.cookstownwomensaid .org.uk www.facebook.com/PSNI @BarnardosNI Facebook www.facebook.com/pages /AutismNI/281699801941571 www.facebook.com/BAAF Adoption www.facebook.com/Barnar dosNI - - @livenetni www.facebook.com/livene tni Nexus_NI http://www.livenet.org.uk Nexus NIABF NIACRO NSPCC Twitter www.facebook.com/PSNI @NEXUS_NI @niabf @NSPCC @VOYPIC www.facebook.com/nspcc www.facebook.com/voiceo fyoungpeopleincare 79
  • 81. Private organisations Website Beat the Cyber http://www.Beatthecyberbully.co Bully m No Bullying Twitter Facebook @waynedenner Facebook.com/Talk2wayne https://www.facebook.co m/nobullyingdotcom www.facebook.com/Cyber SafetyADvice https://www.facebook.co m/xraydata http://www.nobullying.com Cyber safety Advice @nobullying14 @cybersafeadvi http://www.cybersafetyadvice.com ce X-Ray data http://www.xraydata.com @xraydata 80
  • 82. Appendix D: Survey Instrument E-SAFETY MESSAGES IN NORTHERN IRELAND The Safeguarding Board for Northern Ireland (SBNI) have commissioned National Children’s Bureau Northern Ireland (NCB NI) to map e-safety messages to children and young people, parents and practitioners in NI. As part of this research we need to find out the organisations that are delivering esafety messages in Northern Ireland. These messages could be in the form of: 1. Resources such as videos, quizzes, leaflets, factsheets, checklists, books, apps or information on a website 2. Training materials such as teaching plans, session plans, learning exercises or training workbooks 3. Training courses delivered in person or via a live video link or a recorded video 4. Public awareness messages using PR and media to deliver messages on e-safety If you are delivering e-safety messages we would be grateful if you could complete this short survey. The information you provide will be used in a report for SBNI to produce profiles of organisations delivering esafety messages in Northern Ireland. Therefore the data will not be confidential, if there is anything you would not like shared with others, please let us know. SECTION 1: About your organisation Name of organisation Contact name Position in organisation Contact name Email address Organisation phone number Organisation Website address Organisation Facebook page Organisation Twitter Organisation country of origin 1. Does your organisation work in Northern Ireland? Yes No 2. What is the overall purpose of your organisation? 3. Please give a brief summary of the work do you do on e-safety? 81
  • 83. SECTION 2: E-Safety Resources 4. Have you developed any resources to help educate or train children and young people, parents and carers, teachers and other professionals about e-safety? By resources we mean videos, tests/quizzes, leaflets, factsheets, checklists, tools, apps, books/ebooks or information on a website. Training materials such as session and teaching plans, training handbooks and training courses are covered in the next sections. Yes Continue to Q5 No Go to Q14 5. How many resources have you developed on e-safety? 6. What areas of e-safety do your resources cover? (tick all that apply) Mobile phones Online grooming Safer social networking Sexting Gaming Cyberbullying Online reputation Parental controls Privacy and personal information Parental guidance on technology What’s legal when accessing digital content, copyright laws, plagiarism For parents: general information about keeping your child safe online Keeping information secure online Professional reputation Video chat and webcams Professionals using technology safely and responsibly Workplace development of e-safety policy Online values and behaviour & digital citizenship E-safety for children and young people with special educational needs Workplace assessment of online safeguarding Other, please state 7. Who are your resources targeted at? (tick as many as apply) Primary school children Parents and carers Post primary school children Teachers Children with SEN Other professionals and practitioners Other, please state 8. What format are the resources? (tick all that apply) Video Factsheet Test/quiz Book/ebook Leaflet Information on your website Checklist App (for phone or tablet) Other please state 9. Do you charge for the resources? Yes No 9a. If yes, what are the range of prices for your resources? E.g. Free to £500 82
  • 84. 10. Are the resources produced in partnership with another organisation? Yes No 10a. If yes, what organisations have you worked with to produce the resources? 11. In general how have the resources been funded? 12. Please provide us with some examples of resources you have developed about e-safety? 13. How can your resources be accessed? 83
  • 85. SECTION 3: E-Safety Training Materials 14. Have you developed any training materials to help teachers and other professionals educate or train children and young people, parents and carers, teachers and other professionals about esafety? By training materials we mean training handbooks or manuals, session plans, teaching plans, or learning exercises. Training courses and other resources are covered in the other sections Yes Continue to Q15 No Go to Q26 15. How many training materials have you developed on e-safety? 16. What areas of e-safety do your training materials cover? (tick all that apply) Mobile phones Online grooming Safer social networking Sexting Gaming Cyberbullying Online reputation Parental controls Privacy and personal information Parental guidance on technology What’s legal when accessing digital content, copyright laws, plagiarism For parents: general information about keeping your child safe online Keeping information secure online Professional reputation Video chat and webcams Professionals using technology safely and responsibly Workplace development of e-safety policy Online values and behaviour & digital citizenship E-safety for children and young people with special educational needs Workplace assessment of online safeguarding Other, please state 17. Who are your training materials targeted at? (tick as many as apply) Primary school children Parents and carers Post primary school children Teachers Children with SEN Other professionals and practitioners Other, please state 18. What format are the training materials? (tick all that apply) Session plans tT Training handbook or manual Teaching plans Learning exercises Other please state 19. Do you charge for the training materials? Yes No 19a. If yes, what are the range of prices for your training materials? E.g. Free to £500 84
