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INTERNATIONAL INDEXED REFEREED RESEARCH PAPER
INTERNATIONAL INDEXED REFEREED RESEARCH PAPER
INTERNATIONAL INDEXED REFEREED RESEARCH PAPER
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  • 1. 81SHODH, SAMIKSHA AUR MULYANKAN International Indexed & Refereed Research Journal, ISSN 0974-2832,(Print) E- ISSN-2320-5474, December,2013, VOL-V * ISSUE- 59 ^izxfr* dk vFkZ gS& ^vkxs c<+uk* vkSj ^okn* dk vFkZ gS& ^fl)kar*A bl izdkj izxfrokn dk vFkZ gqvk ^vkxs c<+us dk fl)kar*& ikWjoMZusl ;k izksxzsflfoTeA ;g ifjHkk"kk 'kkyhu vFkZ esa gS ijUrq ;g [kkl fn'kk esa vkxs c<+us dk ,d fo'ks"k <ax gS ;Fkk& ^vkn'kZokn ls ;FkkFkksZUeq[k*] ^iwathokn ls lektokn dh vksj mUeq[k*] ^:f<+;ksa ls LoPNan thou dh vksj xfr'khy* vkSj ^'kkafr ls Økafr dh rjQ vxzlj*A dqy feydj ;g ekDlZoknh fopkjèkkjk dk lkfgfR;d ekspkZ gS ftls oSpkfjd jktuhfr esa ^lkE;okn*] n'kZu esa ^}U}kRed HkkSfrdokn* rFkk lkfgR; esa ^izxfrokn* dgrs gSaA blh dks ^lektoknh ;FkkFkZokn* Hkh dgk tkrk gSA bfrgkl esa blds fodklØe dk vkèkkj 1919 dh :lh Økafr gS ftlds QyLo:i tkj'kkgh dk var gqvk vkSj ekDlZoknh fopkjèkkjk ls izsfjr cksY'ksfod ikVhZ lÙkk esa vkbZA 1934 esa dkaxzsl lks'kfyLV ikVhZ dk xBu gqvk ftlds lnL;ksa esa bZ-,e-,l- uEcwfnjhikn] MkW- yksfg;k] vkpk;Z ujsUnznso] t;izdk'k ukjk;.k tSls usrk vkSj fpard 'kkfey FksA 1935 esa tc bZ-,e- QkLVZj dh vè;{krk esa ^izksxzsflo jkbVlZ ,lksfl,'ku* dk isfjl esa igyk vfèkos'ku gqvk rks MkW- eqYdjkt vkuan vkSj lTtkn tghj us fn'kk esa dkQh dksf'k'ksa dha] urhtru bldh ,d 'kk[kk Hkkjr esa Hkh [kqyh vkSj eqa'kh izsepan dh vè;{krk esa mldk izFke vfèkos'ku y[kuÅ esa gqvkA mlh le; ls ^izksxzsflo fyVjspj* ds fy, fgUnh esa ^izxfr'khy lkfgR;* 'kCn tqM+ x;k tks vkxs pydj ^izxfrokn* dgyk;kA fgUnh lkfgR; esa 1936 ls 1942&43 rd izxfrokn f'k[kj ij jgkA gkykafd O;kid vkSj mnkj vFkZ esa vkfndky ls ysdj vc rd dh leLr lkfgR; ijEijk izxfr'khy gS fQj Hkh ;g ukedj.k dfFkr vofèk esa jfpr lkfgR; ij lVhd cSBrk gSA oLrqr% f}osnh ;qx dh bfro`ÙkkRedrk] vfrmins'kkRedrk vkSj LFkwyrk ds fo#) cxkor esa Nk;kokn iSnk gqvkA ;g ogh le; gS tc Lora=rk dh yM+kbZ esa tw> jgk cfynkuh Hkkjr mifuos'kokn vkSj iwathokn ds ohHkRlre :i fczfV'k lkezkT;okn ls yksgk Vdjkus dh [kkfrj mRlkg vkSj deZBrk ds fy, izsj.kk <wa<+ jgk FkkA Nk;kokn dYiuk ds rkykc esa xksrs yxk jgk Fkk vkSj bu lkjh lelkef;d December ,2013 'kks/k i= & fgUnh jktk jke ;kno fnudj vkSj izxfrokn * ih- ,p- Mh- 'kks/k Nk=] xq#dqy dk¡xM+h fo'Okfo|ky;] gfj}kj ifjfLFkfr;ksa ls cs[kcj&csijokg Nk;koknh dfo ckyVh Hkj&Hkj ds vk¡lw cgk jgs FksA lp gh dydÙks ds ^ukjk;.k* esa Jh xqykcjRuth oktis;h ^xqykc* us budks bafxr dj