My Credit Seminar on "Toxicity of Silver Nanoparticles"

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My Seminar Details...Hope it will find very much informative. any Doubt please catch me in mailing me kisnadevp5@gmail.com

Paladugu.Krishnadev
M.Tech.in.Agricultural Nanotechnology,
TNAU,
Coimbatore-3
India.

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My Credit Seminar on "Toxicity of Silver Nanoparticles"

  1. 1. TOXICITY OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES Student P. Krishnadev ( II-M.Tech) - ID.No. -12-517-004 Chairman Dr. K.Gunasekaran, Professor and Head (NST) Advisory Committee Members Dr. K.Soorianathasundaram, Professor and Head (Dept. of Fruit Crops) Dr. D.Malathi, Professor (Food Science and Nutrition)
  2. 2. CONTENT • • • Introduction Applications of Silver Nanoparticles Toxicity of Silver Nanoparticles Plants Algae Microbes Case studies Fish Rodents Aquatic environment Human • Mechanism of Silver Nanoparticles toxicity • Conclusion • Future work and challenges
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION • Most of the silver is in the form of metallic silver nano-particles • The remaining silver is in ionic form. Because of the small size of the nanoparticles is from 5 to 50nm • The total surface area of the silver exposed in solution is maximized, resulting in the highest possible effect per unit of silver Silver nanoparticles (Alt et al., 2004)
  5. 5. Cont… • Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs or nanosilver) have attracted increasing interest due to their unique physical, chemical and biological properties compared to their macro-scaled counterparts (Sharma et al., 2009) • Ag-NPs have distinctive physico-chemical properties, including a high electrical and thermal conductivity, surface-enhanced Raman scattering, chemical stability, catalytic activity and non linear optical behavior (Krutyakov et al., 2008)
  6. 6. APPLICATIONS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES AT VARIOUS LEVEL
  7. 7. USES OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES IN MEDICINE (Chaloupka et al., 2010)
  8. 8. SILVER NANOPARTICLES APPLICATIONS AND HUMAN HEALTH (Ahamed et al., 2010)
  9. 9. SOURCES OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES EXPOSURE Kedziora et al.,2012
  10. 10. SILVER NANOPARTICLES USE IN FOOD INDUSTRY Product Function of nanocomponent Commercial status Further information Reference BlueMoonGoods_Fresh Box Silver Nanoparticle Food Storage Containers Antimicrobial Withdrawn from website Nanoparticles permanently embedded in the container Alfadul et al. (2010) Nano Care Technology, Antibacterial Kitchenware Antimicrobial URL no longer available _ Bouwmeester et al. (2007) Sunriver Industrial Nanosilver fresh food bag Antimicrobial Commercially available Ag has been shown to migrate from these bags Huang et al. (2011) FreshLonger_Plastic Storage Bags Antimicrobial Commercially available but antimicrobial and Ag nanoparticles have been removed from the description Resealable Zip Lock Alfadul et al. (2010) (Cushen et al., 2012)
  11. 11. TOXICITY OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES • • • • • • • Plants Microbes Algae Fish Rodents Aquatic environment Human cell lines
  12. 12. CASE STUDIES
  13. 13. PHYTO TOXIC EFFECT OF Ag-NPs ON TOMATO, CUCUMBER AND MAIZE SEED GERMINATION (Kumari et al., 2012)
  14. 14. PHYTO TOXIC EFFECT OF Ag-NPs ON TOMATO, CUCUMBER AND MAIZE SEED GERMINATION (Kumari et al., 2012)
  15. 15. EFFECTS OF RANGE OF SYNTHESIZED TRIPHALA AND NEEM NANOPARTICLES (Gavhane et al., 2012)
  16. 16. NANOPHYTOTOXICITY OF Ag IN SOME FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL CROPS Crops Toxicity Nanoparticles Onion Cell wall breaks, deformed chromosomes, indistinct disturbed metaphase and mitosis Ag Particle size (nm) < 100 Reference Flax, ryegrass, barley Reduced germination and shoot length Ag 0.6 – 2 El-Temsah and Joner (2012) Flax, barley Reduced germination and shoot length Ag 5 El-Temsah and Joner (2012) Ryegrass, Reduced germination and barley shoot length Ag 20 Kumari et al. (2009) El-Temsah and Joner (2012) (Thul et al., 2013)
  17. 17. SILVER NANOPARTICLES AS ANTIMICROBIAL AGENT (Sondi and Sondi 2004)
  18. 18. SILVER NANOPARTICLES AS ANTIMICROBIAL AGENT (Sondi and Sondi 2004)
  19. 19. Biological Synthesis of Ag NPs from Allium Cepa (Onion) & Estimating Its Antibacterial Activity UV-Vis absorption spectra of Silver nanoparticles synthesized by exposure of onion broth with 0.1M silver nitrate (Benjamin and Bharathwaj 2011)
  20. 20. E.COLI AND TEM MICROGRAPHS OF Ag NPs Effect of silver nanoparticles on E.coli growth rate. TEM micrographs of Silver Nanoparticles synthesized from Onion extract with mean size 40nm (Benjamin and Bharathwaj 2011)
  21. 21. NANOTOXICITY ON DIVERSE MICROBES Microbes Toxicity Nanomaterials Cell wall pitting Ag Reference Choi et al. (2008) E. coli Inhibition of bacterial growth, bactericidal action Ag Pal et al. (2007) E. coli, P. aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhimurium Antibacterial activity Ag Sahu et al. (2012) E. coli (Thul et al., 2013)
  22. 22. TOXICITY OF Ag-NPs To Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Navarro et al., 2008)
  23. 23. TEM IMAGE OF Ag-NPs to Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Navarro et al., 2008)