  • 86. 20. Are the training materials produced in partnership with another organisation? Yes No 20a. If yes, what organisations have you worked with to produce the training materials? 21. In general how have the training materials been funded? 22. Are any of the training materials accredited? Yes No 22a. If yes, what accreditations? 23. What quality assurance do you have in place for the training materials? 24. Please provide us with some examples of training materials you have developed about e-safety? 25. How can your training materials be accessed? 85
  • 87. SECTION 4: E-Safety Training Courses 26. Do you deliver e-safety training courses to educate children and young people, parents and carers, teachers or other professionals? By e-safety training courses we mean training that is delivered in person or via a live video link or recorded video to children and young people, parents and carers, teachers and other professionals Yes Continue to Q27 No Go to Q38 27. How many different training courses do you deliver on e-safety? 28. What areas of E-safety do your training courses cover? (tick all that apply) Mobile phones Online grooming Safer social networking Sexting Gaming Cyberbullying Online reputation Parental controls Privacy and personal information Parental guidance on technology What’s legal when accessing digital content, copyright laws, plagiarism For parents: general information about keeping your child safe online Keeping information secure online Professional reputation Video chat and webcams Professionals using technology safely and responsibly Workplace development of e-safety policy Online values and behaviour & digital citizenship E-safety for children and young people with special educational needs Workplace assessment of online safeguarding Other, please state 29. Who are your training courses targeted at? (tick as many as apply) Primary school children Parents and carers Post primary school children Teachers Children with SEN Other professionals and practitioners Other, please state 30. What format are the training courses? (tick all that apply) In person Via a video recoding Via a live video link Other please state 31. Do you charge for your training courses? Yes No 31a. If yes, what is the range of prices for your training courses? E.g. Free to £500 86
  • 88. 32. Are the training courses delivered in partnership with another organisation? Yes No 32a. If yes, what organisations have you worked with to deliver the training courses ? 33. In general how have the training courses been funded? 34. Are any of the training courses accredited? Yes No 34a. If yes, what accreditations? 35. What quality assurance do you have in place for the training courses? 36. Please provide us with some examples of training courses you have developed about e-safety? 37. How can your training courses be accessed? 87
  • 89. SECTION 5: E-Safety public awareness messages 38. Has your organisation delivered any public awareness messages on e-safety to educate children and young people, parents and carers, teachers or other professionals? By public awareness messages we mean all PR and advertising on e-safety such as press releases, TV and radio appearances, print media appearances, print media adverts, paid for editorials, and advertising Yes Continue to Q39 No Go to Q45 39. In the last year how many different times did your organisation deliver a public awareness message on e-safety? 40. What areas of e-safety have your public awareness messages or campaigns covered? (tick all that apply) Mobile phones Online grooming Safer social networking Sexting Gaming Cyberbullying Online reputation Parental controls Privacy and personal information Parental guidance on technology What’s legal when accessing digital content, copyright laws, plagiarism For parents: general information about keeping your child safe online Keeping information secure online Professional reputation Video chat and webcams Professionals using technology safely and responsibly Workplace development of e-safety policy Online values and behaviour & digital citizenship E-safety for children and young people with special educational needs Workplace assessment of online safeguarding Other, please state 41. Who have your public awareness messages been aimed at? (tick all that apply) Primary school children Parents and carers Post primary school children Teachers Children with SEN Other professionals and practitioners Other, please state 42. What methods have you used to deliver your public awareness messages? (tick all that apply) TV interviews TV advertising Radio interviews Radio advertising 88
  • 90. Articles for daily newspapers Articles for local newspapers Articles for specialist newsletters Print media adverts/paid for editorial Other please state Newspaper/newspaper supplement advertising Bill board/ ad shell /bus advertising Other advertising Press releases 43. Please provide us with some examples of public awareness messages your organisation has developed about e-safety? 44. If available, please provide us with links to media coverage and press releases? SECTION 6: Future contact and other comments 45. Are you happy for SBNI or NCB NI to contact you in the future for more information on the work you do on e-safety? Yes No 46. Any other comments THANK YOU FOR YOUR TIME th Please return this survey by 6 August 2013 to Helen McNamee Email: hmcnamee@ncb.org.uk Fax: 028 9032 8749 Post: Freepost Plus RRLU-JRTA-BLLA, NCB NI, Albany House, 73-75 Great Victoria Street, Belfast, BT2 7AF 89