oDr dh vko';drk dh vksj è;kukdf"kZr djrs gq, fy[kk gS& ^lks tkvks gs o`) fody! bl izpaM vUèkM+ ds lEeq[k xzh"edky dh ok;q foQyA* Nk;kokn dh vkRetk jgL;okn] fo"kkn;qDr euksfodkjksa rFkk jksx&xzLr izse ds xhrksa dh dfM+;ka cquus esa O;Lr FkhA yksx ikjykSfdd lq[k vkSj ijkykSfdd thou dks gh lPpk lq[k vkSj lPpk thou eku cSBs FksA dkO; jfld vkSj vkykspd Nk;koknh dkO; ls mrus fujk'k ugha Fks ftruk fd le; dh ekax ds vuq:i dkO; dh mikns;rk lsA turk vkSj dkO; ds chp tks lacaèk gksuk pkfg,] mldk fuokZg flZQ mu dfo;ksa dh dfork;sa dj jgh Fkha ftudk izèkku Loj jk"Vªh; FkkA bl n`f"V ls Nk;koknh ;qx esa ikBdksa ds chp fgUnh dfork dh cgqr dqN bTtr jk"Vªh; dforkvksa us j[kh vkSj fgUnh dkO; txr dh ykt cp x;h vU;Fkk jk"Vªh; Lora=rk laxzke esa ns'k dh iqdkj ij viZ.k djus ds fy, buds ikl vk¡lqvksa ds flok dqN Hkh ugha gksrk& cfynku rks nwj] jDr dk ,d drjk rd ughaA blh fuo`frijdrk vkSj iyk;uokfnrk] lw{erk vkSj dYiukRedrk] O;fDrokfnrk vkSj lekt&foeq[krk dh izfrfØ;k esa ;g ubZ lkfgfR;d dkO;&èkkjk ^izxfrokn* izLQqfVr gqbZ ftlus dfork dk 'kwU; ls lkeatL; fcBkus ds xksj[kèkaèks dks R;kx dj lPpkbZ ls lk{kkRdkj djk;k vkSj bls dYiuk&yksd ls fudky dj thou ds okLrfod èkjkry ij izfrf"Br fd;kA dfo dgrk gS& ^^Åij lc dqN 'kwU;&'kwU; gS] dqN Hkh ugha xxu esa] èkeZjkt! tks dqN gS] og gS feV~Vh esa] thou esaA1 eqa'kh izsepan] johUnzukFk Bkdqj] tks'k eyhgkcknh vkfn vxz.kh ys[kdksa vkSj dfo;ksa us bl vkanksyu dk T+kksjnkj Lokxr fd;k rFkk iar] fujkyk] fnudj] uohu vkfn ds lfØ; ;ksxnku ls ;g lkfgR; le`) gqvkA bl dkO;&èkkjk ds vU; lkfgR;dkjksa esa ukxktqZu] dsnkjukFk vxzoky] 'ke'ksj] vKs;] xksikyflag usikyh] jkefoykl 'kekZ rFkk ukeoj flag vkfn izeq[k gSaA fnudj ds dkO; dks fdlh dky&fo'ks"k esa ckaèkus ls vfèkd
  • 2. 82 SHODH, SAMIKSHA AUR MULYANKAN International Indexed & Refereed Research Journal, ISSN 0974-2832,(Print) E- ISSN-2320-5474, December,2013, VOL-V * ISSUE- 59 mikns; buds dkO;ksa dk jlkLoknu vkSj ledkyhu fLFkfr;ksa dk fnXn'kZu gSA fur uwrurk vkSj izxfr dh izo`fr euq"; dks gh ugha vfirq dkO;ksa dks Hkh fujarj ljl] ltho vkSj v|ru j[krh gSA ij'kqjke ds eq[k ls fu%l`r 'kCn dfo dh izxfroknh n`f"V dks mtkxj djrs gSa& u;h dyk] uwru jpuk,a] ubZ lw>] uwru lkèku] u, Hkko] uwru meax ls] ohj cus jgrs uwruA2 ftUnxh] dkO; vkSj fu>Zj rhuksa dh n'kk ,d&lh gksrh gSA tc rd buesa xfr gS rc rd gh ;s thoar gSa vU;Fkk fu'py] fu'ps"V vkSj futhZoA vr% dkO; vkSj fu>Zj dk xfrfoghu gksuk e`R;q ls Hkh vfèkd vpj vkSj fuLrst gksrk gSA blfy, rks ^fu>Zj* osQ ekè;e ls vkjlh izlkn flag dgrs gSa& ^^pyuk gh dsoy pyuk gS] thou pyrs gh jgrk gS** ej tkuk gh #d tkuk gS] fu>Zj ;g >j dj dgrk gSA3 ^uo xfr] uo y;* vkSj loZ=k uO;rk dh