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RESEARCH ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION
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  • 1. International Research Journal ISSN-0975-3486 RNI : RAJBIL 01488 VOL. I * ISSUE—3 ‡ÊÊœ ¬òÊ- Œ‡Ê¸Ÿ Áfl÷ʪ ŸÊŸ∑§ ∑§Ê ‚◊Ê¡ Œ‡Ê¸Ÿ * ⁄UÊ∑§‡Ê ‚ÊŸË Dec.-09—Jan.-2010 *√ÿÊÅÿÊÃÊ, Œ‡Ê¸Ÿ Áfl÷ʪ, ߢÁŒ⁄UÊ ªÊ°œË ⁄UÊc≈˛UËÿ ¡Ÿ¡ÊÃËÿ Áfl‡flÁfllÊ‹ÿ, •◊⁄U∑¢§≈U∑§ (◊.¬˝.) xq:ukud nso vius le; ds Økafrdkjh n`"Vk FksA Hkkjrh; djds bl ijEijk dks lewps lekt rFkk lH;rk ds fy;s lekt tgkWa ,d vksj vKkurk] vf'k{kk] /kkfeZd va/kfo'okl gkfudkjd crk;k gS vkSj blds ewyksPNsnu dk iz;kl vkSj tkfrokn dh leL;k ls tw> jgk Fkk rks nwljh vksj fd;kA1 Åap&uhp rFkk NqvkNwr ds cus gq;s rFkk cuk;s x;s eqfLye vkØkarksa dh fgalk Hkh vkØkar fd;s gq;s FkkA ,slh fl)kUrksa dh vR;Ur dVq vkykspuk djds] bUgsa vkR;Ur fLFkfr esa ,d ,sls lkekftd fpUrd dh vko';drk Fkh tks [krjukd oge crk;kA2 lekt ds yksxksa dks fujk'kk] grk'kk vkSj nq%[k ls mckj ldsA ;g xq:ukud ds loZ lg;ksxh /keZ dk gh peRdkj Fkk LokfHkeku vkSj ikS:"k dh Hkkouk ls vksrizksr djds mls fd Hkkjrh; bfrgkl esa izFke ckj lHkh /keksZ ds] lHkh tkfr;ks]a ukxfjd n`<rk iznku dj ldsA ukud us vius fopkjksa vkSj + ds lHkh Jsf.k;ksa ds yksx] D;k vehj] D;k xjhc] D;k L=h vkpj.k lss yksxksa ds Hkhrj ,d ,slh ÅtkZ dks izokfgr djus D;k iq:"k fcuk fdlh HksnHkko ds ,d laxr esa cSBdj yaxj esa lQy jgs gS] ftlls fd ,d vyx gh flD[k /keZ dh [kk ldrs FksA3 xq:ukud us lalkj ds fy;s ftl lkekftd mRifRr gks x;hA izLrqr 'kks/k vkys[k esa ukud ds lkekftd fo/kku dks fu/kkZfjr djus dk iz;kl fd;k mlesa mUgksus a /kkj.kkvksa vkSj fopkjksa dk flagkoyksdu fd;k x;k gS vkSj ;g fHkUu&fHkUu jk"Vªk]as tkfr;ksa rFkk /keksaZ esa ln~Hkkouk] ize rFkk s fl) djus dk iz;kl fd;k x;k gS fd muds fopkj vius ,drk iSnk djus dk iz;Ru fd;kA xq:ukud ds le; esa Økafrdkjh Hkwfedk vnk dh FkhA fl)kUrkuqlkj fpf=r lekt ,d ;FkkFkZoknh rFkk lR;rk xq:ukud ds lekt n'kZu dk ewy fl)kUr ;g gS fd ij fuHkZj lekt gSA bl lekt esa xq:ukud us nafHk;ksa dks lalkj dh lHkh tkfr;kW ,oa euq"; ekuork ds /kjkry ij ik[kf.M;ksa rFkk yksxksa ds cuk;s x;s czãks]a Hkzeksa rFkk gkfudkjd ,d leku gSA izR;sd dk tUe fl) vf/kdkj gS fd og jhfr fjoktksa ds fy, dksbZ LFkku ugha j[kk lR; ls izdkf’kr vR;kpkj] Hk;] lkekftd ,oa jktuSfrd ijk/khurk ds cqf) dks] vKkurk :ih va/kdkj nwj djus okyk nhid vR;kpkjksa ls eqDr