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  1. 1. 94 RESEARCH ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION International Indexed & Refereed Research Journal, ISSN 0975-3486, (Print), E- ISSN -2320-5482, Aug- Oct, 2013 (Combind) VOL –V * ISSUE- 47-49 Introduction The focus of ICT in school education is to complement, strengthen and reinforce teaching and learning,primarilythelearning. Italsomakestheteach- ing learning process engaging, interesting and interac- tive. It makes available vast amount of educational material as well as software and tools that can be used forprocessing,analysisand presentationofmaterialas well as its use in teaching learning. ICT facilitates participation by the learner in the teaching learning process.Itprovides greateropportunitiestothelearner to explore, observe, enquire and construct knowledge. It promotes collaborative learning. It helps explain abstract and complex concepts and phenomena. It ex- tends learning beyond classroom. It can be used to strengthen problem solving ability. It can be used to make education available and accessible regardless of location, social status or fi- nancial condition of the learner. ICT has a lot of scope inteachinglearning.AccordingtoNationalCurriculum Framework(NCF2005) providingchildrenmoredirect accesstomultimediaequipmentandInformationCom- municationTechnology(ICT),andallowingthemtomix and make their own productions and to present their own experiences, could provide themwith newoppor- tunities to explore their own creative imagination (NCERT,2005). Although it is very easy to use yet the ICT has not been adequately, appropriately and effectively utilised in teaching-learning. Further, it has not been properly integratedinthepedagogicalprocesses.Availabilityof Research Paper— Education Aug- Oct ,2013 Role of ICT in Teaching- Learning: AContemporary Perspective * Research Scholar, Singhania University, Pacheri Bari (Raj.) ** Supervisor * Naresh Kapoor ** Dr. Satya VeerYadav A B S T R A C T Role of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in all aspects of present day life in the globalised village, the world, cannot be overemphasised. ICT has tremendous potential to facilitate carrying out of various activities efficiently. ICT provides quick and easy access to enormous resources, material and updated information related to almost all the areas. It provides real time access to phenomena, events and programmes. It facilitates participation and interaction in the teaching- learning process. ICT can be used to provide conducive learning environment and better learning experiences to the learners to enable them to achieve the learning outcomes. It can be used to facilitate the development of various skills. ICT can be used to improve the quality of education. Capabilities of ICT can be used to concretise and transact abstract concepts. ICT facilitates constructivist approach to teaching-learning. The present study attempts to explore from a contemporary perspective the potential of ICT and its role in facilitating and making teaching-learning more effective. The present study also tries to find out the status of ICT in school and its use in teaching-learning. ICT offers opportunities for individualised learning at the same time facilitating cooperative learning and group controlled instruction. Video conferencing and communication tools facilitate interaction among learners and between teachers and learners. Key Words : ICT, teaching, learning, status ICT infrastructure to teachers and learners is not ad- equate in India. Wherever it is being used, it is largely being used in a tutorial mode as a tool for presentation ofmaterialtoeasetheteacherbyrelievinghim/herofthe labour of having to write on the blackboard and having to bring the books, pictures, charts, etc. to the class- room.Despite ICT theclassrooms areasdull and class- room transaction as boring and as non-participative as ever in conventional teaching in majority of situations with learning being a burden for many of the learners who neither learn nor are skilled for work or life. 2. ICT and Access to Material and Resources ICTsmakeenormouslearningresourcesavail- able to the learner. Material on virtually all the areas of study is available in digital format. Internet is a vast repository of material. Besides, many individuals and organisationsdevelopdigitalmaterialonvariousareas. Sitting at his / her place the learner can access material generated and available at another place. Enormous material is being continuously added and the existing material updated. ICT makesit possible to add, update, modify,deletematerialandmakeitavailableandacces- sible to learner very easily and quickly.The learner can view the live videos of events, programmes and phe- nomena as they happen. The learner can search for the materialrequiredveryquickly. LCD/LEDProjectorscan be used to disseminate material to a large group and facilitate large group instruction. Wi-Fi campuses of educational institutions enable teachers and students to access and use the material on the web within the classroom or anywhere else in the campus. Tablets further enable teachers and students to develop, read
