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9 12

  1. 1. International Indexed & Referred Research Journal, November, 2012, ISSN 0974- 2832, RNI- RAJBIL- 2009/29954; VoL IV * ISSUE- 46 Research Paper - Education Achievement Through Programmed Instruction and Conventional Method of Teaching. * Dr. Allamaprabhu S. Ravikirti. November ,2012 * Assot. Prof. & Vice Prin. Azad College of Education, Satara, Maharashtra.Various recent technique and methods in education are 4) Procedure of the Studyhaving more effect in comparison with the traditional Sampling for this study was purposive. Theapproach to teaching and learning. Due to scientific female students of std. VI was selected for this study.techniques, recent approaches and innovations have The average percentage of one student for four termgained pivotal importance. Psychologist have devel- examination was calculated and arranged in the as-oped distinct strategy of instruction having base of cending order. The average percentage and the scoresreinforcement. The instructional process have been of G. C. Ahuja Group Test of Intelligence were obtained.developed to maximize the rate of acquisition of final The coefficient of correlation between the academicbehavior .The behavior concerned is achieved by the score and the intelligence score was 0.8. The evenapplication of the principle of responding reinforce- number students were included in the experimentalment, successive progress and gradual achievement group and odd number student were included in the(Skinner,1954). controlled group. The two groups were treated inde- A student can learn only if he actually re- pendently by providing book format linear programsponds in a learning situation. In programmed instruc- and conventional method of teaching. Further the unittion activity responding is arranged with a limited re- test was administered on both the groups.sources of learning material with which he is ready to 5) Presentation of Data:interact. After acquainting a bit of learning material the The tables based on the experimental grouppupil is expected to respond to questions based on that have been followed by controlled group. The experi-information. In such a way the pupil is made to pay mental and conventional groups were treated indepen-attention to learning material. dently. The data showing scores obtained by the ad-2) The Study: ministering programmed instruction has been followed The main objective of this study is to compare by the data scores obtained by conventional methodthe effectiveness of book format program of a linear of teaching. In such a way pre and post tests are impor-style and conventional method of teaching in order to tant phases.focus the relative merits and demerits in instructional Table 4. Standard Deviation Experimental Group- Postsituation. For this purpose program developed by Table 1. Scores obtained on the Pre and Post- Test bySCERT Pune on Leaves for six standard pupils was the pupils in the Experimental Group.used. The relative effectiveness of the program was Sr. No. Pupils Pre-test Post-testinvestigated in terms of specified learning outcomes Scores Scores 01. A 05 12on two method groups of learner after they had learnt 02. B 09 12the topic on Leaves through program instruction and 03. C 07 07 04. D 06 13conventional method of teaching. 05. E 06 133) Objectives of the Study: 06. F 06 12 07. G 07 121) To study the initial performance of the pupils of std. 08. H 05 09 VI in topic Leaves of the general science subject by 09. I 11 12 10. J 05 12 administering the pre test to all participant subject. 11. K 07 102) To study the performance of the pupils in topic 12. L 06 10 13. M 08 11 Leaves by administering the book format programme 14. N 08 09 on experimental group. 15. 16. O P 08 04 09 113) To study the performance of the pupils in the topic 17. Q 06 09 Leaves by teaching them with conventional method 18. R 07 09 19. S 07 09 of teaching 20. T 08 064) To compare the achievement of students in pretest 21. U 01 11 22. V 09 04 and post test . Mean M= 6.66 M= 10.09 SHODH, SAMIKSHA AUR MULYANKAN 9
