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RESEARCH ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION
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  • 1. International Research Journal ISSN-0975-3486 RNI : RAJBIL 01488 VOL. I * ISSUE—3 ‡ÊÊœ ¬òÊ- Á„UãŒË ÷Ê⁄UÃËÿ ÷Ê·Ê•Ê¥ ∑§Ê ∞ÁÄUÊÁ‚∑§ Áfl‡‹·áÊ [∞∑§ Áøãß Á’ãŒÍ] * «UÊÚ. «UË.∞‚. ∆UÊ∑ȧ⁄U Dec.-09—Jan.-2010 *•äÿˇÊ, Á„UãŒË Áfl÷ʪ, ‡ÊÊ.߸. ⁄UÊÉÊflãº˝ ⁄UÊfl ÁflôÊÊŸ ◊„UÊÁfllÊ‹ÿ Áfl‹Ê‚¬È⁄U (¿U.ª.) fo'ys"k.k vius vki esa pkgs] og fdlh Hkh {ks= dh ckr gks] ^^/keZL;s okfe dkekFkZ eepSokfe p vksnukr~A iw.kZrk dk izrhd gSA /keZ] n'kZu] lkfgR; ,oa ekuork ds izokt; lqra jkeaf=% [kyqRoka ozohE;ge~A ¼2½ fy, Hkk"kk izkFkfed ,oa ewyHkwr bdkbZ gS Hkk"kk ekSf[kd ,oa ¼ ogh jkek;.k½ fyf[kr nksuksa :i esa xzkg; gS izkphu /keZ xzFk pkgs vkfn a Hkk"kk dk ,sfrgkfld fo'ys"k.k vf/kd tfVy ,oa fDy"V dfo okYehfd dh jpuk jkek;.k laLd`r Hkk"kk dk vkfndkO; gS blfy, okYehfd jke ds ek/;e ls dgrs gS %&/keksZ fg ekuk tkrk gSA bldk le; yxHkx pkSFkh “krkCnh bZ- iwoZ ijeks yksds /keZ lR;a izfrf"BraA ¼3½ ¼ogh jkek;.k½ ,oa ;qx n`"Vk osn O;kl dk egkHkkjr Hkkjrh; laLd`r blh jke dh lkFkZdrk dks ty ,oa vfXu esa lekfgr djrs lkfgR; dk lcls cM+k egkdkO; gS bldk le; bZ- iwoZ 400 gSA vfgY;k] nzkSinh] lhrk] rkjk] eanksnjh Hkk"kk dh Hkko a ls 200 bZ- ds chp gS vFkok osn] iqjk.k] mifu’kn~ lHkh {kerk dk iSekuk fu/kkZfjr djrh gS] d:.kk /keZ dk vk/kkj vrqyuh; xzFk Hkk"kk ds ,sfrgkfld ijEijk esa /keZ] deZ ,oa a gS ;gh okYehfd ,oa O;kl dh fot; gSA eeZ dk fuokZg fd, gS]a /keZ blfy, dg jgk gw¡ fd Hkk"kk }kjk ,d fo}ku us Bhd gh fy[kk gS fd ^^okLro esa izkpsrl fopkjksa dks ekuork oknh n`f"Vdks.k ls ,sfrgkfld] izkxSfrgkfld okYehfd dh izR;sd l`f"V vius vki esa fof”k"V mi fu’knh; ik=ksa esa ;qxhu ifjos”k ds vuq:i Hkk"kk lkSUn;Z Hkh ikrs gSA n`f"V gS] bls g‘n;xae djus ds fy, n`f"V dh Hkkouk eulk deZ.kk okpk ;Fkk jkea lep;sA visf{kr gksrh gS] blh n`f"V ls vkfn dfo dh vu?kZ jpuk rFkk esa ek/koh nsoh fooja nkrqegZfrA ¼1½ ds varjax dks le>us dh “kCn fo'ys"k.k dh gSA**¼5½ ¼okYehfd jkek;.k ls½ ¼jkek;.k dh efgyk ik=] MkW- ikMqjx jko] Hkwfedk ls] igyk a ;fn eu] opu] deZ ls