Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
INTERNATIONAL INDEXED REFEREED RESEARCH PAPER
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
47
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
1
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. 119SHODH, SAMIKSHA AUR MULYANKAN International Indexed & Refereed Research Journal, ISSN 0974-2832,(Print) E- ISSN-2320-5474, December,2013, VOL-V * ISSUE- 59 laxhr dk mn~xe ,oa fodkl lnSo laLd`fr ij gh vk/kkfjr jgk gSA gekjk laxhr ekuo mRifÙk dky ls gh tu&thou ls tw> jgk gSA gekjh lH;rk ,oa laLd`fr ds fodkl ds lkFk gh gekjk laxhr Hkh fodflr gksrk jgk gSA ftldk izekf.kr :i gS&le;kuqlkj cnyrs laaxhr ok|] u`R; izdkj ,oa xhr&laxhr dh 'kSyh] gekjs laxhr dk bfrgkl Hkh Hkkjrh; bfrgkl esa fufgr gSA ,sfrgkfld rF;ksa ij vk/kkfjr] laxhr dk izpyu gou] ;Kkfn] mRloksa vkfn ds lkFk lkaLd`frd ,oa /kkfeZd ln~Hkkouk ds lkFk tqM+k gqvk gSA laxhr pkgs dksbZ Hkh gks] ysfdu ok|ksa ds fcuk viw.kZ gS] blfy, ok| Hkh laxhr dk eq[; vax gSA bldh efgek Hkh vyx gSA yksd laxhr dh ijEijk vO;Dr O;fDr dh ekSfyd ijEijk gS ftlesa xq:&f'k"; dk dgha uke ugha gksrk tulk/kkj.k ds eq[k ls eq[kfjr laxhr viuh xq:rk dk ifjp; Lo;a nsrk gSA yksd laxhr dk ifjp; Lo;a nsrk gSA yksd laxhr dh miek ml >jus ls dh tk ldrh gS tks igkM+ ls QwVdj iRFkjksa vkSj pV~Vkuksa ls Vdjkrk gqvk LoNanrk ls eupkgh fn'kk esa vkxs c<+rk gSA yksd laxhr nks 'kCnksa ds la;ksx ls cuk gSA yksd ,oa laxhr] yksd 'kCn esa ukxfjd ,oa xzkeh.k nksuksa laLd`fr;ksa dk leUo; gSA ftl izdkj laxhr esa xk;u oknu ,oa u`R; dk leUo; gksrk gS mlh izdkj yksd laxhr esa Hkh yksdxhr] yksdok| ,oa yksdu`R; dk lekos'k gksrk gSA yksd laxhr tuekul dh Hkkoukvksa vkSj mldh rjaxksa ls mRiUu laxhr dks dgk tkrk gSA yksd laxhr dk bfrgkl bruk iqjkuk gS ftruk fd ^euq";* ds tUe dkA yksd laxhr dh fo’ks"krk gS fd bldh /ofu;ksa esa] Lojksa esa] y; esa vkSj blds xhrksa esa tuekul ds g`n; ds Hkko dh izeq[krk jgrh gSA yksd laxhr esa yksd ok|ksa dk izeq[k LFkku gSA bu yksdok|ksa esa Hkh vou) ok|ksa dks vfrfof'k"V LFkku izkIr gSA dqN rr~ o lqf'kj ok| Hkh gq, ftUgkasus yksd laxhr dks izpkfjr o izlkfjr djus esa vne Hkwfedk fuHkkbZA bu vou) yksdok|kas }kjk yksdxhrksa ,oa yksd u`R;ksa esa izk.k vk tkrk gSA buds fcuk yksd laxhr fu"izk.k izrhr gksrs gSaA Hkkjr esa fofHkUu ns'kksa esa yksd ok|ksa dh vge Hkwfedk jgh gSA ftl le; vkYgk rFkk Qkx esa <ksyd] ukSVadh esa rek'kk esa <ksydh] dgkjksa ds xkus esa uDdkjk gqMqd ct mBrs gS rc y; ds eneLr >ksds ls euq"; izQqfYyr gks mBrs