jgsA fd'kksjkoLFkk esa gh xq:ukud us crk;k vkSj bl Kku:ih nhid dks lnSo ds fy;s txexk;s tkar&ikar ds HksnHkko iSnk djus okys tusÅ vkfn igus dh j[kus dk eqfDr Hkh crk;hA4 jLeksa ds fo:) fonzksg dj fn;k Fkk D;kasfd ;s jLesa vehj Xkq:ukud us lekt dks izdkf'kr vkRek rFkk KkuksnhfIr rFkk iafMr iqjksfgr Jsf.k;ksas fd lekt esa Åapk LFkku nsdj ekuookn fn;kA mUgksus xq:}kjksa ds rFkk vius }kjk LFkkfir as rFkk etnwj Jsf.k;ksa dks uhp dqy dks fl) djds blesa gfj eafnjksa ds }kjk pkjksa vksj ls] lHkh jk"Vªksa] /keksaZ rFkk lnSo ds fy;s Åap uhp dk HksnHkko iSnk dj nsrh FkhA tkfr;ksa ds fy;s [kksy fn;s rFkk fL=;ksa dks iwtk] vpZuk] xq:ukud us u dsoy Åap uhp tkfr;ksa ds chp [kM+h mikluk rFkk lekt esa iq:"kksa ds cjkcj vktknh ds vf/kdkj NqvkNwr dh ?k`f.kr nhokjksa dks fxjkdj nwj Qsd fn;k] vfirq a fn;sA lksygoha 'krkCnha esa xq:ukud us flD[k lekt esa fgUnqvksa rFkk eqlyekuksa ds chp ,d nwljs dks dkfQj rFkk L=h tkfr dks brus vf/kdkj fn;s tks vkt ls ipkl o"kZ iwoZ eysPN le>us dk lkaLd`frd varj Hkh feVk fn;kA fgUnw ds ;ksjksih; lekt dks fL=;ksa dks izkIr ugha FksA5 xq:ukud /keZ ds pkj o.kZ] pkj vkJe ds ewy fl)kUr dk [k.Mu ds /keZ dh lcls cM+h fo'ks"krk ;g gS fd og fuo`fRrewyd çÚUâ¿ü °ÙæçÜçââ °‡ÇU §ßñËØé°àæÙ 161
  • 2. International Research Journal ISSN-0975-3486 RNI : RAJBIL 01488 VOL. I * ISSUE—3 ugha gS] izo`fRrewyd gSA mUgksus ik[k.Mksa ,oa ckg~;kMEcjksa a mUgksus vius eks{k rFkk yksd dY;k.k ds fufeRr lsok /keZ dk [k.Mu fd;k gS] pkgs og fgUnw gks] czkã.kksa dk gks] pkgs ij tksj fn;k gSA xq:ukud dk ize ekSf[kd u gksdj lsok s tSuksa dk gks] pkgs ;ksfx;ksa dk gks] pkgs eqYykvksa vFkok Hkkouk ls vksrizkr gSA ftl ize esa lsok Hkkouk ugha gksxh og s s dkft;ksa dk gksA /keZ ds okLrfod Lo:i dks R;kxdj yksx okLrfod izse u gksdj lgkuqHkwfr ek= jg tk;sxkA rhljs ckg~;kMEcjksa ds ihNs cqjh rjg ls iM+ tkrs gSA ;s gh a nks”k ds ifjgkj ds fy;s mUgksus ckg~;kMEcjksa ds R;kx vkSj a ckg~;kMEcj yM+kbZ&>xM+s vkSj vlfg".kqrk ds dkj.k cu ize HkfDr ij vf/kd cy fn;kA s tkrs gSA6 mUgksus vius mins’kksa esa lkekftd dqjhfr;ksa dk a mUgksus turk dh fujk’kk dks nwj dj muesa vk'kk] a cqjh rjg [k.Mu fd;k gSA tkfrxr izFkk lekt dh lcls fo'okl vkSj ikS#"k dh Hkkouk tkxzr dhA bl izdkj dh cM+h detksjh gSA blls lkjk lekt foJ`[ky gks tkrk gSA a f'k{kk dk xq: ukud nso us [k.Mu fd;k fd euq"; ikih xq:ukud us bl detksjh dks vuqHko djds gh dgk Fkk & gS vkSj