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  1. 1. 80 RESEARCH ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION International Indexed & Refereed Research Journal, ISSN 0975-3486, (Print), E- ISSN -2320-5482, Aug- Oct, 2013 (Combind) VOL –V * ISSUE- 47-49 Research Paper— English Aug- Oct ,2013 Introduction: Translation has contributed to the develop- ment of all the modern languages. It has played a vital role in constructing their identities. There was a time whentherewasnodemarcationincreativeknowledge activities. Translation was happening with the pur- pose of enlightening the people or sharing the knowl- edge. In some communities, it was a planned con- scious act, whereas in some other communities it was a by-process (it was happening in an unplanned man- ner, it was a part of other processes of civilization). Establishing modern English language and the nation might not be the intention of Geoffrey Chaucer while translating from Italian, French and Latin to English. But his translation has made it. But if we look at the languagemovementsthataregoingonwhereplanned conscious effort is taking place for establishing their identities,translationisbecomingastrongweaponfor them.Itwillbeinterestingtosee translationinaWorld where there is no struggle for identity and compare it to a World where there is power struggle. Does translation differ from the World of harmony, peace to the World of unrest, struggle, and rebellion? What does it do in these two worlds? One silently goes for dissemination of knowledge, and another's immediate need is an instrument for power. What does translation mean to a Hindi speaker who has an identity, a boundary, ample literary and scien- tific materials and what does translation mean to a Bodo speaker who doesn't have much literature and involved in a movement of establishing BODO or Bodoland? For the first one, translation, selection of thetextwillbemore important,andforthesecondone, material whether through translation or any other means is important. In the World of Hindi speaker, what kind of text and whose texts would be translated is a big question, but for the second one who and what doesnotmatter.Translationisusedfordifferentcauses Translation behavior in the Central and Peripheral languages: An Introductory Study *Aditya KumarPanda *Academic Consultant, NationalTranslation Mission Central Institute of Indian Languages, Mysore Translation, a phenomenon, can be observed how it behaves in the central languages and how it behaves in the peripheral languages of the World. Broadly, central languages are the dominant major languages of the world whereas the smaller languages are peripheral. These days, translation happens both in central as well as peripheral languages. This paper will evaluate the behavior of translation in both. A B S T R A C T Key words:central, peripheral, languages, translation inthesetwo worlds.WhatiscentraltotheHindispeaker isperipheraltotheBodospeakerandwhatisperipheral to the Bodo speaker is central to the Hindi speaker.We could see the differences in translation behavior at the peripheral languages and translation at the central lan- guages. Discussion: There is a report from UNESCO (in Index Translationum) which states that the more central a language in the World's translation system, the more types of books are translated from this language. The category of books in English which has already been translated into other languages has 33 categories. Translations from German are found in 28 categories. ThestatisticaldataofflowoftranslationsintheWorld's languageshasbeengiveninIndexTranslationum.The IndexTranslationumstatesthat50to60 %ofallbooks translationsaredonefromEnglish.AfterEnglish,Ger- manandFrenchoccupythecentral positions.Chinese, Japanese and Arabic are major world's languages but still they are in the peripheral position in terms of translation.Russianhadacentralpositiontillthefallof communism.Ideological literaturecanpushalanguage to a central position but it may also cause its fall if the ideology is defeated or suppressed by another. Here "central" means, it is an internationally recognized official language, it has its own territories around the World, literature in ample is available in the language; it has a large number of speakers or users etc. Most of the languages which can be considered central are foundinthe developedcountriesoftheWorld.English occupies a central position in the World's translation system. More number of books are being translated into English and also from English to other languages. Once English was not enjoying this position, it was a receptor,gradually,thankstocolonialismandempirical expansion, industrial revolution it has become a giver language. In the history of major World languages, wecanseethatoncetheywereperipheral.Fromthiswe
