• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
INTERNATIONAL INDEXED REFEREED RESEARCH PAPER
 

INTERNATIONAL INDEXED REFEREED RESEARCH PAPER

on

  • 140 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
140
Views on SlideShare
140
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    INTERNATIONAL INDEXED REFEREED RESEARCH PAPER INTERNATIONAL INDEXED REFEREED RESEARCH PAPER Document Transcript

    • 72 SHODH, SAMIKSHA AUR MULYANKAN International Indexed & Refereed Research Journal, ISSN 0974-2832,(Print) E- ISSN-2320-5474, December,2013, VOL-V * ISSUE- 59 ns'k ds ifjn`'; esa jktLFkku dk lkaLd`frd oSHko cstksM+ gSA R;kx vkSj ohjrk dh bl Hkwfe dks ohj izlwrk dgk tkrk gSA R;kxe;h yyukvksa] lkglh ohjks vkSj xfjeke;h laLd`fr ds bl izns'k dk ykSfdd lkfgR; vuwBk gSA bl e# izns'k dh yksd xkFkk,] yksdxhr] yksdlaxhr] yksdukV~;] yksd] dyk] thou 'kSyh fujkyh vkSj thoar gSA fopkj.kh; iz'u ;g gS fd vkt dh miHkksDrkoknh laLd`fr esa yksd laLd`fr dk vigj.k gks jgk gSA mls viuh tM+ksa ls m[kkM+k tk jgk gSA ,slh fLFkfr esa yksd 'kSyh dh vfLerk dks dSls vkSj dc rd cpk ik;saxs] bl ij fopkj gksuk pkfg,A ckyd ls ysdj o`) rd euksjatudkfj.kh yksd&dFkk viuh thoar 'kfDr ds ifj.kkeLo:i ekuo dh vkfne voLFkk ls vkt rd loZ lk/kkj.k ds daB dk gkj cuh gqbZ gSA yksd dFkk ekuo eukseksnu dk izeq[k lk/ku jgh gSA bl eukseksnu ds lkFk & lkFk tu & thou dh lkFkZd vfHkO;fDr rFkk uSfrd ewY;ksa dh LFkkiuk ds dkj.k blh mikns;rk vkSj c<+ tkrh gSA bu yksd dFkkvksa esa yksd thou dh l'kDr vfHkO;fDr gqbZ gSA [kku & iku] jhfr&fjokt] os'k&Hkw"kk] yksd&xhr vkfn lc dqN lekfgr gSA buds vkjEHk djus dk <ax] lekIr djus dk fu;e vkSj o.kZu djus dh izFkk Lo;e dh viuh gSA bu yksd dFkkvksa esa nks gh ik= izeq[k gksrs gS ,d dFkk dgus okyk rFkk nwljk ^^gw¡dkj nsus okyk**A gw¡dkj esa ^^gw¡w** /ofu dk mPpkj.k fd;k tkrk gSA ;Fkk& ^^fdlh gw¡dkj fcu ckr] fdlkS fear fcgw.kkS lkFk fdlh pkan fogw.kh jkr] fdlkS daMwck fcu Hkkr** blh izdkj& ^^ckr lkaph Hkyh] iksFkh ckaph Hkyh nsg lkth Hkyh] cgw ykth Hkyh(** bu yksd dFkkvksa esa f=;k pfj= ,oa ukjh pkrq;Z lEcE/kh dFkk,] vn~Hkqr d`R;ksa ls lEcaf/kr dFkk,] vfr izkd`frd rÙoksa ls ;qDr dFkk,] liZ dFkk,] pksj Bx dFkk,a vkfn ls lEcfEcr dFkk,a vkfn buesa lekfgr gksrh gSA Jh lw;Zdj.k ikfjd] dUgS;k yky lgy] fot;nku nsFkk] vxjpan ukgVk] y{eh dqekjh pw.Mkor] Hkaoj yky ukgVk tSls fo}kuksa us dFkk lkfgR; dh J`a[kyk