  2. 2. 95RESEARCH ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION International Indexed & Refereed Research Journal, ISSN 0975-3486, (Print), E- ISSN -2320-5482, Aug- Oct, 2013 (Combind) VOL –V * ISSUE- 47-49 and share material anywhere. Smart phones enable a person to remain connected to the web and other per- sons, interact and collaborate anywhere.Applications, tools, material, etc. can now be downloaded and used to enhance learning at any time and place. ICT greatly facilitatesdevelopment,dissemination,sharinganduse ofmaterialtimely. ICTprovidesthelearnerwithalotof flexibilityin accessing and engaging with material, de- veloping own material, doing project work, preparing assignments at one's own pace, place and time. 3.ICTandTeaching-Learning ICT can be used to transact abstract and com- plex concepts, processes and phenomena using simu- lationtechnique,graphicsandmultimedia.Forexample, photosynthesis,DNA, mitosis,fission,chemicalbond- ing,etc.canbeexplainedveryclearlyusingICT.Using techniqueofsimulation,multimedia and animationab- stract concepts can be explained. ICTs facilitate collaborative learning by pro- viding communication tools such as email, chat, blog, discussionboards,videoconferencing,socialnetwork- ing, groups that enable learners to interact, share mate- rial, discuss, evaluate and learn together. Discussion boards or forums can be formed, which allow the stu- dent to post questions online, which are read and re- sponded to by the teacher, experts and other students who are the members of the discussion board. The teacher may use discussion boards to ask students to solve certain problems or present cases that challenge the thinking skill of the students. ICTs can be used to provideguidelinesorframeworkforstudentstoprepare projects on different areas. These boards engage the students. The stu- dentsmaybe asked to carryout variousactivities.Thus the discussion boards can be used to extend learning beyond the classroom. They provide an opportunity to every student to participate. They help students over- come low self esteem and freely discuss on different areas. They free the teachers and the students from the rigidity and constraints of time and adequate availabil- ity of effective teacher, typically associated with tradi- tionalclassroom.Usingvideoconferencingtheteacher or the expert or a panel of experts can transact quality content effectively using appropriate pedagogy, while maintaining the standard of teaching. It can be used to overcome the constraints of time, availability of infra- structureandmaterial andgeographicaldistances. The experts can demonstrate, show how to use TLM in teaching . The students get an opportunity to interact withtheexpert,askquestions,seekclarifications,share their views and get immediate answers, clarifications and feedback. The teacher can assign a common task to a group of students such as preparation of a project and the students may carry out the task together using the communication tools provided by ICTs. ICTs can be used to supplement face to face interaction. The stu- dentsmaymeettoworktogetherontheprojectandthen interact using ICTs as they progress. Naone, E. 2007. Unrealmeetings:SecondLife'svirtualconferencerooms mightbemoreusefuliftheydidnotresembletheirreal- world counterparts.TechnologyReview,July11. ICTs provide tools that enable other members of the group to see, give feedback and even make modifications on the work done on the project by some members of the group. ICTs enable students at geographically distant locations to work together and learn together. ICT en- ables quick and accurate processing of data. This helps a person to analyse, establish rela- tionships, explain and understand phenomena and in- fer.ICTsprovideteacherandthestudentsampleoppor- tunity to access, explore, refer to and utilize material other than the text books, work books, etc. The learner maycompile,collate,group,classify,analyse,evaluate anddrawinferencesfrom materialandresources using ICT tools. The teacher can use ICTs to design lessons thatrequirethelearnertoexplore,observe,gatherinfor- mation, collect data, analyse, infer and in the process learn.ThusICTsfacilitatedevelopmentofhigherorder thing skills. Using ICTs teacher can give regular and timely feed back to the students. Besides, ICTs may encourage learner to rea- son and think logically. It can be used to develop prob- lem solving skill. ICTs can be used to make education inclusive.ICTfacilitatesthelearnertoengageinanarea more intensively by managing the learning environ- ment. It enhances the learning experience. Using mul- timedia and the technique of simulation ICT provides reallifeexperiencestothelearner.Threethemesemerged across all six schools as the teachers spoke about what they found to be valuable for their teaching: (a) their beliefs about howstudents learn were shifting; (b) they had a deeper understanding ofnewteaching strategies; and (c) they had improved their knowledge of how to useICTasalearningtool,aswellasstrengtheningtheir ICTskills.(Light,D.2009) 4.Statusof ICTinSchoolsand inTeaching- Learning Inasurveyofinformationand com- munications technology in schools carried out in En- gland, it was found that on an average, number of computers used for teaching and learning per school was 28.6 at primary level, 192.7 at secondary level, primary schools had on an average 25.4 desktop com- puters per school, 6.1 laptop computers per school, secondary schools had on an average 190.6 desktop computersperschool,28.8 laptopcomputersperschool, 48% ofprimaryschools and 82% ofsecondaryschools hadelectronicinteractivewhiteboards,43%of primary