  • 91. Appendix E: Survey responses –overview of organisations and their e-safety work Organisation of The Child Protection Support Service for Schools (CPSSS) is one of a number of services delivered through the five ELBs. It comprises three designated officers for child protection in each of the five ELB’s in Northern Ireland. The CPSSS provides a phone helpline and training in child protection to designated school personnel including school governors and principals. It also provides professional support to designated teachers for child protection. E-safety is included in the child protection training programmes, and advice and support is given re: individual child protection concerns involving e-safety. N N Y N BHSCT’s Social Media Policy provides guidance to staff using social media for professional and personal purposes. New trust staff are expected to use their knowledge of e-safety to inform their assessment of interventions with children and parents. Where appropriate the Learning and Development Service within the trust include information on e-safety. Social workers are expected to use resources from CEOP, NSPCC and UKCCIS when it is appropriate to the intervention used. BHSCT in conjunction with the Public Health Agency (PHA) is currently developing an ‘App’ that will address aspects of esafety. BHSCT and Volunteer Now have developed a Keeping Safe initiative which covers aspects of e-safety. N N Y N 90 Public awareness The BHSCT have a staff of 20,000 and provide health and social care services to more than 340,000 people in Belfast plus regional services to the whole of Northern Ireland. The Trust delivers its services through five Service Directorates: Acute Services; Cancer and Specialist Services; Adult Social and Primary Care; Specialist Hospitals, and; Women’s Health and Children’s Community Services. Training Courses Belfast Health and Social Care Trust (BHSCT) e-safety message type Training materials Statutory sector organisations Belfast BELB is an executive Education non-departmental public and Library body sponsored by the Board (BELB) Department of Education Education and the Welfare and Department for Employment and CPSSS Learning. The Board's principal functions are the provision of education, school library and youth services to the Belfast City Council area. Work on e-safety Resources Overall purpose organisation
  • 92. Work on e-safety C2K C2K, on behalf of the Department of Education, provides the infrastructure and services to support use of ICT in schools in Northern Ireland. C2K has developed e-safety resources, training materials and training courses which are available to all teachers in NI E-safety resources include a series of five videos/ DVDs to support the professional development of teachers E-safety training materials include editable PowerPoint presentations, support documentation and policies which schools can use to devise their own e-safety policy. C2K has created these resources and materials with the support and expertise of UK Safer Internet and software and hardware suppliers. C2K is also responsible for: Filtering of internet to schools in Northern Ireland; policy creation and advice; liaising with other organisations on e-safety, and; developing new technologies to facilitate and support e-safety. Y Y Y N OFMDFM The overall aim of OFMDFM is to contribute to and oversee the coordination of Executive policies and programmes. OFMDFM works on a cross-departmental basis as well as with a number of national bodies, charities and regional organisations who promote internet safety, e.g. NSPCC and UKCCIS. OFMDFM’s Children and Young Peoples Unit (CYPU) helps to promote a cross departmental/ agency approach to identify appropriate measures to promote child internet safety. Specific examples of work on e-safety include the following: - As part of ARK’s (Access Research Knowledge) Kids Life and Times Survey, OFMDFM has assisted with the development of a suite of questions for a survey on the use of the internet by final year primary school children. - OFMDM, working in collaboration with UK Safer Internet Centre, promoted Safer Internet Day on 5th February 2013 - A review has been undertaken by the Office of the First Minister and Deputy First Minister (OFMDFM) to identify current actions being undertaken in relation to child esafety and proposed future actions which Departments intend to take to support child e-safety. It will also inform opportunities for a more coordinated approach across government. The findings are currently under consideration. A number of Assembly Questions have been addressed to OFMDFM on the issue of child e-safety. These include: - AQW 6614/11-15 - AQW 23915/11-15 - AQW 23916/11-15 - AQW 20731/11-15 Y N N Y The Executive Information Service of OFMDFM manage the NI Direct (www.nidirect.gov.uk) website which has advice and information on different aspects of e-safety for children 91 Public awareness of Training Courses Training materials Overall purpose organisation Resources Organisation