  2. 2. International Indexed & Referred Research Journal, November, 2012, ISSN 0974- 2832, RNI- RAJBIL- 2009/29954; VoL IV * ISSUE- 46Table 2. Scores Obtained on the Pre and Post- Test by Testthe pupils in the Control Group. Mean = 6.66 EX = 111.80 S.D.= 2.02 Sr. No. Score X X’ Sr. No. Pupils Pre-test Post-test Scores Scores 01. 5 -1.66 2.76 01. A 07 13 02. 9 2.34 5.48 02. B 08 11 03. 7 0.34 0.12 03. C 07 09 04. 6 -0.66 0.44 04. D 04 10 05. 6 -0.66 0.44 05. E 05 09 06. 6 -0.66 0.44 06. F 07 09 07. G 07 09 07. 7 0.34 0.12 08. H 06 08 08. 5 -1.66 2.76 09. I 06 08 09. 11 4.34 18.84 10. J 05 11 10. 5 -1.66 2.76 11. K 06 09 11. 7 0.34 0.12 12. L 06 09 12. 6 -0.66 0.44 13. M 06 09 14. N 06 09 13. 8 1.34 1.80 15. O 07 08 14. 8 1.34 1.80 16. P 03 10 15. 8 1.34 1.80 17. Q 09 08 16. 4 -2.66 7.80 18. R 04 08 17. 6 -0.66 0.44 19. S 03 06 18. 7 0.34 0.12 20. T 05 11 21. U 05 08 19. 7 0.34 1.80 22. V 05 10 20. 8 1.34 1.80 Mean M=5.80 M=09.18 21. 1 -5.66 30.91 22. 9 2.34 5.48Table 3. Standard Deviation Experimental Group- Pre Table 5. Standard Deviation, Control Group- Pre TestTest Sr. No. Score X X’ 01. 7 1.2 1.44 Sr. No. Score X X’ 02. 8 2.2 4.84 01. 5 -1.66 2.76 03. 7 1.2 1.44 02. 9 2.34 5.48 04. 4 -1.8 3.24 03. 7 0.34 0.12 05. 5 -0.8 0.64 04. 6 -0.66 0.44 06. 7 1.2 1.44 05. 6 -0.66 0.44 07. 7 1.2 1.44 08. 6 0.2 0.04 06. 6 -0.66 0.44 09. 6 0.2 0.04 07. 7 0.34 0.12 10. 5 -0.8 0.64 08. 5 -1.66 2.76 11. 6 0.2 0.04 09. 11 4.34 18.84 12. 6 0.2 0.04 10. 5 -1.66 2.76 13. 6 0.2 0.04 11. 7 0.34 0.12 14. 6 0.2 0.04 15. 7 1.2 1.44 12. 6 -0.66 0.44 16. 3 -2.8 7.84 13. 8 1.34 1.80 17. 9 3.2 10.24 14. 8 1.34 1.80 18. 4 -1.8 3.24 15. 8 1.34 1.80 19. 3 -2.8 7.84 16. 4 -2.66 7.80 20. 5 0.8 0.64 17. 6 -0.66 0.44 21. 5 -0.8 0.64 22. 5 -0.8 0.64 18. 7 0.34 0.12 19. 7 0.34 1.80 Mean = 5.80 EX1 = 47.88 S.D. = 1.51 20. 8 1.34 1.80 pre and post test it is possible to know about the 21. 1 -5.66 30.91 effectiveness of programmed instruction. Generally 35% 22. 9 2.34 5.48 of maximum marks is the criterion of passing. TakingThe table 1 and 2 shows scores obtained in the pre and into consideration this criteria 10 subjects are failurespost test by the pupils in the experimental group and in the pre test and only two subjects are failures in theconventional group respectively. The standard devia- post test. This improvement is due to the opportunitytion and standard errors have been calculated. A com- provided to study the programmed lesson of bookparative statistic has been given in table 7. Further the format type. For awarding the first class in the exami-objective wise achievement is represented in the above nation 60% marks are expected. As per this criteria theretables. is not a single candidate who has acquired this level inExperimental Group- pre and post test the pre-test but in the post-test there are eight subjects In this group only the responses of 22 subject who have achieved the level to first class. The mean ofhave been considered. Due to comparison of scores of pre test score is 6.66 and the same of post test is 10.09. 10
  3. 3. International Indexed & Referred Research Journal, November, 2012, ISSN 0974- 2832, RNI- RAJBIL- 2009/29954; VoL IV * ISSUE- 46Table 6. Standard Deviation, Control Group- Post Test Table 7. Comparative Statistics in Respect of Experi- Sr. No. Sco X X’ mental Group and Controlled Group. re 01. 13 3.82 14.59 Group N1 Mean S.D. 02. 11 1.82 3.31 Pre Test Post Test Pre Test Post Test 03. 09 -0.18 0.03 Experimental 22 6.66 10.09 2.02 2.31 04. 10 0.82 0.67 Controlled 22 5.80 9.81 1.51 1.47 05. 09 -0.18 0.03 06. 09 -0.18 0.03 8) Hypothesis testing: 07. 09 -0.18 0.03 The tabulated data serves the purpose of hypothesis 08. 08 -1.18 1.39 09. 08 -1.18 1.39 testing 10. 11 1.82 3.31 Hypothesis 1- 11. 09 -0.18 0.03 The achievement of the students for the topic leaves 12. 09 -0.18 0.03 in the beginning will not be considerable. 13. 09 -0.18 0.03 Considering the criteria of passing in the 14. 09 -0.18 0.03 school 10 participant subject are failures, in the experi- 15. 08 -0.18 1.39 16. 10 0.82 0.67 mental group. In the controlled group here are 15 17. 08 -1.18 1.39 failures.The mean scores of pre- test of experimental 18. 08 -0.18 1.39 group and controlled group are 6.60 and 5.80 respec- 19. 06 -3.18 10.11 tively. In this connection also the scores are below 20. 