mldk bl txr esa jguk vijk/k vkSj iki gSA tk.kgq tksfr u iwNgq tklh vkxs tkfr u gsA mUgksus fujk'kk esa ;g vejRo Hkkouk Hkjh fd mldk 'kjhj a rkRi;Z ;g gS fd ijekRek dh T;ksfr gh leLr izkf.k;ksa ijekRek ds jgus dk ifo= LFkku gSA blhfy;s bls d"V nsus esa le>ksA vr,o tkfr lEcU/kh iz'u er djks] D;ksfd a dh vis{kk ijekRek dh vuqie nsu le>dj mi;qDr <ax igys fdlh izdkj dh tkfr O;oLFkk ugha FkhA7 blh izdkj ls j[kuk pkfg;sA ij bldk vFkZ ;g dnkfi ugha gS fd mUgkasus fgUnw tkfr dh misf{kr ukjh lekt dks fQj ls mUgksus 'kjhj dks lc dqN le> ysus dks dgkA bl lEcU/k a izfr"Bk ds vklu ij cSBk;kA mUgksus vk'kk dh ckj esa fL=;ksa a esa mudh f'k{kk xhrk ds fuEufyf[kr 'yksd ds leku gS& ds lEcU/k esa Åaps fopkj izdV fd;s gSA xq:ukud nso us a ;qDrkgkj fogkjL;;qDr ps"VL; deZrqA fL=;ksa ds [kks;s gq;s vf/kdkjksa dks okfil fn;kA vk/;kfRed ;qDr LoIukdcks/kL; ;ksxksa Hkofr nq%[kgkAA lk/kukvksa vkSj thou ds vU; {ks=ksa esa mldh lekurk iq:"kksa ;g nq%[kksa dk uk'k djus okyk ;ksx rks ;Fkk;ksx vkgkj ls Lohdkj dh x;hA mUgksus /keZ ds ckg~;:iksa esa ifjfLFkfr;ksa a vkSj fogkj djus okys dk rFkk deksaZ esa ;Fkk;ksX; ps"Vk djus ds vuqdy ifjorZu fd;sA mUgksus HkfDr ekxZ dks mlds w sa okys dh ;ksX;rk] ps"Vk djus dk ;Fkk;ksX; 'k;u djus okys nks"kksa ls cpk;kA HkfDr ekxZ ds iz/kkur;k rhu nks"k gS] igyk dk rFkk tkxus okys dk fl) gksrk gSA xq:ukud dh bUgha nks"k ;g gS fd b"Vnso ds uke Hksn ds dkj.k ikjLifjd f'k{kkvksa dk izHkko Fk fd muds vuq;kf;;ksa us jk"VªfuekZ.k >xMs+ gks tk;k djrs gSA nwljk nks"k ;g fd va/k J)k ds vkSj jk"Vª lsok esa vuqie ;ksx fn;kA muds vuq;k;ha flD[k dkj.k yksx izk;% b"Vnsoksa dh ethZ ij brus vf/kd fuHkZj vius ^vkik* dks [kksdj ekuork dh lsok ds ek/;e }kjk gks tkrs gS fd O;ogkj esa Hkh LokoyEch cuuk NksM+ dj ijekRe fparu esa izo‘Rr gq;A9 Xkq:ukud nso us fgUnw vkSj s ,dne vkylh vkSj fudEes ls gh jgrs gS rFkk viuh eqlyeku nksuksa gh /keksZa ds chp leUo; LFkkfir djus dh detksfj;ksa vkSj vkifRr;ksa dk nks"k vius b"Vnso ds Åij ps"Vk dhA blhfy;s mUgksus tgkWa ,d vksj lPpk eqlyeku a NksMdj pqi gks tk;k djrs gSA rhljk nks"k ;g gS fd yksx a cuus dh fof/k crk;hA ogha nwljh vksj ;g Hkh crk;k fd nafHk;ksa ds pDdj esa iM+dj nq%[k Hkh mBkrs gSA xq:ukud a lPpk czkã.k dkSu gSA mUgksus ;g Hkh crk;k fd czkã.kksa dk a nso us HkfDr ds mi;qZDr rhu nks"kksa dks vR;Ur lrdZrk ls tusÅ fdl izdkj dk gksuk pkfg;s tks czkã.k tusÅ /kkj.k