  • 93. and young people and parents and carers. Organisation Overall purpose organisation Resources Training materials Training Courses Public awareness of Work on e-safety PSNI district C To prevent crime, reduce fear and protect the community. PSNI District C delivers presentations to students regarding internet safety and cyber bullying at both primary and postprimary level – these presentations are delivered to school whenever they make a request or whenever the PSNI deem it to be necessary. The PSNI has officers trained to deliver CASE (Citizenship and Safety Education) to schools (primary and post-primary). They also offer separate sessions to parents/ carers and teachers. Each officer receives additional training from CEOP. In the 2013/14 school year officers from PSNI District C will, in partnership with both the Saltmine Trust and four Police and Community Safety Partnerships (PCSP’s) deliver a drama workshop to all local post-primary schools on aspects of esafety. Y N Y Y PSNI District E To prevent crime, reduce fear and protect the community Internet safety work forms part of (CASE) Citizenship and Safety Education, the National schools programme delivered to primary and post primary schools. The engagement involves presentations; worksheets; Q&A sessions and practical demonstrations, for example, - P6/P7 pupils : brief talk on internet safety and worksheet - YR 8 pupils: presentation from CEOP in assembly - Junior and senior assembly: E district presentation on sexting Y N Y Y South Belfast District Policing and Community Safety Partnership (DPCSP) To help people feel safer, prevent crime and anti-social behaviour in South Belfast. The South Belfast District Policing and Community Partnership is developing and distributing a pen with an advisory message about e-safety to post-primary school aged-pupils. Y N N N South Eastern Education and Library Board (SEELB) Education Welfare and CPSSS The Education Welfare Service works with children & families, schools and a range of voluntary/ statutory agencies to improve the school attendance and access to educational opportunities for children of compulsory school age. The Child Protection Support Service for Schools (CPSSS) provides a daily helpline service and training/ awareness raising for designated teachers and a range of school based and Board based staff on issues around child protection. Training courses are not specifically about e-safety – it forms part of wider child protection training. N N Y N Work in partnership with Belfast City Council and PSNI 92
  • 94. To provide health and social care services to the population living within the Southern Trust boundary Western Health and Social Care Trust (WHSCT) The Western Trust's vision is "to provide high quality patient and client-focused Health and Social Care services through well trained staff with high morale. Children’s statutory social services will accept referrals where there are concerns about children through their use/exposure to “E” technology. This will include initial assessments; child protection investigations; implementation of support or protection plans; referral to other organisations for support. Training courses include aspects of e-safety but have not been developed exclusively on e-safety. E.g. child protection awareness, sexual exploitation of children, understanding sexual offending. The trust have not developed any specific materials on esafety, but utilise others e.g. Barnardo’s, VOYPIC, PSNI, NSPCC Policy in place regarding use of computers and access to internet for children in foster and residential care. Held two conferences (in 2011 and 2013) on Virtual Lives. These conferences specifically focused on: internet safety, cyber bullying, sexting, the use of pornography and its impact on personal relationships and how the internet can be used to provide support to people to make healthier life style choices. Two staff in the Trust trained as CEOP Ambassadors who have delivered training to approximately 160 practitioners. Work in partnership with PSNI, Western Education and Library Board (WELB) and Nexus Institute to ensure all schools, youth groups and practitioners working with children receive internet safety training. Developed a resource for children in care called ‘Be Internet Safe’. Developing new resource to accompany e-safety training for parents and practitioners called ‘Virtual Lives – your guide to internet safety’. Working with Trust Communications to develop an internet safety ‘portal’. Commissioned Headliners to conduct focus groups with young people in the Western Trust area to gauge their views on safety online. Headliners are currently working with the Health Improvement Department (HID) to develop a peer-to-peer media programme focusing on emotional health and wellbeing of young men in particular. Produced a business case for the PHA to encourage them to regionalise the Virtual Lives concept. Public awareness Southern Health and Social Care Trust (SHSCT) Work on e-safety Training Courses of Training materials Overall purpose organisation Resources Organisation N N Y N Y Y Y Y 93
  • 95. Voluntary and community sector organisations Autism To ensure that people The Project ‘Young people, Autism and Criminal Justice’ has a Northern with Autistic Spectrum group workshop element for young people aged 8-18, called Disorder and their carers Ireland ‘Skills for Staying Safe’. This 10 week programme discusses have access to various safety issues including internet and social media appropriate services, safety. enabling people with Produced an Internet safety PowerPoint presentation Autism to be valued Developed internet safety online games. members of their community UK’s leading adoption BAAF Workshops for social workers, adopters and foster carers on and fostering e-safety, social networking and post care/ post adoption membership association, contact which promotes the Organised a conference (‘Facing up to Facebook’); highest standards of Provide advice and guidance for professionals and members practice in adoption, of public on e-safety via a helpline. fostering and childcare Publications; services in social work, Facing up to Facebook (2010) health, legal and other Social Networking and Contact (2010) professional bodies on Foster Care and Social Networking (2011) behalf of children Social Networking and You (2011) separated from their Losing Control (2012) birth families. Using the Internet in Adoption and Fostering Assessments (2011) Barnardo's Safe Choices NI is one All the work undertaken by Safe Choices includes the issue