dks vkxs c<k;k gSA bl izdkj bl 'kks/k i= esa jktLFkkuh yksd dFkkvksa dk fo'kn foospu dj bl ckr dks izdkf'kr djus dk iz;kl fd;k December ,2013 'kks/k i= & fgUnh MkW- lqjs'k flag jkBkSM+ jktLFkkuh yksd dFkkvksa esa fpf=r ukjh lekt * lgk;d vkpk;Z] fgUnh foHkkx] jktLFkku dsUnzh; fo'Okfo|ky;] cUnjflUnjh] vtesj] jktLFkku tk;sxk fd yksd&thou ls tqM+h gqbZ ;s dFkk,a ekuo&thou ds euksfouksn ls lacaf/kr gh ugha gS] vifrq Kku dk vFkkg HkaMkj Hkh buesa lekfgr gSA yksddFkk,¡ yksd laLd`fr dh JqfrdFkk,¡ gksrh gSA bu yksd dFkkvksa esa yksd ekul ds fofo/k :i rFkk yksd laLd`fr dk Lo:i vfHkO;Dr gksrk gSA ;s yksd dFkk,¡ ekuo ds vuqjatu dk izeq[k lk/ku gSaA MkW- oklqnso'kj.k vxzoky ds vuqlkj ^^bu yksd dFkkvksa esa thou dk leLr foLrkj vafdr gqvk gSA i'kq&i{kh] xzke&tuinksa ds L=h&iq#"k vkSj uxjksa ds jktk vkSj ea=h lcds fy, dgkuh esa Lokxr dk Hkko gSA oLrqr% yksddFkk lcdks viuk ekudj thfor jgrh gSA mlds fy, R;kT; dqN ugha gSA uxj] xzke] /kuh vkSj fu/kZu ds tks oxZ geus lc dfYir dj fy;s gSa vkSj ftuds rkieku ls lkfgR; Hkh vNwrk ugha cpk gS] mlds fy, yksd&lkfgR; esa vkSj yksd dFkkvksa esa Hkh LFkku ugha gSA** bl izdkj mi;qZDr ifjHkk"kk ls Li"V gS fd yksd dFkk dh fo"k; O;kidrk vU; lkfgfR;d fo/kkvksa ls vis{kr;k vf/kd gSA MkW- lR;sUnz ds vuqlkj ^^yksd dFkk esa izpfyr vkSj ijEijk ls pyh vkus okyh ewyr% ekSf[kd :i esa izpfyr dFkk,¡ yksd dFkk,¡ dgykrh gSaA** MkW- lR;sUnz us Hkh yksd dks gh izkFkfedrk nh gS vkSj bl yksd esa vuqjatu djus okyh dFkkvksa dks yksd dFkkvksa esa lfEefyr fd;k gSA MkW- gtkjh izlkn f}osnh ds vuqlkj ^^yksd dFkkvksa dk v/;;u dbZ n`f"V;ksa ls egRoiw.kZ gSA ;|fi bl lcds ckjsa esa fo}kuksa esa erHksn jgk gSA rFkkfi yksd dFkk 'kCn cgqyka'k esa yksd izpfyr mu dFkkudksa ds fy, O;oâr gksrk jgk gS tks ekSf[kd ;k fyf[kr ijEijk ls Øe'k% ,d ih<+h ls nwljh ih<+h dks izkIr gksrs gSaA** MkW- jkey[ku eh.kk ds vuqlkj ^^yksd dFkk,¡ yksd laLdfr dh Jqfrdk,¡ gksrh gSA ;s yksd laLd`fr dh lajf{kdk gksrh gSA bUgas euksjatu ,oa mYykl ls lqukus dh ijEijk feyrh gSA buesa tgk¡ yksd ekufld rRoksa dk fuokZg gksrk gS] ogha yksd laLd`fr ds leLr vk;ke eq[kfjr gksrs gSaA** MkW- lksgunku pkj.k ds vuqlkj & ^^vkfne ekuo us viuh leLr Hkkouk,¡ lkjs fopkj jhfr&fjokt /kkj.kk;sa vkfn dh vfHkO;fDr yksd&dFkk ds ek/;e ls dh gSA** bl izdkj bu yksd dFkkvksa dh fo"k; O;kidrk ds dkj.k
