Toyota production system
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Toyota production system






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Toyota production system Toyota production system Presentation Transcript

  • Genealogy of Toyota Production System• Toyoda Spinning and Weaving: 1932 – 1942• Toyota Motor Company : 1943• Two pillars of Toyota Production System• Idea of Autonomation: Auto-activated Loom• The habit of Watching
  • Product Importance• Usage of proper equipments & producing cheaply• Spending money on good machines• Learn to use the machines correctly• The Japanese-Style Production Technique View slide
  • American production system V/s Japanese production• Mass production system • Small quantity• Raw materials carried production of different along conveyor belts variety• Assembly line moves at • Movement of both a fixed speed labor and machines• Warehousing of parts eliminating wastes • Complete elimination of Warehouse View slide
  • Pillars of TPS• Just in time• Autonomation
  • Evolution of TPS• Asking WHY five times• Concept of Waste• Analysis of Waste• Standard Work sheet preparation• Evolution of Kanban
  • Why should we ask why ?• Why did the machine stop? – There was an overload and the fuse blew• Why was there an overload? – The bearing was not sufficiently lubricated• Why was it not lubricated sufficiently? – The lubrication pump was not pumping sufficiently• Why was it not pumping sufficiently? – The shaft of the pump was worn and rattling• Why was the shaft worn out? – There was no strainer attached and the metal scrap got in
  • Waste –Concept and analysis• Present Capacity =Work + Waste• There are seven basic categories of Waste
  • Writing the work sheet• Cannot be done theoretically• One must have knowledge of ground level activities• Proper design of work procedure is critical• Work must be standardised
  • KANBAN• Tool used to operate the TPS• Inspiration from American Supermarkets• Basic function is to carry information• 3 Types of info:-1) Pickup information2) Transfer information3) Production information
  • • Functions • Rules of use• Provides Pickup or transport • Later process picks up No of information items indicated by Kanban• Provides production • Earlier process produces information items in Indicated• Prevents overproduction and Qty+Sequence excessive transport • No items are made without• Serves as a work order Kanban attached to goods• Identifies process making • Always attach Kanban to defects thus preventing goods defective products • Defective products are not• Reveals existing problems and sent on to next process maintains inventory control • Reducing the No of Kanban increases their sensitivity
  • Establishing the Flow• Requirement as basis for Kanban implementation• Production Levelling• Market diversification
  • Challenges to production Levelling• Originally conceived to produce small quantities of many types of products• Must lower the Peaks and valleys in production system• Places a huge demand on the Die-press Section• Thus for each different part the die would have to change
  • Results of Production Levelling• Result was from 2-3 hours in the 40s the Change and setup of dies is now only a few minutes (<3 min )
  • Further Developments• Automatic nervous system in business organisation• Computer: only a source of information• Production Schedule and Planning – Number of cars to be produced – Monthly, Weekly Schedules• Adjusting to production schedule when actual production takes place
  • • Economy at Toyota means Manpower reduction and cost reduction• Reduction also needs to be carefully studied – E.g. Installing electrical control to replace a worker• The vicious circle of waste
  • The vicious circle of waste Increased Unnecessary Many Workers Power & Work Material Use Excess Inventory Shortages Warehouse Add Workers Hire more for Repairs & Workers Maintinance Workers Carrying Inventory Carts Managemrnt
  • Managing Time, Machine & Labor• Appropriate tact time should be determined• Operating and Operable rates• Relationship between Production Quantity and Number of Workers – E.g. 10 workers  100 pieces With improvements  120 pieces Demand decreases How to tackle the problem?
  • The Number game• Forecasting the exact number of quantity required• To avoid over production it is necessary that – Production Quantity = Required Number• Car dealers across send their orders daily to Toyota Automobile Sales Company at Nagoya• Classification of Orders• Estimation of Quantity
  • Misconception about Equipments• High Performance Machines• High-productive machine and High-speed machines are not always the same• Life of Machines should be depending upon its operable rate• Replacement of Machine should be the last option
  • “Worker Saving”• Toyota uses term “worker saving” instead of “labor saving”• Labor saving means using equipments such as lift, bulldozer, etc… which is directly connected to reducing the man power• If worker is replaced simply to make the work easy then it may result costly to install an equipment
  • The Ford System• Mass production system• Raw materials carried along conveyor belts• Assembly line moves at a fixed speed• Warehousing of parts