  3. 3. 96 RESEARCH ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION International Indexed & Refereed Research Journal, ISSN 0975-3486, (Print), E- ISSN -2320-5482, Aug- Oct, 2013 (Combind) VOL –V * ISSUE- 47-49 schools and 91 % of secondary schools had digital projectors,7% of primaryschoolsand 33%ofsecond- ary schools had video conference facilities, practically all the primary and secondary schools i.e. >99% of the schools were connected to the Internet In a survey of schools of Delhi it was found that on an average, number of computers per school was11 in Govt.Schools,32 inpublic schools,no Govt. School had a laptop, 9.55% of Govt. Schools had a digital camera, 1.91% of Govt. Schools had an LCD Projector;19.35%ofprivateschoolshadalaptop,18.28% ofthemhadadigitalcamera,36.56%ofthemhadanLCD Projector; overall, of all types of schools, 7.12% had a laptop,12.62%hadadigitalcameraand12.94%hadan LCDProjector;7.64%ofGovt.Schoolscovered,19.35% of private schools and 11.33% of all types of schools covered had an Interactive white board. Findings Only 13% of the 1.2 million schools in India have computers. These are not equally distributed among differentgeographical areas and different types ofschools.Onanaveragethereareveryfewcomputers per school. There are very schools in India which have laptop,LCDProjector,Interactivewhiteboardorvideo conferencefacilities. InmostoftheschoolsICTsarenot appropriately used to achieve desired educational outcomes. A vast majority of schools in India do not have adequate, functional ICT infrastructure which is accessible to teachers and students. Many schools do notevenhavepower.Theylackfinancialresourcesand trained human resources, have very high pupil teacher ratio, ill-equipped classrooms. Theydo not have a plan to teach ICT, to integrate ICT in teaching-learning. Teachers lack adequate ICT competencies. They are not trained in the use of ICT in teaching-learning. Ap- propriateeducationalsoftwarehavenotbeenadequately developed. Conclusion ICT has a very important role in facilitating teaching-learning. It can be used to develop various skillsandmaketeaching-learninginteresting,engaging and learner centred. It can be used to give real life like learning experiences to the learner and extend learning beyond the classroom. In India there is inadequate ICT infrastructure in majority of the schools. Teachers are not adequately trained in ICT and its integration in teaching-learning. Attitude of the HOS, teachers and the environment are not conducive to effective use of ICT in teaching-learning. Potential of ICT can be har- nessed to meet some of the challenges facing education -educationofalargepopulation,multilingualandmulti culturaldiversity,inaccessibilityofpeopletogoodedu- cational infrastructure, individualising instruction to theneedsofthelearnerhelpinghimrealisehispotential. Suggestions Smartclassrooms,ICTresourcecentres,com- puter labs should be established, other classrooms should be equipped with adequate ICT hardware and softwareresources. Thereshouldbefacilitiesforvideo conferencing. Curricula should be redesigned to have ascopeforICT-mediatedclassroomtransaction, useof appropriate e-learning resources, ICT enabled evalua- tioninvariouscurricularareas.Thereshouldberegular, professional development of Heads of schools and teachers to develop, enhance and upgrade their ICT skills as well as to develop pedagogical and ICT skills requiredtointegrateICTinteaching-learninginvarious areas effectively. Time table should be prepared keep- ing in mind organisation of ICT education and integra- tion of ICT in teaching-learning. Classroom transaction should be reorganised to be more interactive and participative, to focus on giving life-like learning experiences to learners, devel- oping higher order thinking skills, inculcating spirit of enquiry, exploration, cooperation, collaboration and working in a team using the potential of ICT. It should be based on constructivism. There should be such a classroom environment that facilitates effective use of ICT in teaching-learning. Teachers should be encour- aged to observe ICT driven teaching in different areas, give their feedback, carryon meaningful interaction on how to integrate ICT to make teaching-learning more experiential, joyful, engaging and effective. 1 Hernando-Malipot, I.(2011). ICT's role in education underscored. Manila Bulletin Publishing Corporation. Retrieved Oct., 2012 from http:// www.mb.com.ph/node/326805/ict. 2 Light, D., Polin, D. K., & Strother, S. (2009). Emerging changes in ICT-rich learning 3 environments: The role of the Intel® Teach Essentials Course in changing teacher 4 practice in three countries (pp. 66). New York: EDC/Center for Children and 5 Technology. 6 Light, D. (2009 ). The Role of ICT in Enhancing Education in Developing Countries: Findings from an Evaluation of The Intel® Teach Essentials Course in India, Turkey, and Chile. Journal of Education in International Development. 7 NCERT.(2005). National Curriculum Frame Work. New Delhi, India. 8 Ofstead (2011). ICT in schools 2008-11. No. 110134. UK; http://www.ofsted.gov.uk/resources/ict-schools-2008-11 9 Teacher Foundation. (2005). A comparative study of ICT leadership in schools: A case study of 4 government-aided schools in Gujarat (pp. 96-97). Bangalore: Author. R E F E R E N C E