eSa jke dh vpZuk djrh jgh laLdj.k] 1990] Hkkjrh; KkuihB] ubZ fnYyh½ ukjh] izdfr ` gw¡ rks i`Foh ekrk esjs fy, m’.krk vkSj Lusg ls ;qDr vius ,oa n'kZu gS] thou gS oS”ohdj.k ds izHkko ls cpuk pkgrs g`n; esa txg cuk,¡ vly esa Hkk"kk lk/kuk gS] lk/kd dks gS rks nwjn”khZ] foosdh cuuk iM+xk dj ik=h egjkt us s lk/; ds cy ij vfiZr ,oa lefiZr gksuk iM+rk gSA ;gh fy[kk gS fd ^^ftl dkO; jpukvks us fo'o lkfgR; ij dkj.k fd vkt Hkh vkfn dfo okYehfd ,oa osn O;kl ds viuh vfeV Nki NksMh gS mlesa jkek;.k egkdkO; dk + LFkkfir ekud izrheku] pkgs ukedj.k] thou n'kZu] LFkku loksifj gSA /keZ vkSj dFkk ds {ks= esa Hkh viuh vej Z lkekftd vo/kkj.kk,¡ ;k thou ewY; pkgs ekuo gks vFkok ys[kuh ls ,d fof”k"V lEiznk; dk fuekZ.k fdlh us fd;k ekuosRrj lHkh mithO; gSA bl lPpkbZ dks ge lc gS rks og ekuork ds vkfn dfo laLd`r dkO; ds tud Lohdkj djrs gS ,oa djuk gksxk fd Hkk"kk fodkl dk okYehfd gSA**¼6½ rks nwljh vksj osnO;kl dk egkHkkjr ifj.kke gh D;ksa u gks ysfdu R;kx /keZ ,oa deZ ls O;fDr vuHkwr vf}rh; d`fr gSA vkt Hkh d`’.k ,oa jk/kk vkd’kZ.k Hkk"kk] ik= x<+rs gS ^jkek;.k* esa dSd;h LrqR; gS jkx vLFkk;h s ,oa eks{k ds dsUnz esa gSA ogh lqnkek&d`’.k dh eS=h iwjs gS blfy, okYehfd dh Hkk"kk esa ekud izrhd foekrk esa Hkkjrh; tuekul esa Hkk"kk gh /keZ ,oa deZ dh /kwjh gSA MkW- LFkkfir djrk gS tks LokHkkfod gS%& uxsUnz us Bhd fy[kk %& ^^Hkkjr esa d”ehjh vkSj fla/kh dks çÚUâ¿ü °ÙæçÜçââ °‡ÇU §ßñËØé°àæÙ 189
  • 2. International Research Journal ISSN-0975-3486 RNI : RAJBIL 01488 VOL. I * ISSUE—3 feykdj 14 Hkk"kk,¡ gS buesa fgUnh ds vfrfjDr caxyk] gS rks lkfgR; ds bfrgkldkj dk dke gS] dfo ds dkeksa dks ejkBh] xqtjkrh] ey;kye] dUuM+] rsyxw vkfn dk lkfgR;sfrgkl dh fodkl izfØ;k esa U;k;ksfpr fn[kk leh{kkRed lkfgR; dkQh le`) gS vkSj vU; Hkk"kkvksa esa Hkh ldukA**¼8½ izR;{k ,oa ijks{k ge Lo;a nks’kh gS ,d le; vkykspuk dh viuh fodkl'khy ijEijk fo|eku gSA bu Fkk fd ;gk¡ dh Hkk"kk] laLd`fr dks yksx n`"Vkar nsrs Fks lcdk ladfyr :i gh Hkkjrh; leh{kk gSA**¼7½ vkt ftl blhfy, fy[kk %& ljyrk ,oa lgtrk ls laLdkj dk R;kx dj va/kh nkSM+ esa ^^lkjs tgk¡ ls vPNk fgUnwLrk gekjk------@D;k y{;ghu HkVd jgs gSa buds ge lc Lo;a nks’kh