of e(Safe Barnardo’s services. Its safety as it is inextricably linked to issue of child exploitation. aim is to reduce the risk Work includes: Choices NI) of young people being Schools work (years 8-11) –which ‘Online behaviours can sexually exploited and to have offline consequences’ Usually one off sessions which help reduce the number includes exploitive relationships and grooming on the of missing episodes from internet/technology; abusive behaviour on the internet (i.e. home or care. sexting); consent and capacity issues pertaining to internet relationships and behaviour; safety planning and protective behaviours online and offline. Professional training –includes agencies such as social workers; residential workers; police; youth workers; teachers; education welfare etc. Consultations – with practitioners from multi-agency teams in relation to issues pertaining to child sexual exploitation and children who go missing from home. This can include social networking issues and e-safety. Direct work with children and young people – one to one or group work with children and young people referred into the service. Often includes sessions focusing on the dangers around e-technology being used to facilitate abuse through exploitation. Public awareness Work on e-safety Training Courses of Training materials Overall purpose organisation Resources Organisation Y N Y N Y N Y N Y Y N Y 94
  • 96. Organisation Overall purpose organisation Resources Training materials Training Courses Public awareness Beam Creative network Beam Creative Network is a not-for-profit community arts organisation. Its mission is to foster creativity and excellence through all mediums of the arts; provide programmes and activities that encourage awareness, participation, and appreciation of the arts, and; encourage and promote communication, learning and personal development with all age groups. Delivered drama plays to schools around Northern Ireland to highlight the importance of e-safety, cyber bullying and the consequences of risks with regards to e-safety. To date over 3000 post primary school children in Northern Ireland have seen the play. They were based in Dungannon, Cookstown, Omagh and Enniskillen. Plans in place to deliver it around Antrim, Ballymena, Ballymoney and Coleraine as well as Enniskillen in 2014. N N Y N Cookstown and Dungannon Women's Aid The purpose of Women’s Aid is to provide a quality based holistic service to women and children affected by all forms of domestic violence, and; to educate, challenge and co-operate with external agencies and the wider community with a vision to eradicate domestic violence. E-safety is included within the delivery of the ‘Heading for Healthy Relationships’ programme which is delivered to post primary schools throughout NI. The programme has not been revised regionally for some time and so has evolved and been developed locally so may be slightly different in different areas. E-safety is included within the ‘Helping Hands’ programme which is delivered to primary school children throughout NI. In some areas this programme been completely taken over and delivered by the teachers within the Primary schools. Produced a video on violence in dating relationships which highlights how mobile phones can be used to harass and bully individuals. E-Safety is covered on a needs-led basis within other services including the family support service, floating support service and refuge and refuge child worker service. The LiveNet project delivers dedicated e-safety workshops to young people and adults with a learning disability, parents/ carers and support staff. Developed an e-safety comic book Project Officers are CEOP ambassadors and deliver their training and awareness package and promote their resources. Y N Y N Y N Y Y Mencap Livenet – of Mencap is the leading voice of learning disability. The LiveNet Project is designed to help people with a learning disability, their family members and carers to develop the skills and knowledge to ICT in their everyday life. Work on e-safety 95
  • 97. Work on e-safety Resources Training materials Training Courses Public awareness Organisation Overall purpose organisation Nexus NI of Nexus NI offers support and counselling based on nearly 30 years of knowledge and experience in helping people aged 16 and over who have suffered sexual violence, rape and abuse at any time in their life. Nexus do this through education and awareness work on sexual abuse, its extent and severity. Nexus designs and delivers detailed, fun and age appropriate workshops and sessions on e-safety to: young people in schools, youth clubs and community groups; young people in or leaving care; teenage parents within the parents programme; and young people with learning disabilities. N N Y N Northern Ireland AntiBullying Forum (NIABF) To support schools and other organisations in the development of effective anti-bullying policy and practice Y Y Y Y NIACRO NIACRO has been working for 35 years to reduce crime and its impact on people and communities N N Y N NSPCC The NSPCC’s vision is to end cruelty to children in the UK and make a difference for all children by standing up for their rights, listening to them, helping them when they need it and by making them safe. The NSPCC runs projects and services across the UK to help vulnerable children. NSPCC also provide Childline, the UK’s free, confidential 24-hour helpline and online service. NIABF delivers messages and resources relating to cyber bullying. These include: Over 20 different teaching resources for primary, postprimary and special schools on cyber bullying; Leaflet for parents and carers on cyber bullying; Workshops for foster carers on cyber bullying; Workshops for parents/ carers on social networking sites; Training for pupils on recognising bullying including cyber bullying; Workshops for young people on bullying and sexting; Media