11 1.82 3.31 passing level. 21. 08 -1.18 1.39 So. The hypothesis 1 is accepted. 22. 10 0.82 0.67 Hypothesis 2- Mean = 9.18 EX2 = 45.22 S.D. = 1.47 The overall achievements of the pupils mea-This achievement in respect to the level of passing first sured after administering the book format programmeclass level marks and means score indicated the effect for experimental group will be significant. Here com-of programmed lessons which were provided to the parison of pre and post test scores of experimentalsubjects of experimental group. group is needed. The mean of pre-test scores is 6.66Controlled Group- pre and post test and that of post- test is 10.09 in case of experimental The researcher intends to focus this data with group. Taking into consideration criteria of passing 10the criteria of passing and first class level marks in the participant subject are failures in the pre- test.examinations and the mean of the scores of test con- For awarding first class in the examination 6cerned. Generally 35% of maximum marks and 60%of % marks are expected to obtain. As per this criteria therethe same is the criteria for passing and first class re- is not a single candidate who has acquired this level inspectively. There are fifteen failures in the pre- test the pre-test but in the post-test there are eight subjectscores on the contrary there is only one failure in the participants who have achieved this level of first class.post- test scores. There is not a class level achieve- The above stated improvement in respect to mean,ment in the pre- test but there is at least one first class level of passing and first class level of achievement islevel achievement in post-test. The mean of pre test is due to opportunity provided to the subjects to study5.80 and the same of post- test is 9.18. This improve- the book format programmed lesson So the hypothesisment in attainment is due to the conventional method -2 is accepted.of teaching. Hypothesis 36) Significance of Means - Pre and Post Test: The overall performance of the controlled Experimental Group - The critical ratio has group taught by conventional method will not be sig-been used in this analysis to find out the significance nificant. Here we have to compare post-test of experi-of mean difference. mental group and controlled group. The mean of the S.E = 0.65 scores of post-test of experimental group is 10.09 and C.R.=5.28 that controlled group is 9.18. the comparison of means7) Significance of Means on - Pre and Post Test: if the scores proves the effectiveness of experimentalControlled Group group which was provided with programmed lessons. The critical ratio has been used in this analy- Considering School criteria of passing there is onesis to find out the significance mean difference. failure in each post-test . Considering the criteria of first S.E. = 0.45 class there are eight first classes in the post-test experi- C.R =7.51 mental group but on the contrary there is single first SHODH, SAMIKSHA AUR MULYANKAN 11
  4. 4. International Indexed & Referred Research Journal, November, 2012, ISSN 0974- 2832, RNI- RAJBIL- 2009/29954; VoL IV * ISSUE- 46class attainment among the subject of experimental ions. In programmed instruction the teacher performsgroup. his role of development of sequence for learning expe-So the hypothesis -3 is accepted. riences to produce measurable outcomes.9) Findings of the study: The programmed materials are only resource1. Without providing learning activities the pre-test material which stores information and with the help of was administrated. The performance in this test was appropriate media instrumentation transmit the infor- very poor. The questions were based on the basic mation. In such a way that if the learner wants he can concept of morphology, histology, physiology of engage himself in interaction with the material.The leaves. teacher becomes free to play the more productive role2. The opportunity to study the book Format pro of supervision, diagnosing and providing remedial grammed lesson and teaching by conventional instruction to the student. These roles will give a new method of teaching has helped to achieve the ob meaning to the educational life of the