gSaA ogha nwljh vksj yksd u`R;ksa esa iatkc ds Hkk¡xM+k esa MQ vkSj fpeVs] xqtjkr December ,2013 'kks/k i= & laxhr nhfIRk JhokLro yksdlaxhr ds ifjizs{; esa yqIRkizk; rky ok|ksa dk leL;kRed v/;;u * ¼;w-th-lh- usV ½ 'kks/kkFkhZ] laxhr ,oa izn'kZu dyk foHkkx] bykgkckn fo'Okfo|ky;] bykgkckn ds xjck ,oa MafM;ksa ds M.Ms] caxky rFkk fcgkj ds >hy rFkk lUFkkyh u`R; ds ekny vkfn tkfr;ksa ds u`R; esa <ksy rFkk >kW> vkfn dh /ofu;ksa dks c[kwch ns[kk tk ldrk gSA bl izdkj yksd laxhr esa y; dh eq[; Hkwfedk gksrh gSA yksd laxhr ds vUrxZr vusd rkyksa dk fodkl gqvk ,oa dkykUrj esa ;s 'kkL=h; laxhr ds miuke esa vk;s tSls&nknjk] dgjok] [kseVk vkfn rkyA yksd laxhr esa mi;ksx gksus okys Loj ,oa rky ok|ksa esa dqN eq[; ok| bl izdkj gS %& ,drkjk] nksrkjk] jko.kgRFkk] vyxkstk] ck¡lqjh] [katjh] <ksyd] eathjk] djrky] ?kaVk] ?kaVh] ?kfM+;ky] Fkkyh] ?ka?k:] Me:] eVdh] VqDdM+] rqjgh] lkjaxh bR;kfnA vkYgk o Qkx esa & <ksyd ukSVadh eas & uDdkjk rek'kk & <ksydh dgkjksa ds xkuks esa & ?kqVqd HkkaxM+k u`R; esa & fpeVk] MQ NRrhlx<+ esa & >kW> laFkyh u`R; esa & ekny xjck u`R; esa & MkafM;k ds M.Ms buesa ls cgqr ls ok| ;a= foyqIr gks x;s gSA buds foyqIr gksus ds dkj.k ;k rks ml {ks= dh xk;u 'kSyh dk i;kZIr ;k leqfpr izpkj izlkj u gksuk gS ;k lkekftd cnyko ds nkSj esa yksd dykdkjksa us ewy ok| esa dqN ifjorZu dj fn;k ;k tks Hkh izpfyr ok| vklkuh ls miyC/k gS mUgha dks lekfgr dj fy;kA buesa dqN foyqIr gks jgs ok|ksa dk ifjp; bl izdkj gSA ¼1½ ?kM+k& ;g feV~Vh ;k /kkrq ls fufeZr ik= gSA bls mRrj Hkkjr eas ^?kM+k*] jktLFkku esa ^eVdh*] d'ehj esa ^uwB*] xqtjkr eas ^ek.kHkV~V* ;k ?kM+k] nf{k.k esa ^?kVe~* dgrs gSaA nkfgus gkFk dh vaxqfy;ksa ds uk[kquksa ls vFkok pqVdh esa NYyk vkfn fdlh dM+h oLrq dks idM+dj bls ctkrs gSaA mRRkj Hkkjr ds fofHkUu jkT;ksa ds yksd lkaLd`frd mRloksa ij] dFkkdkj dFkk dgrs&dgrs bl ok| dk mi;ksx djrs gSaA vkt ;g ok| ukeek= dks 'ks"k gks jgk gSA mRrj Hkkjr esa cgqr gh de dykdkj ;g ok| yqIr izk;% gksus dh dxkj ij gSA ¼2½ nqDdM+& 'kgukbZ ds lkFk ctus okyk izeq[k ok| gSA nks Hkkxksa esa cVk gqvk ;g ok| feV~Vh ;k /kkrq ls fufeZr gSA nk,¡ Hkkx ij iryh rFkk ck,¡ Hkkx ij eksVh [kky dks peZMksjh dh lgk;rk ls e<+ ugha fn;k tkrk gSA bl ok| ij fdlh izdkj