gSA ,sfrgkfld ckr gS fd gLrh feVrk ugha gekjh--- ¼9½ ¼bdcky½ /kjkry rS;kj djus esa “kadjkpk;Z] HkrZ`gfj ,oa laLd`r ds iqu% fparu ds fy, izfjr djrk gSA blfy, ^^Hkk"kk s egku dfo;ksa dh nsu dkfynkl] ek?k] Hkkjfo] HkoHkwfr dh f'k{k.k dks O;ogkj dkS”ky ds :i esa viuk;k tkuk pkfg,] jpuk,¡ ,oa O;kdj.k dh nsu vkt Hkh Hkkjrh; Hkk"kkvksa dh ;g O;ogkj dkS”ky] fHkUu&fHkUu le;ksa ij fHkUu&fHkUu lsrq ds :i esa izpfyr gSA lkekftd] /kkfeZd] uSfrd] izdkj dk gksrk gS blfy, “kS{kf.kd lanHkksZ esa fHkUu&fHkUu vkfFkZd psruk ds fodkl ;k=k esa buds }kjk izLrqr Hkk"kk izdkj dk gksrk gS blfy, “kSf{kd lUnHkZ dks ;fn lkFkZd vkSj mi;ksxh gS] jgsxs ;gh dkj.k gS fd vfHkKku “kkdqUrye~ dh a O;ogkj ijd cukuk gS] rc iz;kstuk ewyd fgUnh dh x.kuk fo'o ds Js"B ukVdksa esa dh tkrh gSA bldh Hkk"kk] ladYiuk dks viukuk vko';d gksxkA**¼10½ lekt] /keZ “kCn foU;kl gh ugha ukedj.k dh {kerk ^Hkjr^ loZfofnr gSA uhfr dks foosdh] fopkjdksa dks le>uk gks] mUgsa iqu% d:.kk] vr% Hkkjrh; Hkk"kkvksa ds ,sfrgkfld fo'ys"k.k esa izkphu n;k dks LFkkfir djuh gksxhA xzFk mi;ksxh ,oa lkFkZd gS]a jgsxkA czkEg.k vkSj vkj.;d] a jkgqy lkadR;k;u us mfpr dgk gS & ^^jkLrk] gj ,d ` in ikB fof/k] izkfrlka[;] f'k{kk fu?k.V ¼osnksa dk dks”k½ jksx dh nok gksrh gS] gj ,d foir ls fudyus dk dksbZ ;kLd us fu:Dr ds :i esa fd;k gSA Vhdkdkjksa esa t;kfnR; ekxZ gksrk gS] fdUrq bl va/k jkf= ls fudyus dk jkLrk ik rFkk okeu] ftrsUnz cqf)] gjnRr] HkrZ`gfj ¼okD; iznhi½ bl orSj.kh dk lsrq ,d ih<+h esa ugha cu ldrk] fe=! egkHkk’; iznhi] dkSenhdkj] foey ljLofr jkepUnz HkV~Vksft q blds cukus okys gkFk brus de gS vkSj m/kj va/kdkj dk nhf{kr O;kdj.k ijEijk esa pkUnz ¼ckS)½] tSuUnz ¼tSu½ “kk[kk s cy tcjnLr gSA**¼11½ Hkk"kk ij vk/kqfud ;qx dk izHkko] “kk;Vk;u] gsepUn dk ra=] “kk”or] cksinso ikfy] eksXxyku oS”ohdj.k ds :i esa vkuk LokHkkfod gS ifjorZu izdfr dk` ¼12oh lnh½ oS;kdj.kks esa oj :fp] vXx oa”k] izkd`r izdk'k] fu;e gSA vkSj fQj ,d fo}ku us fy[kk gS &^^Hkkjr esa Hkk"kk gsepUnz ¼'kCnkuq'kklu½ uS;kf;d] lkfgR; “kkL=h ehekald] foKku dk vk/kqfud :Ik esa v/;;u ;wjksi lalxZ ls izkIr osnkarh ds {ks= esa laLd`r ds vkpk;ksZ dks foLe`r ugha fd;k gqvkA**¼12½ dkYMosy] tku ohDl tktZ fxz;lZu] Mh VªEi tk ldrkA Hkjreqfu dk ^ukV~; “kkL=^ esa dRFkd ds lkFk Hkh egRoiw.kZ gSA MkW- lj jked`’.k xksiky Hk.Mkjdj] vks>k okfpd] dkf;d] vkgk;Z] ekufld dk Hkh fp=.k gSA Hkk"kk xkSjh “kadj ghjkpan ^^bfrgkl] iqjkrRo] izkphu fyfi rFkk laLdkj ,oa thou nksuks gSA Hkkeg dk ¼dkO;kyadkj½ n.Mh vusd Hkk"kkvksa ds Kkrk FksA¼13½ dk ¼dkO;kn”kZ½] okeu ¼jhfr fu/kkZj.k½] mn~HkV dk ¼dkO;kyadkj orZeku le; dh ekax dgs ;k oS”ohdj.k dk izHkko bls laxg½] vkuan o)Zu dk ¼/oU;kyksd½] vfHkuo xqIr ¼vfHkuo z dksbZ vNwrk ughaA bruk dguk gksxk fd O;fDr dks vkus Hkkjrh] /;oU;k yksd Vhd½]dqUrd dk ¼oØksfDr thfore~½] okys le; ds pqukSrh dk lkeuk djuk gksxkA Hkk"kk esa /kuat;] Hkkstjkt] ¼ljLofr d.Bk Hkja.k½ eEeV ¼dkO; foLrkj gqvk] Hkk"kkfon blesa yxs gq, gS ysfdu O;ogkj esa izdk'k½] vfXu iqjk.k ¼dks”k½] {ksesUnz ¼dfo d.Bk Hkjoa] gesa iz;ksx djuk gksxkA vFkZ ladksp] vFkZ foLrkj lHkh dk vkSfpR; ppkZ½ gsepUnz ¼dkO;kuq'kklu½] fo'oukFk dfojkt lehphu ,oa mi;ksxh gSA djik=s egjkt fy[krs gS ^^jkek;.k] ¼lkfgR; niZ.k½] vkIi; nhf{kr] txUukFk jl xaxk/kj] fo'os”oj egkHkkjr bfrgkl bfro`Rr lac/kh ik=ksa ds gflr] Hkkf’kr] a iafMr rkfddZ ,oa O;kdj.k] Hkkjrh; dkO; “kkL= dh yach bafxr psf"Vr LFkwy] lw{e] lafud`"V] lHkh ?kVukvksa dk ijEijk gS] Hkk"kk ,oa Hkko lkSUn;Z ds fofo/k :i lkeus vk, gLrxr vkeyd ds leku izR;{k vk’kZ lk{kkRdkj djds gSA bldk O;fDr] ifjokj] lekt ls lh/kk lac/k gS bls gesa a fy[ks x, gSA**¼14½ vr% Hkk"kk psruk dk ifj.kke gS le>uk gSA vkpk;Z “kqDy us Bhd gh fy[kk gS ^^dfo dk blfy, O;fDr dk O;fDrRo ,oa d`frRo lkeus vkrk gSA dke ;fn nqfu;k esa bZ”oj ds dkeksa dks U;k;ksfpr Bgjkuk laLdkj ekrk&firk dh nsu gS cPps buds lPps vf/kdkjh gS] 190
  • 3. International Research Journal ISSN-0975-3486 RNI : RAJBIL 01488 VOL. I * ISSUE—3 ubZ pqukSfr;ksa dks vPNs :i esa iYyfor iqf’ir djsA xka/kh a ck/kd gSA Hkk"kk lHkh dk vk/kkj gh ugha izdk'k LrEHk gSA us Bhd gh fy[kk gS ^^;g Lo;a fl) ckr gS fd tc rd O;fDrRo] ekuork dks fodflr djrk gSA thou ds gj fdlh ns'k ds uotoku ,slh ,slh Hkk"kk esa f'k{kk ikdj mls igyq ls mudk fj”rk gS iwoZ ds lkfgR; muds izek.k gS Js"B ipk u ys] ftls iztk le{k lds rc rd