    • 73SHODH, SAMIKSHA AUR MULYANKAN International Indexed & Refereed Research Journal, ISSN 0974-2832,(Print) E- ISSN-2320-5474, December,2013, VOL-V * ISSUE- 59 buesa vusd izdkj ds ln~ pfj=ksa vkSj nq'pfj=ksa dks mHkkjdj Hkkoh ih<+h ds le{k izLrqr fd;k gSA buesa O;fDr ds O;fDrRo dks ugha oju~ pfj=ksa dsk egÙkk nh x;h gSA D;ksafd pfj= gh lkekftd /kjksgj gSaA ;s cus cuk;s pfj= gh O;fDr ds lkFk tksM+s tkrs gSaA O;fDrRo ,d ds fy, vuqdj.kh; vkSj nwljs ds fy, R;kT; Hkh fl) gks ldrk gSA yksd dFkkvksa esa ik= rks vusd gksrs gSa] ijUrq laLd`fr dk fuokZg~u fof'k"V ik= gh djrs gSaA bu dFkkvksa esa ekuoh; ik=ksa dh egRoiw.kZ Hkwfedk gksrh gSA jktLFkkuh yksd dFkkvkssa esa iq#"k ik=ksa ds lkFk&lkFk da/ks ls da/kk feykdj pyus okyh fL=;ksa dk LokHkkfod fp=.k feyrk gSA ^^bl vapy dh yksd dFkkvksa esa fL+=;k¡ fdlh Hkh oxZ vFkok tkfr dh D;ksa u gks] muds LoHkko esa ljyrk] nwljs ds fgr dh lkspus ds dkj.k ekuoksfpr lgt O;ogkj rFkk nwljksa dks viuk cuk ysus dk xq.k fn[kkbZ nsrk gSA** bu yksd dFkkvksa esa fu"diV ,oa R;kx] izse vkSj lân;rk dh Hkkouk gksrh gS rks ogha funZ;h O;ogkj Hkh n`f"Vxr gksrk gSA bu dFkkvksa esa rRdkyhu lkekftd ,oa lkaLd`frd fLFkfr;ksa dk cks/k gksrk gSA ^^vFk ckr lkaxS iaokj jh fy[;rs** esa of.kZr ukjh&ik= fo'ks"k :i ls iz'kaluh; gSA vkpUnu dh iq=h ltuk dk fookg lkaxjk; ls gqvk FkkA ngst esa nh x;h ^cwj* uked ?kksM+h dh ltuk }kjk ifr ds le{k c<+k p<+kdj iz'kalk dh tkrh gSA bu yksd dFkkvksa esa jktiwrh 'kkS;Z dh 'kkuks&'kkSdr dh Ny iziape;h jktuhfr dh vusd ?kVuk,¡ Hkjh iM+h gSaA ^ckr ukUgs ck?kSySjh* dk ik= ck?ksyk jktk dh lsuk dks ekjdj jkfu;ksa dks cfgu Lo:i le>rk gSA ^^rkgjka ewGjkt uS cqyk; vj jkt iwNh;kS**A rkgjka ewGjkt dg~;ks& ^gwa ekaeka uS ekjhl*A rkgjka jkt cksgr jkth gqokS& tks ekjs NS rks liwrA* rkgjka okrka elyr dj.k ykxkA rkgjka ewGjkt jh eka nhBh&tks vkt ,s&cki&csVk vkyksp djs lq lgh t dkabZ Egkjk ihgjGk dh ckr djS NSA rkgjka ewGjkt jh eka ix jh tsgM+ Å¡ph dj vksys vkc ÅHkh jghA** bu yksd dFkkvksa esa vkSjrksa dh prqjkbZ Hkjh iM+h gSA L=h vius e`nqy LoHkko ls vlEHko dk;Z Hkh djok ysrh gSA ^^Fks nksbZ t.kka ukeh /kkMsr gks] ukeh&ukeh txka pksjh djh gS] ?k.kk gqfl;kj gksA i.k feu[k dksbZ vsMs+ dke uh djS th lwa nqfu;ka eSa ch jks uke OgS tkoS tBS rkabZ dkabZ uhA dksbZ blks dke ds nqfu;ka tk.kSA uke jSos dS xhrM+k dS HkhrM+k**A bl izdkj bl yksd dFkk esa [khaoks vkSj chatks ls [khaok dh iRuh vlEHko dk;Z Hkh djok ysrh gSA tc [khaok ,d dk;Z dks dj pqdrk