INTERNATIONAL INDEXED REFEREED RESEARCH PAPER
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INTERNATIONAL INDEXED REFEREED RESEARCH PAPER INTERNATIONAL INDEXED REFEREED RESEARCH PAPER Document Transcript

  • 75SHODH, SAMIKSHA AUR MULYANKAN International Indexed & Refereed Research Journal, ISSN 0974-2832,(Print) E- ISSN-2320-5474, December,2013, VOL-V * ISSUE- 59 izkphudky esa vFkZ'kkL= 'kCn dk iz;ksx ,d O;kid vFkZ esa gksrk jgk gSA blds vUrxrZ ewyr% jktuhfr'kkL=] /keZ'kkL=] vFkZ'kkL=] dkuwu vkfn dk v/;;u fd;k tkrk FkkA vkpk;Z dkSfVY; ds vuqlkj ^vFkZ^ 'kCn ds nks vFkZ gSa& euq";ksa dh vkthfodk vkSj og i`Foh ftl ij euq"; fuokl djrs gSA ml Hkwfe dh izkfIr ftlesa O;fDr jgrk gS vkSj mldh j{kk ds mik;ksa dks vFkZ'kkL+= dgrs gSaA euq";k.kka o`fRRkjFkZ% euq";orh HkwfefjR;FkZ%] rL;k i`fFkO;k% ikyuksik;% 'kkL=eFkZ'kkL=fefr 1 vkpk;Z dkSfVY; dh n`f"V esa jktuhfr 'kkL= ,d Lora= 'kkL= gS vkSj vkUohf{kdh ¼n'kZu½] =;h ¼osn½ rFkk okrkZ ,ao dkuwu vkfn mldh 'kk[kk,¡ gSaA lEiw.kZ lekt dh j{kk jktuhfr ;k n.M O;oLFkk ls gksrh gS ;k jf{kr iztk gh vius &vius dRrZO; dk ikyu dj ldrh gSA prqoZ.kkZJ;ks yksdks jktk n.Msu ikfyr%A Lo/keZdekZfHkjrks orZrs Los"kq os'e"kqAA 2 dkSfVYkh; vFkZ'kkL= dk jpf;rk dkSfVYkh; vFkZ'kkL= ds jpf;rk ds lEcU/k esa fo}kukas esa erSD; ugh jgk gSA dqN fons'kh fo}kukas us ;gka rd dg Mkyk fd dkSfVY; ,d dfYir uke gS] tks dsoy jktuhfrd ijEijkvkas dk izrhd gSA vFkZ'kkL= ,d tkyh xzUFk gS ftlesa jktuhfr esa iz;qDr diVkas ] feF;kpkjksa] "kM;U=kas ,ao ;qfDr;ksa dk lw{e foospu gqvk gS] fdUrq fujUrj pyrh jgh vkykspuk &izR;kykspuk i+)fr ls fonsf'k;ksa dk mDr eUrO; 'kh?kz gh O;FkZ fl) gks x;kA 1905 bZ+ esa MkW +vkj+ jke'kkL=h us dkSfVYkh; vFkZ'kkL= dk vUos"k.k fd;k vkSj o"kksZ ds vFkd ifjJe ds ckn 1909 bZ+ esa izdkf'kr djk dj Hkkjrh; jktuhfr ijEijk ds bfrgkl esa ,d peRdkj lk mRiUu dj fn;kA MkW +jke'kkL=h dh izLFkkiuk Fkh fd vFkZ'kkL= ds ewy jpf;rk dkSfVY; gh gSA fgyczkUV] ;kdksch rFkk foalsUV fLeFk izHk`fr fo}kuksa us MkW +jke'kkL=h dh izLFkkiuk dk lqn`< vk/kkjkas ij leZFku fd;kA fdUrq vFkZ'kkL= ds jpf;rk ds fo"k; esa fookn cuk gh jgkAMkW + vkWVksLVkbu us ^esxLFkuht ,.M dkSfVY;^ uked viuh d`fr esa iqu% vFkZ'kkL= ds jpf;rk ds :Ik esa dkSfVY; dh izkekf.kdrk esa lansg O;Dr fd;kA mudk dguk Fkk fd dkSfVY; dksbZ okLrfod uke ugh gS];g ,d dfYir uke gS] D;ksafd esxLFkuht vkSj dkSfVY; esa Ik;kZIr fojks/k gSA esxLFkuht tks pUnzxqIr ekS;Z dsnjckj esa jktnwr Fkk] us u rks dkSfVY; dk mYys[k gh fd;k gSA vr% dkSfVY; uke Hkh dfYir gS vkSj vFkZ'kkL= Hkh ckn dh jpuk gS A vkWVksLVkbu ds bl er dk leZFku MkW + tkSyh us vius xzUFk ^vFkZ'kkL= vkWQ dkSfVY;^ esa fd;k gS A MkW + foaVjfUkRt] MkW + dhFk vkfn us Hkh MkW + tkSyh ds rdksZ dks izkekf.kd crkrs gq, ,oa mudk leZFku djrs gq, vFkZ'kkL= dks ,d tkrh; jpuk crk;kA MkW + ds + ih + tk;loky us viuh d`fr ^fgUnw ikWfyVh^ esa lqn`< vk/kkjksa ij bl ckr dks fl) fd;k fd vFkZ'kkL= ,d izekf.kd jpuk gS rFkk dkSfVY; dksbZ dfYirO;fDr u gksdj lezkV pUnzxqIr ekS;Z dk eU=h gh gSA dkSfVY; dk