student. The jectives of teaching such as knowledge, understand learners role is to acquire the information, understand- ing, application, and skill in connection with the ing and apply it in various situations. But if in this science unit of teaching. process he finds difficulty in understanding a step in3. The programmed instruction material in the form of the programme, the programme cannot help him in any book let were found effective means of teaching way . The step is to be understood by him in consul- science content units of std VI. tation with the teacher. Obviously, programmes cannot4. The programmed lesson found superior to conven replace teacher. tional method of teaching as measured in terms of A teacher would find great difficulty in engag- marks obtained by the students. ing those students who have finished earlier without5. In this study it is found that the conventional disturbing the others. He would also find difficulty in method of teaching is not so effective or superior to the case of student who could not finish even after the the programmed instruction method. period was over. So it is recommended to use the book10) Conclusion: format programme as home assignment or for other The study has revealed that the book format individualized instructional purpose. The book formatprogrammed lesson is a viable means of instruction for programme is a self paced programme, some fast learn-class VI children for teaching a topic like leaves in ers finished it in less time, some took more time. SuchGeneral Science. Similar result have been reported in a programme therefore creates managerial problems.the studies of Meyer (1986) Sharma (1966). The teachers have always lagged behind in It is found the positive effect of both the identifying and implementing teaching strategies whichapproaches of teaching. In this study it appears that facilitate in acquiring different types of educationalthe children were not having sufficient background in objectives. The various provisions in programmedconnection with achievement but after the administra- learning and conventional method of teaching are re-tion of the programmed lesson and teaching in the lated with objectives attainment process. Educationalclassroom they have achieved expected passing crite- practitioners are eager to know which type ofria of examination. The programmed instruction found programmes would be more useful to different types ofsuperior to conventional method of teaching in pro- learners. The experiment gives mythological guide-ducing learning effects as measured in scores on pre- lines for further research in this direction. The generaltest and immediate post-test. implication of the study are that the programmers should11) Implications: know the relative merits and demerits of the programme The present study has shown that the method and the programme developers should provide guideof programmed instruction when implemented by the lines to the teachers. Totally we cannot replace theuse of book format is an effective method of teaching. teacher by programmed instruction but these serve toHowever students have felt need of teacher, in casual solve the problems of indiscipline and verbalism. Thediscussions with students have expressed their opin- conventional method is also useful for achieving the classroom objectives of teaching.R E F E R E N C E1Ahuja, G. C. Group Test of intelligence ,National Psychological Corporation Agra 2001.2Kulkarni P. V. To Prepare Programmed Learning Material and to Study In What Different Ways It Can be Used, Ph.D. Edu. Poona University ,1969.3Meyer, Susan R. "Program in Elementary Arithmetic : Present and Future " in Galanter (Ed). Automatic Teaching The State of Art, Wiley, 1986, P 83-844Mullick S. P. Strategies In Program Instruction , Sunday Press, New Delhi,19855Sharma R. A. , A Study of Achivement in Geography Through Program Instructions ,Department of Psychological Foundations , New Delhi, 19666S. C. E. R. T. Maharashtra , Programmed Learning , General Science, Leaf , Pune ,1994.7Skinner B. F. "The Science of Learning and Art of Teaching , Harward Educational Review, Spring , 1954. 12

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