gS rks nwljs dk;Z dh ;kstuk cukdj og dk;Z esa layXu j[krh gSA L=h dh bTtr vkc: gh mldk xguk gSA vius ifr ds vfrfjDr fdlh vksj ds ckjs esa LoIu esa Hkh ugha lksp ldrhA ifrozr /keZ dk ikyu djrh gSA ^^vf}rh; :iorh tlek vksM iRuh FkhA /kkjk ujs'k Hkkst ml ij eqX/k gks x;kA mls vusd izyksHku fn[kk;s x;s ijUrq mlus ifr izse R;kx dks lnSo Js;Ldj le>k tlek dh izsekfXu esa tyus okys jktk dh mfDr fdruh ekfeZd gS& lqf.k tleyA jktk dgS] eSa rks ykfxnhBA thoka rka fojpka ugha] tkf.k diM+s ethBA** ij tlek dk uhfr dFku rks vkSj Hkh mi;qDr izrhr gksrk gS& jktk! jhr u NkafMtS] leoM+ djkS lusgA leoM+ lwa lq[k ik;tS] uhpka dsgks usgAA jktLFkku esa bu ukfj;ksa dh lr dh ijh{kk Hkh yh xbZ gSA ^lr jh ikj[k* yksd dFkk esa lkg viuh iRuh lkg.kh dks blfy, vdsyh NksM+dj izns'k ugha tkrk fd tekuk [kjkc gS& ^Egwa ijks tkowaA ikNhuw ?kj esa vkSj nwtks feu[kuhaA vdsyh lkg.khA datk.kka dkabZ uh da:A nqfu;k [kksVh] lkg.kh jh ckYkh ÅejA** bl dgkuh esa jktk lkg.kh ds lr dh ijh{kk Hkh ysr gS og mls viuh jkuh cukuk pkgrk gS] ijUrq lkg.kh dgrh gS** vki Hkxoku yksx rkGk esa tM+] Mks<+h iS igjk yxk;] yqxk;ka jks lhG j[kkoks] jktk oks lhG esa va/kkjk esa vsdGk cSB] lhG jk[ks oks lhG gSA ljhj jk lhG lw iSGka eu jks lhG gSA** bu yksd dFkkvksa esa L=h dh cqf)efr gksus ds lkFk&lkFk prqjkbZ ds Hkh fnXn'kZu gksrs gSA lkg.kh vius lrhRo dks cpkus ds fy, ukbZ ds lkeus ikrj dks Hkstrh gSA& ^^Egwa the.k rS;kj d#aA Fkwa nksM+ tk fHkazxyh ikrj us cqyk; ykA dhtS fjfi;k iwjk nl nsoawykA xkck&yrk iSgj vBs vkos tkA** fHkazxyh Hkh mlds fo'okl esa iwjk mrjrh gSA vkSj mls fo'okl fnykrh gS& lkg.kh th fparkbZ er djks FkkaA lksoks vkjke lw [kwaVh rka.kA** fHkazxyh rks dk<+ ?kwa?kVks] ys gkFk FkkG] j.kd&>.kd djrh thekok pkyh nks fi;kGk esa xSyks dj [kqokl th us iks<+k; nh?kkA** bu yksd dFkkvksa esa L=h dh pkykdh dh vfHkO;fDr Hkh gqbZ gS& ^^Hkkx esa fy[kh tks feyh** yksddFkk esa uk;.k pkykdh ls daojh ds uk[kwu ys tkrh gSA ^^uk;.k cSB u ekFkks xwafFk;ksa gkFkk ixka jk u[k dkVok ykxh] jktk jh daojh cksyh ^^Egkjk u[k+ vBS bZ EgkuSa lwi tktksA** Egkus u[kka us ys tk; dkabZ dj.kks gS** uk;.k ;wa dS; ,d&,d u[kus drj nks&nks VqdM+ks dha/kk ,d&,d VqdM+ks rks iqM+dh esa cka/kw dkapGh esa ?kkG Gh/kksA ,d&,d VqdM+ks gks tks chl bZ u[k fx.kk; daojh us lwaixhA** bl izdkj bl vapy dh yksd dFkkvksa esa fL=;k¡ fdlh Hkh oxZ vFkok tkfr dh D;ksa u gks muds LoHkko esa ljyrk] nwljksa ds fgr dh lkspus ds dkj.k ekuoksfpr lgt O;ogkj rFkk nwljksa dks viuk cuk ysus dk xq.k fn[kkbZ nsrk gSA tgk¡ bu yksd dFkkvksa esa fu"diV ,oa R;kx] izse vkSj lân;rk dh Hkkouk gksrh gS] ogha ij dqN ,slh fL=;ksa dk mYys[k Hkh bu yksd dFkkvksa esa fey tkrk gSA ftUgksaus funZ;h O;ogkj Hkh fd;k gSA ^Hkwrk jh Hkwr.kh* uked yksd dFkk esa tkV.kh