os vius ns'k dh vkpj.] Js"B deZ] R;kx] ijksidkj] foosd'khy dk xq.k Hkk"kk turk ds lkFk u rks thrk tkxrk lac/k iSnk dj ldrs gS a ds ek/;e ls vafdr Js"B lkfgR; esa ikrs gSA rqPNrk yksHk] vkSj u mls dk;e j[k ldrs gSA**¼15½ a {kf.kd lq[k dHkh ekxZ iz”kLr dk ek/;e ugha] /kkfeZd vkn”kZ thou ,oa e;kZnk dk ikyu ?kj ifjokj ls psruk] ekuorkoknh n`f"Vdks.k] vfgalk] vkRe xkSjo] vkRefu"B] fl[krk gSA vkt ,sls yksx gkL; ds ik= curs utj vk ,dkxzrk dk Hkko Js"B xzFkksa esa izekf.kr gSA jktuhfrd a jgs gS] ?kj] ifjokj] lekt esa d`f=e phts bl dnj gkoh psruk iSnk djus esa lkfgR;dkjksa dh vge~ Hkwfedk jgh gSA fd izkd`frd :i lkeus ugha fn[krk bldk izHkko u dsoy ekr`Hkwfe dh lsok] Js"B deZ ,oa /keZ] tulsok ij nq[k dkrj [kku&iku] jgu&lgu cfYd cksy&pky lcesa fn[kus ,oa vkfFkZd psruk dks izklafxd cuk;k gSA Hkk"kk fopkjks dk yxk] f”k"Vkpkj] mn~.Mrk dk i;kZ; cu x;k] vieku] ek/;e gS] Lokoyach] deZB m|eh ds lkFk nku] n;k dks Hkh {kqnzrk dks “kku le>us yxsA y{; cks/k djrs gq, ,d js[kkafdr djrs gSA fo}ku us fy[kk gS %& ^^viHkz”k esa os lHkh Hkk"kk oSKkfud rRo a vr% dguk gksxk fd vk/kkj dk LFkku egRoiw.kZ gS tgka ifjyf{kr gksrs gS tks blds iwoZ dh Hkk"kkvksa ikfy vkSj rd eq>s ,slk yxrk gS fd orZeku le; esa Hkkjrh; Hkk"kkvksa lkfgfR;d izkd`rksa esa gS rFkk cgqr ls uwru rRo lekftr dk fleVrk lalkj ds ize[k ck/kd rRo {kqnz ,oa rqPN fopkj q feyrs gS tks ijorhZ vk/kqfud vk;Z Hkk"kkvksa dh vewY; gh gS ;gh Hkko gesa lef"V ls jksdrk gSA Js"B O;fDr] Js"B fuf/k cu x, gS e/;dkyhu Hkk"kkvksa esa viHkz'k dh fLFkfr a deZ }kjk] ?kj] ifjokj] lekt] jk"Vª dks R;kxh gksdj lsok lcls vf/kd oSfpf=; iw.kZ ,oa jkspd gSA ikfy rFkk lkfgfR;d djrk gSA orZeku esa bruk vkRedsfUnzr gks x;k gS fd mls izkd`rksa ds fy, tSlh lEeku Hkkouk vk|Ur jgh oSlh viHkz”k a dsoy viuh fpUrk jgrh gS] vkt lekt dh mis{kk dj ds fy, ughaA blds iwoZ izkphu dkyhu Hkk"kkvksa ds fy, pqds gS vius ?kj rd lhfer gS vkt vaxth dk izHkko bruk sz lEekulwpd laKkvksa dk iz;ksx gqvkA T;knk gS fd ge mlls pkg dj Hkh mcj ugha ik jgs gSA ,d rjQ gS Kku dk lk{kkRdkj djus okyh NkUnl] ;fn lpeqp ge fgUnh izseh gS rks gesa Hkk"kk fodkl ij laLdkjksa ls tksMus okyh laLd`r] egkRek