campaign on understanding the cyber playground; Media campaign – think before you send. Delivered a CEOP e-safety training course NIACRO has a CEOP ambassador, who can train and cascade training to other professionals so they can then deliver CEOP’s Thinkuknow resources to children, young people and parent/carers. Deliver the CEOP Parent and Carers Presentation to a parent Group within the CAPS (Child and Parent Support) project. Deliver a range of information, resources and services that include messages on e-safety in a variety of formats; including face to face training, presentations, online and offline information packages. Some of this is delivered directly in Northern Ireland and some is available online and is accessible through UK website and partner websites. Provide a range of helpful information on e-safety on the following website: http://www.safenetwork.org.uk Work in partnership with CEOP, offer CEOP Thinkuknow and ambassador training to other organisations Undertake research in the area Helped GAA produce social media and policy guidelines Child Protection in Sport Unit (CPSU) developed sample online safety and ICT policies, guidance on text/email messaging and online safety Deliver Childline Schools Service in NI primary schools. Part of the talk cover online safety and cyber bullying Y Y Y Y 96
  • 98. Public awareness Work on e-safety Training Courses of Training materials Overall purpose organisation Resources Organisation VOYPIC is a charity working across Northern Ireland promoting the rights and improving the lives of children and young people cared for away from home. They may be living at home in care; with foster or kinship carers; in children’s homes; in secure settings; or in supported accommodation. They may be preparing to leave care or be care leavers. Private sector organisations Beat the To promote and deliver Cyber bully awareness and training (education, prevention and intervention) on cyber topics and general online communications and behaviour to children, young people, parents and practitioners. It is a project developed by a youth motivational speaker Wayne Denner The work carried out on e-safety has been done individually with children and young people based on their specific needs. This work addressed safe use of internet and social media, including sharing personal information and images/ photos. VOYPIC use resources from the NSPCC and CEOP to help deliver the work to the young people. N N Y N Lobby on e-safety and e-education issues Presented evidence for Culture, Arts and Leisure Committee’s investigation into Safeguarding Children in Sport (NSPCC) Facilitate workshops with young people in schools and in youth/community groups on e-safety. Deliver parents awareness evenings and facilitate parent workshops on e-safety Blog and submit articles on e-safety Co - Author of eBook Tips on How to Beat the Cyber Bully Leaflets on different aspects of e-safety National and local media press coverage including - UTV Live Tonight – impact of online pornogrphay - BBC Radio Ulster, Wendy Talks Back, feature on Cyber bullying Y Y Y Y No Bullying To provide information to parents, teachers, children on e-safety through articles, videos and resources such as eBooks. No Bullying is a subsidiary of Treze Technology. Developed multiple resources including videos, eBooks and webpages on e-safety for children, young people, parents and teachers. Available for free on website Developed training materials including teaching plans and training manuals for teachers, parents/carers and children/young people Delivered e-safety awareness messages through social media advertising Y Y N Y Cyber Safety Advice Cyber Safety Advice provides internet safety workshops to children, teachers and parents. It is located in County Donegal, however engages in activity in the Developed a website for children, parents and teachers to learn about online safety Developed e-safety workshop which are delivered to parents, children and teachers. Comment in national and local media on e-safety Blog and submit articles on e-safety Conducted research on e-safety with young people Y N Y Y VOYPIC 97
  • 99. North West of NI. It is a subsidiary of an IT consultancy company, PC Clean. To use technology to highlight potential cyber bullying and negative actions online that could damage a child’s reputation. Also heavily invested in Education in schools. This is a commercial enterprise. It is a subsidiary of Treze Technology Provide resource packs to schools following the UK educational guidelines. 10 eBooks with an average of 30 pages each, to launch in August 2013. Technology product that alerts against negative actions or activity online. Public awareness X Ray Data Work on e-safety Training Courses of Training materials Overall purpose organisation Resources Organisation Y Y N N 98
  • 100. Appendix F: Survey responses – theme of e-safety messages E-safety themes No of organisations delivering e-safety messages in each theme Resources Training Training Public materials courses Awareness (17 orgs (8 orgs (21 orgs (11 orgs) total) total) total) Mobile phones Safer social networking 14 17 7 6 18 12 9 7 Gaming 11 5 10 7 Online reputation 11 5 13 6 Privacy and personal information 15 6 15 8 What’s legal when accessing digital content, 8 copyright laws, plagiarism Keeping information secure online 13 3 4 6 4 13 6 Video chat and webcams 12 5 11 6 Online values and behaviour & digital 9 E-safety for citizenship children and young people with 9 special educational needs Online grooming 12 4 3 9 7 5 6 5 11 8 Sexting 13 7 15 8 Cyber bullying 15 7 15 10 Parental controls 10 3 10 7 Parental guidance on technology 10 4 11 6 For parents: general information about 10 keeping your child safe online 4 10 4 Professional reputation 6 Professionals using technology safely and 6 responsibly Workplace development of e-safety policy 3 4 3 5 6 3 3 2 5 1 Workplace assessment of online safeguarding 1 1 2 0 99