  24. 24. • (A) Concentration-response curves of photosynthetic yield after 1 and 2 h of exposure to AgNP and AgNO 3 ; only two of the experiments are shown. Photosynthetic values are expressed as the percentage of the control, where Ag⁺ concentration corresponds to the detection limit of the total Ag present in the suspensions • (B) Displays results as a function of the free Ag⁺ concentrations (Navarro et al., 2008)
  25. 25. • Concentration-response curves of photosynthetic yield upon exposure (1 h) to 500 NM AgNO3 plus cysteine. The Ag⁺ values are calculated from addition of different cysteine concentrations (secondary axis) to 500 nM AgNO3 • Concentration-response curves of photosynthetic yield expressed as a function of the calculated Ag+, obtained upon addition of increasing amounts of cysteine to 5 and 10 μM AgNP suspensions. The cysteine concentrations (nM) are indicated beside every data point. (Navarro et al., 2008)
  26. 26. TOXICITY OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES IN ZEBRAFISH MODELS • The toxicity of silver nanoparticles was tested using embryos of zebra fish TEM images of Ag Nanoparticles starch BSA Two kind of nanoparticles were used. One capped with BSA and the other one with starch The coating of the nanoparticle confer them the desired solubility and stability properties in water Optical characterization Extent of toxicity is measured in terms of mortality rate, hatching, heart rate and abnormal phenotypes (Asharani et al., 2008)
  27. 27. Cont… Normal Embryo Malformed Embryo The zebra fish eggs were taken to a 96-well plate, and a solution of silver nanoparticles at different concentrations was added to each well. Dead Embryo The images show the appearance of normal, malformed and dead embryos. Visual counting was made. (Asharani et al., 2008)
  28. 28. Cont… • It was found that the silver nanoparticles were able to trespass the embryo barrier and settle inside, thus causing the effects to be observed TEM Mitochondria TEM Nucleus • It is possible that the nanoparticles may enter the cells through many routes. Among them, endocytosis through the embryo wall is more likely EDS of embryo • Nuclear deposition is believed to create a cascade of toxic events leading to DNA damage and similar ones (Asharani et al., 2008)
  29. 29. Cont… Toxicity End Points • Toxicity end points reveal a concentration-dependent occurrence of negative events such as death • Nanoparticle deposition in the central nervous system could have adverse effects in the control of cardiac rhythm, respiration and body movements • Exposure to silver nanoparticles resulted as well in accumulation of blood causing edema and necrosis (Asharani et al., 2008)
  30. 30. MICROSCOPIC IMAGE OF ZEBRA FISH (Asharani et al., 2008)
  31. 31. IN VIVO TOXICITY OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES (Ahamed et al., 2010)
  32. 32. (Ahamed et al., 2010)
  33. 33. IN VITRO TOXICITY OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES TO MAMMALIAN CELLS (Ahamed et al., 2010)
  34. 34. IN VITRO TOXICITY OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES TO MAMMALIAN CELLS (Ahamed et al., 2010)
  35. 35. IN VITRO TOXICITY OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES TO MAMMALIAN CELLS (Ahamed et al., 2010)
  36. 36. THE EFFECT OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES ON THE PRODUCTION OF CYTOKINES (Klippstein et al.,2010)
  37. 37. IN VITRO CYTOTOXICITY STUDIES OF SILVER NPS ON DIFFERENT CELL LINES (Klippstein et al.,2010)
  38. 38. IN VITRO CYTOTOXICITY STUDIES OF SILVER NPS ON DIFFERENT CELL LINES (Klippstein et al.,2010)
  39. 39. CONTRIBUTION OF Ag NPs TO THE ENVIRONMENT (Gottschalk et al., 2009)
  40. 40. Ag-NPs:BEHAVIOUR AND EFFECTS IN THE AQUATIC ENVIRONMENT (Fabrega et al., 2011)
  41. 41. Ag-NPs:BEHAVIOUR AND EFFECTS IN THE AQUATIC ENVIRONMENT
  42. 42. Ag-NPs:Behaviour and effects in the aquatic environment
  43. 43. OVERVIEW OF ONE MODEL OF SILVER FLOW TRIGGERED BY USE OF BIOCIDAL PLASTICS AND TEXTILES. (Blaser et al., 2008)
  44. 44. MECHANISM OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES TOXICITY
  45. 45. MECHANISM OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES TOXICITY (Reidy et al.,2013)
  46. 46. (Ahamed et al., 2010)
  47. 47. Prabhu et al., 2012)
  48. 48. Future Work and Challenges • Completing the whole spectrum of toxicity for all the existent (and potentially new) nanoparticles • Modifying existent and create new assays that are up to the challenge of determining nanoparticle-related toxicity • Issuing new laws that compel companies the exertion of ‘responsible’ nanotechnology that facilitate the implementation of accurate fate models • Determine the exact origin of the toxicity of each nanoparticle to make the pertinent modifications in order to obtain safer products and technologies
  49. 49. Conclusion • I conclude that the Ag-nps have the greater potential to cause health and eco toxicity in a concentrationdependent manner • Silver has always been an excellent antimicrobial and has been used for the purposes of ages • It is suggested that higher concentrations of silver nanoparticles are toxic and cause various health problems • It can be believed that if utilized properly, silver nanoparticles can be a good friend, but if used haphazardly, they can become a mighty foe.

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