cq) ds opuks dks + lkspuk gksxkA iwoorhZ lkfgR;dkjksa esa pkgs HkkjrsUnq gfj”kpUnz] Z lqjf{kr j[kus okyh ikfy] ldy txr tUrqvksa ds fy, egkohj] eSfFkyh”kj.k] lqHknzk dqekjh pkSgku] izepan] izlkn] s lqcks/k izkd`r vkSj nwljh rjQ fod`r] P;wr L[kfyr v”kq) lqfe=kuUnu iar] egknsoh us lkfgR; lsok ds :i esa tkus le>h tkus okyh viHkz”k¼16½ dks fu;ekuqlkj le>uk a tkrs gSA gksxkA fo'o dh lHkh Hkk"kkvksa dk v/;;u] Kku t:jh gSA Hkk"kk esa psruk fufgr gS] izkphu xzFkks ls ;gh lh[k ysrs a ns'kdky ds vuq:i iz;ksx gksuk pkfg,A fgUnh ds izFke gSa ftrus Hkh lekt lsod gq, pkgs jktkjke eksgu jk; gks] oS;kdj.k dkenk izlkn xqIr us fy[kk ^^/keZ Hksn ds dkj.k n;kuan] ds”kopUn] jked`’.k] foosdkuUn lHkh ds mins'k esa fiNyh “krkCnh esa fgUnh vkSj mnwZ ds izpkjdks esa ijLij lkekftd nkf;Ro cks/k gS os O;fDr] /keZ] lrdeZ ds fy, [khapkrkuh “kq: gks xbZ ifj.kke ;g gqvk fd fgUnh esa laLd`r U;kSNkoj dj fn, ysfdu Hkk"kk ,oa ekuork ls vfMx jgsA “kCn vkSj mnwZ esa vjch] Qkjlh ds “kCn fey x, vkSj nksuksa ^lR;kFkZ izdk'k^ ,d ,slk xzFk gS ftlesa lekt] /keZ] ekuork] a Hkk"kk, fDy"V gks xbZA bu fnuks dbZ jktuhfrd dkj.kksa ls n'kZu lHkh gSA vk/;kRe n'kZu dh Hkk"kk dk lqUnj leUo; fgUnh] mnwZ fookn vkSj c<+ jgk gS vkSj fgUnqLrkuh ds uke jked`’.k ds fo"k; foosdkuUn esa ikrs gSA tks Hkk"kk] ekuo a ls ,d f[kpM+h Hkk"kk dh jpuk dh tk jgh gS tks u “kq) lsok ds fy, fo'ofo[;kr gSA fgUnh gksxh vkSj u “kq) mnwA**¼17½ ysfdu Hkkjrh; Hkk"kkvksa Z oS’ohdj.k ds izHkko ds dkj.k gqvk ysfdu oS”ohdj.k dk fleVk lalkj dks izHkkfor djus okys izeq[k dkjd esa ds fod`r :i dks lekus ykus dk Js; ge lcdks gS fons'kh O;fDr dk LokFkZ ijd n`f"Vdks.k] Hkk"kk l`tu ds fy, [kku&iku] jgu&lgu mudk ,d i{k gSA de vk; esa vUr%dj.k ,oa vuk”kfDr dk vHkko] vuqHko ,oa vuqHkwfr esa vf/kd dh pkg Hkh mudk ,d :i gS] lekt] O;fDr ds chp rkyesy dk vHkkotks lkekftd] /kkfeZd] uSfrd psruk esa lHkh vius dks Js"B fn[kkuk pkgrk gSA ;gh pkg ge lcds çÚUâ¿ü °ÙæçÜçââ °‡ÇU §ßñËØé°àæÙ 191