  • 2. 120 SHODH, SAMIKSHA AUR MULYANKAN International Indexed & Refereed Research Journal, ISSN 0974-2832,(Print) E- ISSN-2320-5474, December,2013, VOL-V * ISSUE- 59 dh L;kgh ;k elkyk ugha yxk;k tkrk gSA ;g ok| Hkh rk'kk dh rjg vyksdfiz; gksus ds lkFk&lkFk yqIr gks jgk gSA gekjs ckn dh ih<+h ds fy;s ;g ok| flQZ laxzgky; dh 'kksHkk cu tk;sxk ,slk esjk ekuuk gSA ¼3½ Ms:& ;g Me: vkdkj dk ok| gSA tSls Me: ok| esa peZ yxk;k tkrk gSA nksuksa eqag ds peZ ds xtjs ls lqrj dh nksjh fijksbZ tkrh gSA ;g nksjh dks Åij ls nck;k tkrk gSA vkSj eq[k ij ladq ls vk?kkr fd;k tkrk gSA Me: vkSj Ms: ok| ,d leku gSA fdUrq mudh /ofu vyx&vyx gSA ;g ok| dk iz;ksx /kkfeZd&fo/kku esa gksrk gSA vkfnoklh yksd u`R; ,oa xhrksa ds lkFk ;g ok| ctk;k tkrk gSA ;g ok| orZeku le; esa cgqr gh de ns[kus dks feyrk gSA ;g ok| dks ctkuk Hkh eqf'dy gSA mldh oknu i)fr dfBu gSA lgh rjhds ls nksjh dks nckuk vkSj lkFk esa vk?kkr djuk vius vki eas ,d i)fr gSA ;g ok| T;knkrj enkjh ,oa catkjk tkfr ds yksx ctkrs gSA xqtjkr esa ;g ok| dks ^Mkdyk* dgk tkrk gSA ;g ok| Hkh yqIr gks jgk gSA ¼4½ rk'kk & ;g /kkrq vFkok feV~Vh ls fufeZr piVs] pkSM+s dVksjs tSlk gksrk gSA ftlds Åij cdjs dh [kky e<+h jgrh gS ftls peM+s dh ifV~V;ksa ls dlk tkrk gSA xys esa yVdkdj ckal ;k csarks dh nks iryh defp;ksa ls ctk;k tkrk gSA fdUrq vkt&dy mRloksa&'kknh vkfn ij ikjaikfjd ok|ksa dh txg ij bysDVªksfudl midj.kksa dk izHkko ns[ks dks feyrk gSA blh dkj.k ls ;g ok| cgqr gh de ctrk gS vkSj okndks dh la[;k Hkh de gksus yxh gSA ;g fpark dk fo"k; gSA ;g ok| Hkh esjh n`f"V ls yqIr gksus dh dxkj ij gSA ¼5½ pax & ydM+h dk ,d ?ksjk tks HksM+ dh [kky ls e<+k tkrk gSA ydM+h ij ;g [kky Mksjh dh lgk;rk ls e<+h tkrh gSA ;g nksuksa gkFkksa ls ctk;h tkrh gSA ,d gkFk ls ?ksjs ds fdukjs ij rFkk nwljs bldk e/; Hkkx esa ,d iryh MaMh ls idM+ dj ctk;k tkrk gS rFkk nwljs gkFk ls Lora= :i ls oknu fd;k tkrk gSA dHkh&dHkh pax dk e/; Hkkx diM+s ls e<+h gqbZ MaMh ls Hkh ctk;k tkrk gSA u`R; eaMfy;ksa esa bl ok| dk iz;ksx fo'ks"k :i gksrk gSA ¼6½ uxkM+k& uxkM+k dks uDdkjk Hkh dgk tkrk gS ftldk iz;ksx vf/kdrj 'kgukbZ oknu eas laxr ok| ds :i esa gksrk gSA e/;dkyhu xazUFkksa esa ckn'kkgksa ds njckjksa esa uDdkjksa ds gksus dk o.kZu feyrk gSA uxkM+k@uDdkjk ok| MqxMqxh dh HkkWfr ,d fo'kky vkdkj dk gksrk gS ftldk eq¡g peM+s ls e<+k gksrk gS bls mRloksa ds volj ij ydM+h ds nks MaMksa ls ihV ihV dj ctkrs gSa uxkM+k chp ds Hkkx esa can Åij ls [kqyk vkSj peM+s ls e<+k gksrk gSA uxkM+k tksM+h nksuks gkFkksa eas defp;k¡ idM+dj ctk;h tkrh gSA ¼7½ ck¡lqjh & yksd xk;u ls izpfyr ,oa vR;Ur yksdfiz; ok| ckWlqjh ckWl ds VqdM+s ls cukbZ tkrh gS ftlesa dqN fNnz dj fn;s tkrs gSa bu fNnzksa ij vWxqfy;ksa ls j[kdj eqWg ls QwWdrs gq, fofHkUu Loj fudkys tkrs gSaA ;g yxHkx pkj QqV yach gksrh gSA ¼8½ rqjgh& eqWg ls ctk;s tkus okyk ;g ck| 'kgukbZ dh vis{kk dqN cM+s eqWg dk gksrk gS 'ks"k Hkkx iryk vkSj yack gksrk gSA ¼9½ >kW>& nks cM+s pØdkj piVs VqdM+s ftuds e/; Hkkx esa NksVk ls xM~<k jgrk gSA ;s vkil esa Vdjk dj ctk;s tkrs gSaA buesa >u>ukgV Hkjh /ofu mRiUu gSA bldk iz;ksx vfèkdrj esokM+ {ks= ds xzkeh.k cktksa ds lkFk Hkh fd;k tkrk gSA ¼10½ eathjk& xk;u&oknu u`R; ds y; ds fHkUu&fHkUu izdkjksa dh laxhr ds fy, bl ok| dk iz;ksx gksrk gS nks NksVh xgjh xksy ifV~V;ksa tks ihry] tLrk vkSj rkWck vkfn ds feJ.k ls cuh gksrh gSA izR;sd iV~Vh dk e/; Hkkx I;kyh ds vkdkj dk gksrk gS ftlls mudk iwjk Hkkx ,d nwljs dks Li'kZ dj ldsA /kkrqvksa ds feJ.k] izdkj vkSj otu vkfn ij eathjs dh /ofu fuHkZj djrh gSA ,sls gh dbZ vU; ok| Hkh gSa tks vkt yqIr gksus dh dxkj ij gSaA vktdy rks ok|ksa dh cukoV esa Hkh vUrj vk x;k gS tSls peM+s dh txg IykfLVd dh iwM+h yxkuk ftlls ok| dh ewy /ofu dk ,glkl ugha gksrkA bu fo"k;ksa ij Hkh fopkj djuk vko';d izrhr gksrk gSA orZeku le; esa ok|ksa dks yqIr gksus dk ewy dkj.k ok| dk mfpr laj{k.k u gksuk gSA vkt vko';drk gS fd bldk mfpr laj{k.k fd;k tk;sA jk"Vªh; ,oa vUrjkZ"Vªh; laLFkkvksa }kjk le;&le; ij dk;ZØe ,oa f'kfojksa dk vk;kstu fd;k tkuk pkfg,A iqjkus dykdkjksa dks [kkstdj mUgsa lEekfur djuk ,oa muds }kjk dyk fo|ky;ksa esa f'kfoj vk;ksftr dj izf'k{k.k nsus dk dk;Z djkuk pkfg,A blls dykdkjksa ,oa fo|kfFkZ;ksa nksuksa dks ykHk feysxkA bl ok| dyk dks jk"Vªh; o vUrjkZ"Vªh; Lo:i nsus ds fy, ljdkj ls lgk;rk dk vuqjksèk djuk pkfg,A ftu fofHkUu yksdxhrksa ,oa u`R;ksa ds lkFk bl ok| dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gS mls lajf{kr j[kus dk iz;kl fd;k tkuk pkfg, ftlls ok| dk Hkh laj{k.k gks ldsA fofHkUu yksdok| dykdkjksa dks le;&le; ij rky ok| dpgjh ds :i esa dk;ZØe nsuk pkfg,A ftlls vf/kd ls vf/kd Jksrk bls lqu ldsa rFkk tuekul esa budk izpkj&izlkj gks ldsA bu ok|ksa ij ctus okys tks Hkh o.kZ gS mudh lqj{kk gsrq bu ok|ksa ls lEcfU/kr 'kks/k fd;k tk ldrk gSA mijksDr lq>koksa ij ;fn vey fd;k tk;s rks bu ok|ksa dks yqIr gksus ls cpk;k tk ldrk gSA 1- feJk] MkW0 ykyef.k] Hkkjrh; laxhr ok|] izdk'kd& Hkkjrh KkuihB] ubZ fnYyhA 2- JhokLro ia0 fxjh'k pUnz] rkydks'k] izdk'kd& :ch izdk'ku] bykgkcknA 3- lsu MkW0 v:.k dqekj&Hkkjrh; rkyksa dk 'kkL=h; foospu] izdk'kd&e/;izns'k fgUnh xzaFk vdkneh] HkksikyA 4- ijkatis MkW0 'kjrpUnz Jh/kj] Hkkjrh; laxhr dk bfrgkl] izdk'kd&e/;izns'k fgUnh xzaFk vdkneh] HkksikyA 5- laxhr if=dk] izdk'kd&laxhr dk;kZy;] gkFkjlA 6- laxhr dyk fogkj if=dk] izdk'kd& vf[ky Hkkjrh; xU/koZ egkfo|ky; e.MyA