le; bZ +iw +400 gSSA t;nso fo|kyadkjus Hkh bl ckr dk leFkZu fd;k fd dkSfVY; pUnzxqIr ekS;Z dk eU=h Fkk vkSj mlh dh jpuk ;g vFkZ'kkL= gSA fdUrq pUnzxqIr ekS;Z dk le; 325&273 bZ +iw + ekuk gS rFkk dkSfVY; }kjk vFkZ'kkL= dh jpuk dk le; bZ +iw + 300 ds vkl&ikl ekuk gSA 3 vFkZ'kkL= ds vfUre 'yksd esa Hkh bldk leFkZu fd;k x;k gS ;su 'kkL=a p 'kL=a p uUnjktxrk p Hkw%A ve"ksZ.kks˜qrkU;k'kq rsu 'kkL=fean d`re~AA 4 vFkkZr ftlus 'kkL=] 'kL=] vkSj uUnjkt }kjk 'kkflr i`Foh dk ,d lkFk m)kj fd;k] mlus gh bldh jpuk dhA bl 'yksd ls Hkh ;g fl) gksrk gS fd vFkZ'kkL= dk iz.ksrk uUnjkt dh lRrk dk uk'kd rFkk jktuhfr dk euhf"k FkkA bfrgkldkjks ds vuqlkj pUnzxqIr ekS;Z ds ea=h us gh uUnjkt dh lRRkk iyV dj ekS;Z lkezkT; dh LFkkiuk dh FkhA vr% ;g fu%Llansg dgk tk ldrk gS fd pUnzxqIr dk egkekR; gh vFkZ'kkL= dk jpf;rk gSA pUnzxqIr ekS;Z ds egkekR; dk izpfyr uke pk.kD; gSA fo".kq'kekZ us iaprU= esa uhfr'kkL= ds iz.ksrkvksa ds :Ik esa ftu fo}kuksa dks ueLdkj fd;k gS] muesa pk.kD; Hkh ,d gS& euos okpLir;s ikjk'kjk; llqrk;A pk.kD;k; p fonq"ks ueks?Lrq u;'kkL= dr`ZH;%AA 5 vkpk;Z dkeUnd us uhfrlkj esa dkSfVY; iz.khr vFkZ'kkL= dks viuss xzaFk dk vk/kkj crkrs gq, dgk gS fd vkius uUnoa'k dk uk'k djds ekS;Z oa'k dks lRrk ij izfr"Bkfir fd;k Fkk rnuUrj mls vFkZ'kkL=dkj dk nwljk uke December ,2013 'kks/k i= jes'k pUn lSuh ** MkW- ,u- ds- lsBh dkSfVYkh; vFkZ'kkL= dk jpf;rk * 'kks/kkFkhZ] fl?kkfu;k fo'Okfo|ky;] ipsjh ckjh] >qU>quq ** izkpk;Z] efgyk egkfo|ky;] vLirky jksM+] ckanhdqbZ
  • 76 SHODH, SAMIKSHA AUR MULYANKAN International Indexed & Refereed Research Journal, ISSN 0974-2832,(Print) E- ISSN-2320-5474, December,2013, VOL-V * ISSUE- 59 fo".kqxqIr ekurs gq, mUgs ueLdkj fd;k gS& uhfr'kkL=ke`ra /khekuFkZ'kkL=egksn/ksA leqn~/k`rs ueLrLeS fo".kqxqIrk; os/klsAA 6 vU; vusd LFkyksa ij Hkh fo".kqxqIr] dkSfVY; vkSj pk.kD; ;s rhu uke gekjs le{k gSaA Jh x.kifr 'kkL=h ds vuqlkj vFkZ'kkL= ds dRrkZ dks dqfVyoa'k esa mRiUu gksus ds dkj.k dkSfVY; dgk x;kA fo".kqxqIr mldk ekrk&firk }kjk iznr okLrfod uke FkkA dqN fo}kuks dh ekU;rk gS fd og p.kd dk iq= gksus ls pk.kD; rFkk dqfVy jktuhfrK gksus ls dkSfVY; dgyk;kA tks dqN Hkh gks ijUrq bruk rks fu'p; gS fd 1- dkSfVY; vFkZ'kkL= & vf/kdj.k 15] v/;k; 1 2- dkSfVY; vFkZ'kkL=& vf/kdj.k 1] v/;k; 4 3- vFkZ'kkL= ,.M dkSfVY;& i`- 1&147 4- dkSfVY; vFkZ'kkL=& vfUre 'yksd 5- i¥p~rU= dFkkeq[k 2 6- dkeUndh; uhfrlkj dkSfVY;]pk.kD; vkSj fo".kqxqIr ,d gh O;fDr ds uke gSa rFkk fo".kqxqIr gh mldk ekrk&firk }kjk iznr okLrfod uke gSA vFkZ'kkL= dkSfVY; dh gh jpuk gSA fofHkUu izek.kksa ls ;g fl) gks pqdk gSA vFkZ'kkL= esa m'kuk] vkEHk] dkS.kinUr] ikjk'kj] ckgqnUrhiq=] c`gLifr] Hkkj}kt] euq] fi'kqu] okrO;kf/k] fo'kkyk{k vkfn iwokZpk;ksZ ds erks dh leh{kk djds muds jgL; dks vius vuqHko dh dlkSVh ij j[kdj laxzghr fd;k x;k gSA vr% bldh izkekf.kdrk vlfUnX/k gS dkSfVYkh; vFkZ'kkL= dkSfVY; dh jktuhfrd cqf)eRrk dk vuqie fun'kZu gSSA dkSfVY; ,d dkYifud uke gksdj bfrgkl lfEer izkekf.kd uke gS rFkk vFkZ'kkL= ewyr% dkSfVY; dh gh d`fr gSA