  • 4. International Research Journal ISSN-0975-3486 RNI : RAJBIL 01488 VOL. I * ISSUE—3 fy, jkg cu x;k gSA viuh gSfl;r ls c<+dj mu lHkh cfgeqZ[kh] mRd’kZ] vid’kZ ls tkucw> dj vutku cuus phtks dks ikuk pkgrk gS tks esjs ikl ugha gSA ,d fo}ku yxsA vkt Lo;a vius vfLrRo ij fpafrr gksus ys ltxrk us Bhd gh fy[kk gS fd ^^oDr lcls vf/kd cqf)eku dk izek.k gSA tM+ dks etcwr igys djuk gksxkA ge lykgdkj gSA** orZeku esa lek/kku ds :i esa lHkh fo’k; lcdks iz;kl djuk gksxkA fgUnh dh O;kdj.k lafgrk esa cus ds midj.k lHkh Hkk"kkvksa ds egRo lHkh dk;Z{ks= esa gks] lHkh “kCn dks O;kogkfjd :i esa izLrqr djuk gksxk lkFk gh dbZ esa ekud gksA ,d fo}ku us fy[kk gS fd & ^^fo'o lkfgR; ,sls “kCn dks vk/kqfud ;qx dh n`f"V ls cu ugha ik jgs gS ds vkykspuk lalkj ds lkeus gekjh rhu egrh nsu gS mUgsa buds fy, iz;kl djsA lkfgR; l`tu dh vksj /;ku a vkSfpR;] jl rFkk /ofu ds fl)karA Hkkjr o’kZ dk fuR; ns] jpukRed i{k ds fy, fyfi] Hkk"kk ds vadu ds fy, ubZ vkykspd if'peh vkykspuk ds izokg esa vkt bruk cgrk jkLrk fudkys] Hkkjrh; Hkk"kkvksa dh jpuk izfØ;k dh uohurk tk jgk gSA mldh n`f"V vius bu egrh; rRoksa dks le>us ij fo'ks"k cy nsa fo'o lkfgR; ds vuqie xzFk pkgs oks fdlh a dh vksj rfud Hkh ugha gSA**¼18½ Hkh Hkk"kk ds gks mUgsa v/;;u djs fQj fparu djsa fQj viuh Hkkjrh; Hkk"kkvksa dh yEch fojklr gS vkSj jgsxkA Hkk"kk ds vuq:i mUgsa Hkh vey esa yk, ,d fo}ku us fy[kk ftlesa ,d vksj /keZ] deZ ,oa eeZ gS rks nwljh vksj n'kZu] laLd`r ds ,d dfo dk dguk gS fd ^^cM+s ;k NksVs dfo ekuork ,oa d`frRo lkFkZd :i esa lkfcr gSA Hkk"kk lHkh ds dh fo'ks"krk vko';d gksrh gS ,d lk/kkj.k nhid rFkk ef.k vk/kkj fcUnq gSA ;gh ls O;fDrRo ,oa d`frRo] lekt jk"Vª nhid esa D;k varj gksrk gS bldk ifjp; fcuk vka/kh pys dk voyksdu djrk gSA ^lk/;* ij dsfUnzr gS fd og mls ugha gks ldrkA ;fn vkak/kh fdlh nhid dks cq>k nsrh gS fuo`fRr esa ns[krk gS ;k izd`fr esa ^^jkek;.k ,oa egkHkkjr** rks mls lkekU; dksfV dk nhid tkuuk pkfg,A tksjksa dh gh ugha leLr /keZxzUFk muds izek.k gSA MkW- jke foykl vka/kh vkus ij Hkh tks nhid mlh eLrh ds lkFk viuk “kekZ us fy[kk gS ^^tc fons'kh lkfgR; dks I<+rs gS rks mlds izdk'k fc[ksjrk gqvk tyk djrk gS] og lk/kkj.k nhid u i<+us dk <ax nwljk gksrk gS fons'kh rRo dks xzg.k djus dk gksdj ef.knhi ¼ef.k dk nhid½ gqvk djrk gS blfy, <ax nwljk] fons'kh rRoksa dks xzg.k djus dk <ax nwljk gksrk