nwj fd;kA8 igys nks"k dks feVkus ds fy;s mUgksus ;g mik; a djrk vkSj vlarks"k dh vkx esa ty jgk gS og czkã.k ugha fd;k fd ijekRek dks :i vkSj vkdkj dh lhek ls ijs ekuk gSA lR; ;Kksiohr dh xkaB gS vkSj lR; gh mLkdh iwju gS gSA mUgksus ,sls b"Vnso dh dYiuk dh tks vdky ewfrZ a tks ,sls ;Kksiohr dks /kkj.k djrk gS] ogh lPpk tusÅ vtwuh ¼v;ksfu] vtUeka½ rFkk [kSHka ¼Lo;aHk~½ gSA nwljs nks"k w igurk gSA dks feVkus ds fy;s xq:ukud nso us fuo`fRr ekxZ dks R;kx xq:ukud dk /keZ Lk`tukRed izofRr;ksa ls vksrizkr gSA ` s dj izo`fRrekxZ dks xzg.k fd;kA rHkh rks ckcj ds vkØe.k mUgksus bl ckr dks Li"V dj fn;k gS fd tks O;fDr a dh Hk;adjrk dks ns[kdj vkSj d:.kk ls fopfyr gksdj fgUnw&eqlyeku nksuksa /keksZa dks ,d le>rk gS] ogh eeZK drkZ ls ukud nso iz'u djrs gS& ,rh ekj ibaZ rSa dh njnq a gSA mUgksus fgUnqvksa vkSj eqlyekuksa dh fuank blfy;s ugha a u vkbtkA vFkkZr~ ,s! drkZ iq:"k Hkkjr o"kZ ij bruh ekj dh fd os /keZ cqjs Fks] cfYd mudh fuUnk blfy;s dh fd iM+h] ij rqEgkjk ân; tjk Hkh nzohHkwr ugha gqvkA blhfy;s okLrfod ekxZ dks Hkwydj xyr jkLrs ij tk jgs FksA 162
  • 3. International Research Journal ISSN-0975-3486 RNI : RAJBIL 01488 VOL. I * ISSUE—3 mUgksus {kqC/k gksdj nksuksa izdkj dh Øwjrkvksa dh rhoz vkykspuk a pwM+klaLdkj %& flD[k /keZ esa J`xkj oftZr gSA ,slk a dhA os dgrs gS fd izk.kh Hk{kd eqlyeku uekt i<+rs gS ekuk tkrk gS fd tks J`xkj djrs gSa mudh dke ls fe=rk a vkSj tqYe dh Nqjh pykus okys fgUnw tusÅ /kkj.k djrs gSA a gSA ukjh;ksa dks Hkh J`xkj oftZr gSA d.kZc/k laLdkj ugha gksrk a s xq:ukud nso ds /keZ esa lHkh /keksaZ ds izcy O;kogkfjd i{k gSA xq:ukud nso th dk gqdqe gS fd 'kjhj dk Nsnu vR;Ur mnkjrk ls laxzghr gSA oS".ko /keZ dh lsok Hkkouk &Hksnu ugha djuk& ^lkcr lwjr nLrkj fljk* vFkkZr flD[k /keZ esa lek x;h gSA dchj dh tkfrizFkk lac/kh a vdky iq:"k us tSlk lkfcr 'kjhj fn;k gS mlh dks Økafrdkjh fopkjksa dks Hkh xq:ukud nso us vius vuq;kf;;ksa vkthou T;ksa dk R;ksa jpukA flj ij nLrkj cka/ks j[kuk esa izpkfjr fd;s gSA pkfg;sA fo?kkVaHk o miu;u laLdkj ve`r iku laLdkj ds vc ukud ds lekt n'kZu ds mu rF;ksa ij fopkj :i esa fo|eku gSA xq:ukud th us pj.k ikMqy nh{kk fof/k djsa ftuds dkj.k flD[k /keZ u;s /keZ ds :i esa tkuk tkrk izkjaHk dh Fkh vkSj bls xq: xksfoUn flag th us lekIr djds gSA ukud ds lekt n’kZu dk O;kid izpkj izlkj muds [k.Ms dh ikgqy izFkk ?kuk fn;kA [k.Ms dh ikgqy ysus okyk xq: ijaijk ds xq: vaxn nso] xq: vejnkl] xq: jkenkl] ikap ddkjksa dh /kkj.kh gksuh pkfg;s&ds'k] da/k] dM+] d`ik.k xq: vtZunso o xq: rsxcgknqj ,oa xq: xksfoUn flag vkfn q vkSj dPNkA nhf{kr flD[k dks vkthou ikWp okf.k;ksa dk ds ek/;e ls gqvkA flD[k /keZ izkjaHk ls gh lS)kafrd vkSj ikB vkSj uke lqfeju vfuok;Z /keZ&deZ gSA blh vk/kkj ij O;kogkfjd nksuksa jgk gSA xq:ukud us Lo;a ,d ikfjokfjd Jh xq: xksfoUn flag th dk gqde gS fd ftls xq: ls ckr q thou O;rhr fd;k FkkA mUgksus vkjaHk ls gh pfj= cy ds a djuh gS og xq:xzUFk lkfgc th dk ikB djsA lekoRkZua fuekZ.k dh vksj vf/kd /;ku fn;kA flD[k /keZ esa xHkkZ/kku] laLdkj ugha gSA bls bl vFkZ esa xzg.k fd;k tkrk gSA flD[k iqlou] lhearksUu;u laLdkj ugha gksrs gSA ysfdu ri a a dks vkns'k gS fd Je ls izkIr vkthfodk esa ls nloka va'k djds] bZ'oj ls izkFkZuk djds larku dks izkIr djus dks dgk xq: lsok esa vfiZr djsA fookg laLdkj flD[k /keZ dk a x;k gSA tkrdeZ laLdkj ugha gksrk gSA blds LFkku ij egRoiw.kZ laLdkj gSA fookg ds fy;s eqgqrZ ;k frfFk ugha ifo=h uked laLdkj gksrk gSA larku dks tUe nsus ds ckn s ekurs gSA ukud dk opu gS frfFk] okj lc gj fd;s] lHkh a L=h dks 'kq) gksus esa pkfyl fnu yxrs gSA iq= dks ve`r a frfFk o fnu bZ'oj ds gSa vr% tc pkgs rHkh O;fDr fookg iku djkrs gSA bldh fof/k bl izdkj gSA Jh xq:xzUFk lkfgc a dj ldrk gSA oj i{k dh ckjkr o/kq i{k ds ?kj tkrh gSA esa tiqth ds ikB djds] vfHkeaf=r djds ty ds ikap NhVs ?kj ftlesa eaxye;h xq:ok.kh ds in xk;s tkrs gSa vkSj nsdj ekWa rFkk cPps dks fiyk;k tkrk gSA bls ve`r iku ;k mlds ckn vjnkl ¼izkFkZuk½ dh tkrh gS fd bZ'oj ,slh d`ik ifo=h dgk tkrk gSA bl le; tiqth dk iwjk ikB fd;k dhft;s rkfd nksuksa i{kksa dk vkil esa ijLij ize cuk jgsA s tkrk gSA mlds ckn oj o/kq dks Jhxq:xzFk lkfgc ds lEeq[k cSBk;k a flD[k /keZ esa ukedj.k laLdkj dh fof/k vyx gSA ekW tkrk gS vkSj lkFk esa eaxye;h xq:ok.kh dk dhrZu gksrk gSA ds LoLF; gks tkus ij xq: }kjk ukedj.k laLdkj djk;k mlds ckn vjnkl djds xq:er fof/k ds vk/kkj ij vkuan tkrk gSA Jhxq:xzUFk lkfgc ls gqdqeukek fy;k tkrk gSA dkjt vFkkZr~ fookg laLdkj izkjaHk fd;k tkrk gSA oj&o/kq mlesa tks vk;s mlds igys v{kj ls cPps dk uke j[kk xq:xzUFk lkfgc ds pkjinksa ds vk/kkj ij blh ifo= xzFk dh a tkrk gSA mls xq: xksfoanflag th }kjk izkjaHk gqvk ekuk pkj ifjØek djrs gSA gj igy Mh uke izofÙk dje n`<k;k a ` + tkrk gSA fu"Øe.k] vUuizk'ku laLdkj dh fof/k Li"V ugha cyjke ft;ks Jhxq:xzFk lkfgc i‘- 