  2. 2. 81RESEARCH ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION International Indexed & Refereed Research Journal, ISSN 0975-3486, (Print), E- ISSN -2320-5482, Aug- Oct, 2013 (Combind) VOL –V * ISSUE- 47-49 could generalize that a language to occupy a central position, should first receive from others. Receptivity is a criterion for a language to move towards a central position.Variousactivitiesoftranslationcouldbeseen as the acting forces behind the movement. The activi- ties found in the movement from a peripheral position to a central position and the same found in the move- ment in the central are different and heterogeneous in nature.Moretranslation fromalanguageinthecentral position makes the same language more communica- tive. More translations from English and into English havemadeEnglishaninternationallanguageforcom- municationWorldwide. Translationbehaviorintheperiphery:Where translation is treated as a means to establish one's identity, one's boundary. Here periphery means which is at the primary stage of development, the first at- tempts are being made for establishment.Any kind of text can be selected for translation because here there isaneedtoproducematerialsforenrichingthelanguage and for the establishment of its own territory.Whether there is a market for translation or not, is secondary in the languages that are at the periphery. It is in the movement towards being central. Translation creates a space at the periphery which will concretize the language, which will give a context to the given lan- guage for a function. The more these contexts are created, the more functional the language becomes. One of the major feature of a major language is it has gotmorecontextsforcommunication.Attheperiphery, as we discussed earlier that the languages are in a receptive state. Translation at the periphery is always in need of an empowered patron who can support it financially and politically. The languages which are central are politically and financially well-supported. Translationcreatesliterature,empowersthescript,and facilitates communication in the languages. The lan- guages which are at peripheral state may not have developed scripts, so it is the translation from others develop the same. At the level of periphery, translation is one of the options for empowerment and establishment, whereas in the central languages it is a part of the established systems. Translation takes part in the pro- cess of bringing a small language towards a center where it becomes an established part.AndTranslation Studies, as a discipline, can be seen as an outcome of the development of an established language. Translation in the language that is at the pe- riphery is always in search of a model. In style and formats, rules, it is always imitative. In most of the developed Indian languages, translation has followed mostly Western's style and approaches of translation. And now the other developing Indian languages are following the style and rules of developed Indian lan- guages. Translation also changes the style of the target language. Translation, not only contributes to the knowledge system of a society, it also influences the discourse and the language style of the target language.Translationatthecenter:Herewearetalking about translation in an established system, it has al- ready established its territory, it has ample literature, huge readership. Moreover what Abram says, "The central languages are used in elementary educa- tion and usually also at the level of secondary and highereducation.Theyappearinprint,innewspapers, intextbooksandinfiction,theyarespokenonradio,on cassettes and increasingly on television. Most of them areusedinpolitics,inthebureaucracyandinthecourts. They are usually national languages and quite often the official languages of the state that rules the area."[Abram, 2002]. Now the selection of the text will be conser- vative.Itmayselecttextsthatmaysuittoitsobjectives or it may prefer some author's texts for ideological reasons. Why Marx has been translated into more no of established languages when they are not at the peripherybutatthecenter?Marxcanalsobetranslated at the periphery without having the same reason for which the established might have gone for. The languageatthecenterhasgotmorenumberofcontexts forcommunicationanduse.Marketisofmuchconcern for the central languages. Before translating a book, the publisher of these languages will think about its marketability.Ifabookisabest-sellerinalanguage,the publisherwillimmediatelygoforit. Conclusion: This is an interesting field of enquiry into the behavioroftranslationinmajorlanguagesandin smaller languages. Translation creates a space where a major language communicates to the smaller languages and vice versa. Here translation cannot be seen as a pas- sive actor but it is a force of a contestant who starts to compete andwhoisalreadyinacompetition.Themore theflowoftranslation,themorethelanguagedevelops. 1 Heilbron, Johan.2010, Structure and Dynamics of the World System of Translation. UNESCO 2 Gentzler, Edwin. 2008, Translation and Identity in the Americas.Routledge 3 House, Juliane. English as Lingua Franca and its influence on Discourse Norms in Other Languages. 2010, Translation Today: Trends and Perspectives, GunillaAnderman, Margaret Rogers, eds. Multilingual Matters: England 4 Crystal, David.1997, English as a Global Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 5 Swaan, Abram de.2001, Words of the World: The Global Language System, Polity R E F E R E N C E