    • 74 SHODH, SAMIKSHA AUR MULYANKAN International Indexed & Refereed Research Journal, ISSN 0974-2832,(Print) E- ISSN-2320-5474, December,2013, VOL-V * ISSUE- 59 dk O;ogkj funZ;h gSA ^^,d tkV dh yqxkbZ iwjh djxlkA m.k rks use c.kk; jkf[k;ksA jksthuk tkV js ekFkk esa bDdhl twrk fx.k u Bksd.kkA fnu mxrkabZ lclwa iSGks dke rks twrk ekj.kkA idM+ ckaofV;ks QGlk jk [kw.kka dusa ÅHkks jk[k fx.k u tjck esYgs ,d&nks&rhu --- iwjk bDdhlA tkV ckiM+ks [kkorks** bruk gh ugha bl izdkj dh vkSjrksa ls ekuo gh ugha Hkwr Hkh Hkkx [kM+s gksrs gSaA bl izdkj bu yksd dFkkvksa esa ukjh ds fofo/k i{kksa dk fp=kadu ls jktLFkkuh ukfj;ksa dh eukso`fÙk;ksa dk mn~?kkVu gks tkrk gSA ukfj;ksa ds 'khy LoHkko esa dkseyrk] ekrk dh lh lân;rk] jkuh ds ân; dk cM+Iiu] LokFkZoknh eukso`fÙk;k¡ Ny] diV vkSj jkSnz :i dk fp=.k Hkh bu yksd dFkkvksa esa gqvk gSA ukfj;ksa ds ikjLifjd vUr}ZU} lkSfr;k&Mkg dk Hkh fp=.k izeq[krk ls eq[kfjr gqvk gSA 1 MkW- oklqnso 'kj.k vxzoky& ^vktdy* dk ykd dFkkad ebZ 1954] i`- 9 2 MkW- lR;sUnz& ^fganh lkfgR; dks'k* ¼Hkkx&izFke½ i2- 748 3 MkW- gtkjhizlkn f}osnh& ^vktdy* dk yksd dFkkad] ebZ 1954] i`- 12 4 MkW- jkey[ku eh.kk& ^yksd dFkkvksa esa O;kIr Hkkjrh; laLd`fr lekt Hkk"kk oSKkfud v/;;u*] Hkwfedk ls 5 MkW- lksgunkupj.k& ^jktLFkkuh yksd lkfgR; dk lS)kfUrd foospuk i`- 127 6 MkW- jkey[ku eh.kk& ^yksd dFkkvksa esa O;kIr Hkkjrh; laLd`fr lekt Hkk"kk oSKkfud v/;;u*] i`- 40 7 jkt&cht jh ckr ¼gLrfyf[kr izfr v-t-xz- chdkusj½ 8 jkuh y{eh dqekjh pw.Mkor& ^^[khaoks chatks jktLFkkuh yksd xkFkk**&i`- 3 9 ujksÙke Lokeh& jktLFkkuh ckrka] Hkkx& izFke] i`- 28 10 jkuh y{eh dqekjh pw.Mkor& ^^lr jh ikj[k jktLFkkuh yksd xkFkk**&i`- 51 11 jkuh y{eh dqekjh pw.Mkor& ^^lr jh ikj[k jktLFkkuh yksd xkFkk**&i`- 60 12 jkuh y{eh dqekjh pw.Mkor& ^^lr jh ikj[k jktLFkkuh yksd xkFkk**&i`- 54 13 jkuh y{eh dqekjh pw.Mkor& ^^lr jh ikj[k jktLFkkuh yksd xkFkk**&i`- 56 14 jkuh y{eh dqekjh pw.Mkor& ^^lr jh ikj[k jktLFkkuh yksd xkFkk**&i`- 46 15 jkuh y{eh dqekjh pw.Mkor& ^^Hkwrka jh Hkwr.kh jktLFkkuh yksd xkFkk**&i`- 65