77&3&774 os vU; pkj a cryk;h x;h gSA bruk t:j gS fd flD[k /keZ esa cPps ds inksa dk ikB djrs gSA blds ckn vkuan lkfgc i<+dj a iSnk gksus ds pkyhl fnu ds Hkhrj gh ikap ve‘r /kkjh vjnkl dj bl dk;Z dks lEiUu fd;k tkrk gSA flD[k mlh?kj esa cSBdj izlkn rS;kj djds 108 do;ksokp vUR;sf"V laLdkj flD[k /keZ esa ekU; gSA izk.kh ds osurh pkSikbZ ikn’kkgh 10 gejh djks gkFk ns dNk iwju gq;s LoxZokl ;k dkyokl gks tkus ij vkns'k gS fd dksbZ jks;s fpr dh bPNk ds 108 ikB djrs gSa ftlesa vkthou ml ughaA e`rd ds 'ko ds ikl xq:ok.kh dk ikB fd;k tkrk laRkku dks dksbZ ckgjh Hkwr izrkfn dh ck/kk ugha gksrh gSA ,slk s gSA tc e`rd dks nkg laLdkj ds fy;s tkrs gSa rks mls fo’okl fd;k tkrk gS fd igys ;g lHkh flD[kksa esa izpfyr Luku djok ds iwjs oL= iguk dj iap ddkj ls 'kksfHkr dj Fkh ysfdu vc uke/kkjh flD[kksa esa ;g izFkk pkyw gSA vafre ;k=k izkjaHk dh tkrh gSA ogkWa Hkh oSjkX;e;h ok.kh dk çÚUâ¿ü °ÙæçÜçââ °‡ÇU §ßñËØé°àæÙ 163
  • 4. International Research Journal ISSN-0975-3486 RNI : RAJBIL 01488 VOL. I * ISSUE—3 dhrZu djrs gq;s fprk ;k vaxhBk rS;kj dh tkrh gSA ml oS".ko /keZ vkSj flD[k /keZ vizFkd gSA xq:ukud nso us ij e`rd dk 'ko j[kdj vjnkl djds vfXu laLdkj fd;k pkjksa o.kksZa dks erHksn u djrs gq;s leku jD[kk gSA tkrk gSA fprk esa vfXu idM+us ij lksyg ok.kh dk ikB {kf=;] czkã.k] lwnz] oSl mins’k pgqW ojuk dks lka>kA fd;k tkrk gSA bl laLdkj dks lEiUu djus esa izk;% iq= xq:eq[k uke tis m/kjs lks dfy esa ?kV&?kV ukud eka>kAA dks izkFkfedrk nh tkrh gSA tgkWa iq= ugha gksrk gS ogkW dksbZ flD[k /keZ dk fl)kUr Jhxq:xzzUFk lkfgc ls fy;k Hkh Lusgh O;fDr nkg laLdkj dj ldrk gSA frykatfy ;k tkrk gSA blds dbZ Hkk”; gSa ftuds dbZ fo}ku larksa us fiaMnku ugha fd;k tkrk gSA e`rd v'kkSp ugha ekuk tkrk cuk;s gSA xq:xksfoUn flag th us [kkylk iaFk dh uhao Mkyh a gSA 'ke'kku ds yksx xq:}kjk vkrs gSa vkSj ogkWa vjnkl FkhA fdlh le; [kkylk ladV esa vk tkos rks ikap I;kjs djds vkuan lkfgc vkSj vyfM+;ksa dk ikB djrs gSA Lukua xq:xzUFk lkfgc dh gqtjh esa xq:er rS;kj dj ldrs gSa vkSj w u djuk dksbZ HksnHkko ugha ekurs gSA dM+k izlkn vjnkl a vkns'k nsdj ladV ls mckj ldrs gSA vdky r[r ls tks a djds ckaV fn;k tkrk gS tc fprk 'kkar gks tkrh gS rc dgha gqdqeukek tkjh fd;k tkrk gS mldh ;gh ijaijk gSA ;g Hkh jk[k vkSj vfLFk;ksa dks ty esa foltZu dj fn;k tkrk ,d yksdrkaf=d iz.kkyh izrhr gksrh gSA gSA vc ,slh ekU;rk pkyw gks jgh gSA dqN flD[k vkuaniqj flD[k /keZ esa vfrfFk lsok ij fo'ks"k egRo fn;k tkrk ds ikl dhjriqj lkfgc esa tks ikrkyiqjh uked xq:}kjk gS gSA bZ'oj ds uke dks gh lcls cM+k rhFkZ ekuk tkrk gSA ogkWa tkdj pj.k xaxk uke dh unh esa HkLeh vkSj vfLFk;ksa blfy;s rhFkZ ;k=k ij fo'ks"k cy ugha fn;k tkrk gSA flD[k dks folftZr djus yxs gS]a ml fnu ls xq:xzUFk lkfgc dk /keZ esa lsok] lR;] larks"k] n;k] /keZ fopkj dks ân; esa /kkj.k ikB djds nlosa fnu vafre vjnkl lEiUu dh tkrh gSA djuk] ehBk cksyuk] uezrk ls jguk &;s 'kqHk deZ ekus tkrs blds ckn e`rd dk dksbZ fØ;k dkeZ ugha fd;k tkrk gSA gSA iqutZUe vkSj pkSjklh yk[k ;ksfu;ksa ij fo'okl fd;k a ;s ,sls ckg~; izrhd gSa ftuds dkj.k flD[k /keZ fo'kky tkrk gSA flD[k /keZ esa cS;kfyl yk[k ;ksfu;kWa ty ij vkSj fgUnw /keZ ls vyx izrhr gksus yxk gS ysfdu blls ;g cS;kfyl yk[k ;ksfu;kWa Fky ij ekuh tkrh gSA flD[k /keZ a Li"V gS fd flD[k /keZ dh ;s ekU;rk;sa oS".ko ekU;rkvksa ls d`f=erkvksa ds ca/ku ls eqDr gSA bl /keZ ds Hkhrj Hkh feyrh tqyrh gSA a lkaiznkf;drk us le;&le; ij vusd oxksZa dh l`f"V dh flD[k dk thou ijksidkj dk thou gS blfy;s og gS vkSj dHkh&dHkh muesa ikjfLijd dyg Hkh gksrs jgrs gSA a dHkh Hkh fdlh dk Hkh vfgr ugha djsxk] nwljs ds fy;s d"V fQj Hkh 'kkafr o vfgalk ds Åij izpkjd xq: ukud nso ds lgsxk] fdUrq nwljksa dks d"V ugha nsxkA flD[k dh ekU;rk in fpUgksa ij pyus okys flD[k /keZ }kjk ekuo lekt dh gS fd ,d gh fLkD[k esa pkjksa o.kZ lfEefyr gSa tSls Hktu HkykbZ dk ekxZ [kqyk gSA djus ls] fo}ku gksus ls flD[k czkã.k :i gS] 'kL=/kkjh gksus bl izdkj mi;ZqDr rF;ksa vkSj fooj.k ls Li"V gS fd ls flD[k {kf=; gS]a O;kikj vkSj [ksrh fdlkuh djus okyk ukud dk lektn'kZu 'kkl=h; inksa vkSj ifjHkk"kkvksa esa flD[k oS'o :i gS rFkk lsok djus okyk flD[k 'kwnz gks vfHkO;Dr u gksus ds ckotwn O;kogkfjd n`f"V ls muds tkrk gSA lsok gh flD[k /keZ esa eq[; ekuk tkrk gS vkSj ;gh fopkj] ewY; ,oa fl)kUr rRdkyhu lekt dks vkxs c<+kus oS".ko /keZ dh Hkh eq[; ekU;rk gSA bl izdkj fl)kUr% esa Økafrdkjh Hkwfedk vnk dh gSA ‚ãŒ÷¸ ª˝ ã Õ 1 fgUnw lekt pkj tkfr;ksa esa foHkDr Fkk& czkã.k] {kf=;] oS'; vkSj 'kwnzA eqlyekuksa esa pkj Jsf.k;kWa Fkha ijarq ;s Jsf.k;kWa deZ ls lacf/kr Fkh u fd tUe ls&¼1½- eye a ds vf/kdkjh ¼2½- ryokj ds vf/kdkjh ¼3½- O;kikfjd ¼4½- JfedA 2 flag] f=ykspu % xq:ukud thou] ;qx ,oa f'k{kk;sa ] i`"B 107 3ogh] 4ogh] 5ogh i`"B 108 6 feJ] t;jke % Jhxq:xzUFk lkfgc] i`"B 54 7ogh] 8 ogh Ik`"B 55 9ogh i`"B 56 164