  • 101. Appendix G: NI4Kids – NCB article about e-safety research 100
  • 102. Appendix H: NI organisations with e-safety messages on their website Organisation Target audience BAAF www.baaf.org.uk For people separated from their birth parents Webpage with quick reference guide to managing social media in adoption Books for sale on e-safety in relation to people who are separated from their birth parents and information on Main website refer to training delivered in NI No Young people who have experienced or at risk of sexual exploitation Newsletters about the Safe Choices project that refer to keeping safe online and grooming No www.ceop.gov.uk www.thinkuknow.co.uk www.faceup2it.org www.childnet.com Webpage with info on cyber bullying Blog covering emerging news on e-safety eBook: Tips on how to beat the cyber bully New Beat the Cyber Bully website coming soon Promotes e-safety workshops Making good choices online Beat the cyber bully for young people Beat the cyber bully for parents Online reputation, maximising lifestyle and employability via the web None The NI section of the BAAF website does not appear to provide esafety information, provided in their overall site Barnardo’s Safe Choices www.barnardos.org.u k/nisafechoices.htm Beat the Cyber Bully www.waynedenner.co m www.beatthecyberbul ly.com Parents Children and young people Teachers and practitioners E-safety Information available Information on e- Other organisations signposted safety training courses 101
  • 103. C2K www.c2kni.net C2k have two parts to their website. One provides information about C2K to the general public and the other is a password protected intranet providing school services Cyber safety advice www.cybersafetyadvic e.com Department of Education www.deni.gov.uk (Did not send response to survey) Intranet school services : All teachers in NI General public website: Parents On public website webpage on internet safety day and general info on keeping children safe online. No publications by C2K. Links to other organisations resources: BBC: Learn ICT, Chat guide booklet for parents Orange, mobile phones and children – a guide for parents BBC, Email NCMEC, Sexting prevention Childnet, Know it all Childnet, Fact sheets Not on website Young people Parents Teachers Blog with articles on current e-safety issues including Cyber bullying Gaming Mobile phone abuse Social media Online threats security Dedicated page to internet and Wi-Fi. Includes two circulars on 2011/12Internet Safety and Circular 2007/01 Acceptable use of the internet and digital technologies in schools Also includes information on the following: Management responsibilities in Schools regarding internet and Wi-Fi Code of safe practice and effective use of ICT Internet safety education for pupils Health and safety Digital publishing and software licensing Social software Management information systems Child protection including reference to Cyber bullying, grooming and child pornography Cyber bullying also mentioned specifically under Pupil behaviour and discipline guide for school governors Bullying Promotes e-safety consultations and workshops Schools Parents main www.learn-ict.org.uk/ www.ee.co.uk www.bbc.co.uk/schools/parents/ cyber_bullying/ www.netsmartz.org www.childnet.com www.kidsmart.org.uk www.iwf.org.uk No www.nidirect.gov www.learnict.org.uk/intsafety/primary.asp www.gridclub.com/ www.childnet.com www.kidsmart.org.uk www.nspcc.org www.thinkuknow.co.uk www.bt.com www.urzone.com www.ceop.gov.uk www.iwf.org.uk www.beatbullying.org www.education.gov.uk www.antibullying.net www.kidscape.org.uk www.childline.org.uk www.chatdanger.com/ www.parentingni.org 102
  • 104. Mencap’s Livenet www.livenet.org.uk/ NIABF www.niabf.org.uk Children young people and adults with a learning disability Families, carers, staff and volunteers supporting people with a learning disability. Website promotes 2 e-safety resources E-safety comic book for young people Video and song to promote internet safety day 2013 Children and young people Parents Teachers and practitioners Information on website about cyber bullying plus NIABF have produced downloadable resources: Parents: What is Cyber bullying leaflet Practitioners: Cyber bullying school resource pack. For each Key Stage (except Foundation/KS1) there is an activity sheet for cyber bullying Cyber bullying and the law in Northern Ireland leaflet Preventing cyber bullying: What schools should do advice leaflet Also signposts to other organisations resources: UKCCIS, Advice on Child Internet Safety 1.0 DCSF, Safe to Learn Cyber Bullying NCH, Stoptextbully Poster Promotes e-safety workshops for Children young people and adults with a learning disability Families, carers, staff and volunteers supporting people with a learning disability. Signposts programme delivered by PSNI in schools Offers signposting or bespoke support depending on nature of the individual enquiry www.thinkuknow.co.uk/ www.ceop.gov.uk www.childnet.com www.kidsmart.org.uk www.becta.org.uk www.chatdanger.com www.childnet-int.org www.stoptextbully.com www.thinkuknow.co.uk www.wiredsafety.org www.ico.gov.uk www.anti-bullyingalliance.org.uk www.antibullying.net www.beatbullying.org www.bullying.co.uk www.kidscape.org.uk www.respectme.org.uk www.there4me.com www.urzone.com 103
