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Nutrients

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  • 1. Nutrients ’
  • 2. Nutrients A nutrient is a chemical that an organism needs to live and grow or a substance used in an organisms metabolism which must be taken in from its environment. They are used to build and repair tissues, regulate body processes and are converted to and used as energy.
  • 3. Carbohydrates (65% of your diet) Definition : A class of nutrients that contains sugars and starches and is made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Function : Excellent source of energy. Types: 1) Simple : consist of sugars Examples include: cookies, candy, and soft drinks 2) Complex : sugars that are linked together chemically to form long chains (starch). Examples include: rice, cereals, and bread
  • 4. Fat (less than 30% of your diet) Definition : The class of nutrients with the highest energy content. Function : Energy supply, part of the structure of cells, and important for healthy hair and skin. Types: Saturated : Contain as many hydrogen atoms in their structure as possible. Trans Fats : Fats that are formed when vegetable oils are processed into margarine or shortening. Polyunsaturated fat : fat that contains fewer hydrogen atoms than possible and are open to hydrogenation Monounsaturated fat : fat that contains fewer hydrogen atoms than possible and are open to hydrogenation Cholesterol : a waxy fat-like substance found in the cells of all animals.
  • 5. Protein (10-15% of your diet) Definition : nutrients that contain nitrogen as well as carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Function : growth and repair of body tissue, and an energy source. Amino Acids : chemical substances that make up proteins. Essential amino acids: nutrients your body cannot produce or store so you must get them through food. Nine of the 20 amino acids are essential. Complete protein : food that has all essential amino acids (animal products, soy, poi)
  • 6. Vitamins Definition : Made by living things and are only needed in small amounts. Function: assist in many chemical reactions in the body.
  • 7. Types of vitamins water-soluble : dissolve in water. Should be supplied daily. Vitamin B: Good sources include: Milk, poultry, fish, whole grains, cheese, nuts, and eggs. Vitamin C: Good sources include: Citrus fruits, green vegetables, melons, potatoes, and tomatoes
  • 8.  fat-soluble : dissolve in fat (can be stored in body). Vitamin A: Good sources include: eggs, cheese, milk, orange, dark green vegetables and fruits. Vitamin D: Good sources include: Milk, eggs, liver, and exposure of skin to sunlight. Vitamin E: Good sources include: Margarine, vegetables oils, wheat germ, whole grains, greens, and leafy vegetables. Vitamin K: Good sources include: Greens, leafy vegetables, liver.
  • 9. Minerals Definition : nutrients that are not manufactured by living things. Important minerals to consider: calcium: important for: building and maintaining bones and teeth; nerve and muscle function; blood clotting. sodium: excess can lead to: high blood pressure. iron: deficiency can lead to: anemia
  • 10. Water Water is 65 percent of our body weight and essential for all life processes.
  • 11.  Functions :1. chemical reactions2. primary component in blood and tissue fluids3. energy production4. digests food5. carries dissolved wasted products out of the body6. brings nutrients to cells7. regulates body temp. Recommended daily intake of water: 8 cups
  • 12. Energy Content Carbohydrates - 1 gm : 4 Cal Proteins- 1 gm : 4 Cal Fat- 1 gm : 9 Cal Alcohol- 1 gm : 7 Cal