dkO; dh oSf”k"V~; le>us ds fy, vkykspuk dh egrh gSA vkt ds le; tc ns'k ,d nwljs ds fudV vk jgs gsa vko';drk gSA**¼19½ ¼fo’k; izo”k] laLd`r vkykspuk] in~e s ogk¡ ij eksVs rkSj ij nks rjg ds laLd`fr;ksa dk la?k’kZ gedks Hkw’k.k] vkpk;Z cynso mik/;k;] mRrj izn'k] fgUnh laLFkku] s Li"V fn[kkbZ nsrk gSA** y[kuŽ miyfC/k ,oa ewY;kadu ds :i esa dg ldrs gS]a Hkkjrh; okM~-xe; lk/kuk dh HkkoHkwfe gS tgk¡ lk/kd Hkk"kk] laLdkj] /keZ] n'kZu x<+rk gSA fo'o esa bldh igpku foosd ds lgkjs bl iFk ds ifFkd Fks vkSj ikFks; dks izkIr ikrs gSa ;fn lqnkek d`’.k dh eS=h esa lkekftd psruk fufgr fd, gS iwoZorhZ ykSfdd vykSfdd ijk] vijk ls egkdfo gS ;g Hkk"kk dk gh deky gS fo’kerk dks nwj djuk pkgrk okYehfd ,oa fnO;n`"Vk osnO;kl dHkh fopfyr ugha gq,] gSA orZeku esa lHkh lk/ku gS] oS”ohdj.k dk jksuk jksus dh peRdkfjd :i dks O;fDr] ?kj] ifjokj] lekt] jkT; gh vis{kk lk/; dks lcy cukuk gksxkA mUgsa uhjt dh dFku ugha iwjs fo'o ds yksxksa dks fparu euu ds fy, >d>ksj dks le>uk gksxk %& fn;k ysfdu vius yksx muds ^eeZ^ dks ugha le> ik;s ^^gs lalkj ds egkiq:’kks!@dfork er djks &@D;ksfda HkkSfrdrk bl dnj gkoh gks x;h fd d"V] ihM+k] vuqHko] l`tu ds lkFk]@rqEgsa Hkh tehu dh@xanfx;ks esa mrjuk vuqHkwfr ,oa lgkuqHkwfr ls dkslks nwj gks x,A vUreq[kh ,oa Z iM+xkA¼20½ s ‚ãŒ÷¸ ª˝ ã Õ 1 bdcky lkjs tgk¡ ls vPNk 2 vk- mik/;k; cynso izlkn laLd`r vkykspuk 1928 3 dj ik=h Lokeh jkek;.k ehekalk 2034 fo-okjk.klh ekDlZokn vkSj jke jkT; xksj[kiqj 4 xka/kh th esjs liuks dk Hkkjr uothou izdk'ku vgenkckn 5 xq: dkerk izlkn fgUnh O;kdj.k ukxjh izpkfj.kh lHkk dk'kh] 2052 fo- 6 prqonh jke Lo:i lkfgR; Zs vkSj laonuk yksd Hkkjrh dk bfrgkl bykgkckn 7 xksiky nkl uhjt la-tax “ksj nfj;kxat] ubZ fnYyh 8 frokjh HkksykukFk dkuk foKku fdrkc egy] bykgkckn 9 uxsUnz MkW- s Hkkjrh; leh{kk m-iz-y[kuÅ 10 lka- d`r;k;u jkgqy cksYxk ls xaxk fdrkc egy ,tslh iVuk 1997 11 “kekZ jke foykl fojke fpUg ok.kh izdk'ku ubZ fnYyh 12 flag a fnus”k izlkn iz;kstu ewyd fganh ok.kh izdk'ku] ubZ fnYyh vkSj i=dkfjrk 2007 13 flag jke fd”kksj Hkk"kk foKku] fgUnh Hkk"kk yksd Hkkjrh izdk'ku] vkSj fyfi bykgkckn 14 jko ikMqjx jkek;.k ds efgyk ik= KkuihB ubZ fnYyh 1990 a 192