  • 105. No Bullying www.nobullying.com Teens Teachers Parents Health professionals Numerous articles on website relating to cyber safety. For example Teens Snapchat and sexting Cyber bulling FAQ Proper netiquette for kids Case studies of cyber bullying Facebook users stories: cyber safety gone wrong Teachers A teachers guide to cyber bullying Teaching children about dealing with strangers online How teacher can protect themselves from cyber bullying Learn how to effectively develop a cyber bullying response plan Sexting Parents Internet safety tips for the new school year Cyber bullying, parents stories, tips to prevent and help Internet history explained Chatting with strangers: what you need to know Online safety assessments, what you need to look for Cyber safety for kids…educate! Decoding the internet and social media Potential dangers of the internet A parents cheat sheet to the cyber world Safeguarding your children from the sexting trend Location based networks: A parent’s guide Kids internet safety, don’t ban educate What is catfishing? A cyber safety alert Your child and pornography Protect your child by setting limits Health professionals Cyber bullying: reasons and motives Teens and sexting Understanding the cyber bullying victim Cyber safety; Facebook and real life, the struggle Are bullying and cyber bullying conditioned behaviours No www.nspcc.org Most of the articles refer to international (mainly American) websites such as www.fbi.gov/fungames/kids/kids-safety www.fosi.org www.bullyingstatistics.org www.nypl.org www.cyberangels.org/parents/ bullying.php www.cyberbullying.info 104
  • 106. NSPCC NI Parents Teachers and schools Practitioners and professionals E-safety information does not appear to be on NI pages, Only NI specific information found: Briefing paper on the issue of internet safety in NI for children’s spokespersons OFMDFM www.ofmdfmni.gov.u k Practitioners NI Direct www.nidirect.gov.uk Parents Young people Refers to Sophie Safe, one of the ‘super six’ characters used to translate the Children and Young Peoples strategy for younger children. The ideas for activities section on internet and mobile phone safety links to Thinkuknow website. Focus on the Click Clever Click Safe code with information targeted at parents and young people. Downloadable poster and leaflet promoting 3 steps to code Zip it, Block it and Flag it. Specific web pages on the following topics: Parents: cyber bullying social networking sites preventing your child from downloading and file sharing illegally internet terms and language online gaming and General info about keeping children safe online. Young people: cyber bullying www.nspcc.org.uk/no rthernireland A UK government website managed by the Executive Information Service of OFMDFM Info on main NSPCC site: Policy and guidance for schools Practice resources for teachers Teaching internet safety through peer mentoring Safeguarding information through network safe General advice for parents on keeping children safe online Sexting advice for parents Research on e-safety SaferNet campaign urging the Government, the online industry, schools and parents to take action in helping protect children from abuse and harm on the internet. Children and young people with e-safety concerns referred to Childline E-safety work with the Child Protection in Sport Unit Main website refers to training available in NI: Keeping children safe online online learning tool by NSPCC and CEOP Signposts Thinkuknow training No No On main website: www.ceop.gov.uk www.childnet.com www.which.co.uk www.direct.gov.uk www.saferinternet.org.uk www.childline.org.uk www.safenetwork.org.uk www.thinkuknow.co.uk www.niabf.org.uk www.citizensadvice.co.uk www.brook.org.uk/northernireland www.victimsupportni.co.uk/ www.beatbullying.org/ www.childline.org.uk www.childnet.com hwww.parentport.org.uk/ http://ceop.police.uk/ www.thinkuknow.co.uk www.actionfraud.police.uk/ www.getsafeonline.org www.talktofrank.com/ 105
  • 107. PSNI www.psni.police.uk/ General public Parents Young people www.urzone.com Western Health and Social Care Trust www.westerntrust.hsc ni.net X Ray data www.xraydata.com Parents Hardware software providers and bullying on social networks internet and email bullying enjoying the internet safely bullying on mobile phones identity fraud Main PSNI website General tips to keep safe online Information for parents on filtering parental controls and where to keep the computer D District provide a two page document in internet safety information for parents and another document on safe social networking UR Zone website Do’s and Don’ts s to keep yourself safe online phishing chatroom safety viruses Trojans and software Worksheet on online privacy (teachers notes) Worksheet on internet safety (teachers notes) Resources Be Internet Safe Booklet developed by WHSCT – an Internet Safety Resource for young People in Care, which includes advice on cyber bullying, social networking, mobiles/sexting, uploading videos/games and chatrooms /IM eating disorder websites. Other information Information about CEOP Thinkuknow training for trainers Report on the Virtual Lives Conference 2011 Presentations at the Virtual Lives Conference 2011 Information about the Virtual Lives Conference 2011 Information about Bee Safe Kids, a scheme that promotes accident prevention and safety messages to primary school children including internet safety. Promotes software that enables parents to see Potential negative comments or online bullying on their child’s social networks www.iwf.org.uk www.askaboutgames.com www.pegi.info www.nspcc.org.uk PSNI Refers to internet www.thinkuknow.co.uk safety talks in www.parentscentre.co.uk press releases www.urzone.com www.ceop.gov.uk www.identitytheft.org.uk www.getsafeonline.org Urzone: www.childnet.com/ www.kidsmart.org.uk/ www.chatdanger.com/ www.thinkuknow.co.uk/ Promotes Thinkuknow training for trainers (took place 2011) No www.childline.org.uk www.ceop.police.uk No 106
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  • 109. cover design: www.conordiverdesign.com on C NCB NI 2nd Floor, Albany House 73-75 Great Victoria Street Belfast BT2 7AF Tel: 028 9089 1730 www.ncb.org.uk/northernireland Twitter: @ncb_ni_tweets ct D e ta t a il s Safeguarding Board for Northern Ireland 18 Ormeau Avenue Belfast BT2 8HS Tel: 028 9031 1611 Email: sbnisupport@hscni.net www.safeguardingni.org www.twitter.com/safeguardingni www.facebook.com/safeguardingni