vkdka{kk fy, oh.kkokfnuh ls izkFkZuk djus okys ^fujkyk* dh ^dqdqjeqÙkk*] ^fHk{kqd* vkfn dfork,a ;FkkFkZ&cksèk djkrh gSa] ftlesa loZgkjk iwathifr;ksa dks cM+s tksj ls yydkjrk gS& ^^vcs] lqu cs] xqykc] Hkwr er tks ik;h [kq'kcq] jax&vks&vkc] [kwu pwlk [kkn dk rwus vf'k"V] Mky ij brjk jgk gS dsihVfyLVA4 vkSj ukxktqZu bldh n'kk n'kkZrs gSa& ^^?kqu [kk, 'kgrhjksa ij ckjg[kM+h foèkkrk ck¡ps] QVh Hkhr gS Nr pwrh gS] vkys ij fcLrqbZ;k ukpsA5 fnudj dk dfo orZeku&foosd cy ls foxr dh uhao ij vukxr ds fuekZ.k dh vfHkyk"kk j[krk gS vkSj ns'kokfl;ksa ds thou&iFk dks vkyksfdr djus dh dkeuk djrk gSA ifjorZu fofèk dk 'kk'or foèkku gS vkSj ;gh ;qxèkeZ dh iqdkj gSA ns'kokfl;ksa ds lEiw.kZ tkxj.k dh dkeuk dfo ds izxfroknh psruk dk izek.k gS& ^xr foHkwfr] Hkkoh dh vk'kk] ys ;qxèkeZ iqdkj mBs] flagks dh ?ku&vaèk xqgk esa] tkx`fr dh gqadkj mBsA*6 euq"; dk thou >jus ds ln`'k fujarj izokfgr gksrs jgrk gS] ;g }a} xzLr gksdj Hkh mUufr ds ekxZ dk ifjR;kx ugha djrk gSA tgka ekxZ Vs<+k gS ogka uhj dh èkkjk Hkh Vs<+h gks tkrh gS ysfdu tgka ekxZ lhèkk gS ogka tyèkkjk lhèkh izokfgr gksrh gSA dfo ml egkekuo dh ryk'k esa gS tks le; vkSj ifjfLFkfr;ksa dk nkl ugha oju mudk fuekZrk] fu;a=k.kdrkZ vkSj Lokeh gS] >a>kokr Hkh ftlds b'kkjksa ij pyrs gSa vkSj bfrgkl ftlds ladsrksa dk xqyke gS] tks fu;fr dh rqyuk ij Lo;a u rqydj fu;fr dks gh viuh rqyk ij rksyrk gS& ^ekuo dk thou izokg fu>Zj gS] f}èkk&:) gks rtrk ugha izxfr dksA vUos'kh eSa ml izpaM ekuo dk] pyrk tks ckagksa ij LoxZ mBk,] ftldh lkalksa ij ukprk izHkatu] bafxr ij bfrgkl cny tkrs gSaA7 fnudj mldk dfo gS tks euq"; dks nsorkvksa ds led{k ekurk gS] ftlds lEeq[k LoxZ vkSj i`Foh nksuksa ureLrd gSaA tks ioZr&f'k[kj ds leku mÙkqax vkSj lw;Z ds leku len`f"V gS] tks fou; tSlk fouhr Hkkoksa ls ;qDr lân; vkSj rwQkuksa ds leku cy'kkyh gS] tks i`Foh ds leku èkS;Zoku vkSj >jus ds leku papy gS] tks HkkX; ds }kjk pkfyr ugha gS cfYd Lo;a Hkkx dks lapkfyr djrk gS& ^^'kSy&f'k[kj&lk izka'kq] xaHkhj tyfèk&lk] fnuef.k&lk len`f"V] fouhr fou;&lk] >a>k&lk cyoku] dky&lk Øksèkh] èkhj vpy&lk] izxfr'khy fu>Zj&lkA**8 izxfroknh dkO; esa izkphu ds izLFkku vkSj vokZphu ds vkxeu dk vkea=.k gksrk gS] iqjkru ds yksi vkSj vèkqukru ds mn; dh vkdka{kk gksrh gS rFkk Bgjko dks frykatfy vkSj xfr'khyrk ds Lokxr dk lekpkj gksrk gSA izxfrokn ^nzqr >jks txr ds 'kh.kZ i=k* dk i{kiks"kd gSA fuLlansg izkphurk ds izLFkku ij gh uwrurk dh ubZ bekjr fufeZr gksrh gSA tks lius thoar vkSj mRdV vfHkyk"kk tfur gSa oSls liuksa dks lkdkj djus ds fy, rks e`r liuksa dks foLFkkfir gksuk gh iM+sxk& ^^vk'kk ds Loj dk Hkkj iou dks ysfdu ysuk gh gksxk] thfor liuksa ds fy, ekxZ eqnks± dks nsuk gh gksxkA**9 xqIrth :f<+;ksa dk ifjR;kx dj foosd'khyrk èkkj.k djus dk lans'k nsrs gSa& ^^izkphu gksa fd uohu NksM+ks :f<+;ka gks tks cqjh cudj foosdh rqe fn[kkvks gal tSlh pkrqjhA**10 lEiw.kZ tkx`fr dk lapkj djus ds fy, dfo orZeku] Hkwr vkSj Hkfo"; rhuksa dks ,d lkFk >aÑr djus dk iz;Ru djrk gS rkfd leLr rUnzkyL; nwj gks lds& ^^nks vkns'k] iwad nwa] J`axh] mBsa izHkkrh&jkx egku] rhuksa dky èofur gksa Loj esa] tkxsa lqIr Hkqou ds izk.kA**11 fnudj dk dfo vfXu&o`f"V ls ean&[kqekj esa vylk;s deZghuksa dh lq'kqIr vkRekvksa dks txkus ds fy, xjtrk gS& ^^turk dh Nkrh fHkUns vkSj rqe uhan djks] vius Hkj rks ;g tqYe ugha gksus nwaxk] rqe cqjk dgks ;k Hkyk] eq>s ijokg ugha] ij] nksigjh esa rqEgsa ugha lksus nwaxkA**12 fucZy 'kklu dk;j gksrk gS rFkk viuh Hkh#rk dh otg ls vR;kpkjksa ds fo#) 'kL=k&laèkku ugha dj ikrk gSA viuh
  • 3. 83SHODH, SAMIKSHA AUR MULYANKAN International Indexed & Refereed Research Journal, ISSN 0974-2832,(Print) E- ISSN-2320-5474, December,2013, VOL-V * ISSUE- 59 lqj{kk dh 'kfDr mlesa lekIr gks tkrh gSA 'kklu dh vdeZ.;rk dk fojksèk djus okys myVs naM ds Hkkxh gksrs gSaA dfo dh vfHkO;atuk,a izxfrokn ds Økafrdkjh :i dk n'kZu djkrh gSa& ^^Mjiksd gqdqer tqYeksa ls yksgk tc ugha ctkrh gS] fgEer okys dqN dgrs gSa] rc thHk rjk'kh tkrh gSA myVh pkysa ;s ns[k ns'k esa gSjr&lh Nk tkrh gS] HkV~Vh dh vksnh vk¡p fNih rc vkSj vfèkd èkqaèkqavkrh gSA**13 ^fnudj* dk dkO; uSlfxZd U;k; dk Hkkf"kd mn~?kks"k gSA ,d laosnu'khy dh lgt izfrfØ;k gSA thou ds ;FkkFkZ dks vc 1 dq#{ks=k] lIre lxZ] fnudj jpukoyh&5@165 2 jf'ejFkh] f}rh; lxZ] fnudj jpukoyh&5@194 3 fu>Zj] vkjlh izlkn flag 4 dqdqjeqÙkk] jkx&fojkx] lw;Zdkar ^^fujkyk** 5 ;qxèkkjk] ukxktqZu 6 eaxy vkàku] js.kqdk] fnudj jpukoyh&3@20 7 dYiuk dh fn'kk] egkekuo dh [kkst] gqadkj] fnudj jpukoyh&3@31&32 8 dYiuk dh fn'kk] egkekuo dh [kkst] gqadkj] fnudj jpukoyh&3@33 9 yksgs ds isM+ gjs gksaxs] èkwi vkSj èkqvka] fnudj jpukoyh&3@61 10 Hkkjr&Hkkjrh] eSfFkyh'kj.k xqIr] Hkfo";r~ [kaM] Nan&38 11 eaxy vkàku] js.kqdk fnudj jpukoyh&3@20 12 dfo vkSj lekt] uhyoqQlqe] fnudj jpukoyh&3@72 13 foiFkxk] gqadkj] fnudj jpukoyh&1@117 14 vuy&fdjhV] gqadkj] fnudj jpukoyh&1@114 rd bl csckdh ls fdlh us 'kk;n gh izLrqr fd;k gksA lekt ds lkèku&foghuksa dh nqnZ'kk dks brus Å¡ps Loj esa 'kk;n gh fdlh us dyec) fd;k gksA Li"Vr% fnudj dh izxfroknh n`f"V ijEijkvksa dks [kafMr ugha oju mUufr&izxfr dk ekxZ iz'kLr djus gsrq izkphu vkSj nqcZy vkdka{kkvksa dks foLFkkfir gksus dh rFkk fujarj uohurk dh odkyr djrh gSA ^^ uhan dgka mudh vka[kksa esa tks èkqu ds erokys gSa xfr dh r`"kk vkSj c<+rh] iM+rs ix esa tc Nkys gSaA**14

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