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INTERNATIONAL INDEXED REFEREED RESEARCH PAPER
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INTERNATIONAL INDEXED REFEREED RESEARCH PAPER

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  • 1. 67SHODH, SAMIKSHA AUR MULYANKAN International Indexed & Refereed Research Journal, ISSN 0974-2832,(Print) E- ISSN-2320-5474, December,2013, VOL-V * ISSUE- 59 vkt jktuhfr thou ds izR;sd {ks= esa izos'k dj pqdh gS] rks dksbZ Hkh lPpk vkSj ekSfyd ys[kd jktuhfr jfgr ys[ku dSls dj ldrk gSA og vius lekt] bfrgkl vkSj jktuSfrd] vkfFkZd ifjfLFkfr;ksa dh mit gksrk gSA**1 cgqr lkjs lkfgR;dkjksa us vius lkfgR; esa jktuhfr dk fp=.k fd;k gS] muesa ls e`nqyk xxZ th Hkh ,d lkfgR;dkj gS ftuds miU;klksa esa jktuhfrd ds c<+rs izHkko dk fp=.k ns[kus dks feyrk gSA ^^dk'khukFk flag ds vuqlkj tks ys[kd jktuhfr jfgr ys[ku dh ckr djrs gSa] os eq[; njokts ls ugha pkj nhokjh ;k xqly [kkuk Qkandj vkids dejs esa ?kqlrs gS vkSj dHkh&dHkh rks viuh gh eklwfe;r ds lkFk viuh iaxr esa vk tkrs gS vkSj Hksfn;k dk dke djrs gSA**2 dbZ o"kksZa ls ns[kk tk, vkt rd Hkh ns'k dh turk >wBs oknksa rFkk izyksHkuksa ls xqejkg gksrh jgh gS] dbZ usrkvksa }kjk >wB cksydj turk dks Bxk Hkh tk jgk gSA ^^fdlh Hkh jk"Vª dh 'kfDr ,oa fLFkjrk ds fy, mlesa fuokl djus okyh iztk ds thou Lrj ds fy,] fodkl ds fy,] jktuhfrd okrkoj.k ds fy, rks mlesa jktuhfrd dk izHkko gksuk vko';d gSA jktuhfr esa oSls vxj ns[kk tk, rks O;fDrxr LokFkksZa dh iwfrZ rFkk viuh in izfr"Bk dh Nykax esa ,d c<+ksRrjh jgrh gSA**3 izkjaHk esa vke turk dk vkd"kZ.k rks ns[krs gh curk gS vkSj usrk yksx mls vf/kd vkd"kZd cukrs gSaA 1- mlds fgLls dh /kwi e`nqyk xxZ dk ;g izFke miU;kl ^vUrjkZ"Vªh;* efgyk o"kZ dh ?kks"k.kk ds ckn lu 1975 esa NikA cgqr lkjs leh{kdksa us bls ^efgyk o"kZ dk izFke miU;kl crk;k gSA* bl miU;kl ij jktuhfr ds izHkko dk fp=.k esa fn[kkbZ nsrk gSA ^^e/kqdj vkSj euh"k tc nksuksa oksfVax djus ds fy, fudyrs gS rc e/kqdj euh"kk dks dgrk gS& ^^izksQslj gz;qe rks ljy iz—fr ds vkneh gS] cw<+s Hkh gks pys gS irk gS] euh"kk vkt D;k tks'kks[kjks'k ds lkFk ckrsa dj jgs Fks] vPN /kwi fudyh] ekgkSy vkjkensg FkkA eSa mUgsa cryk jgk Fkk fd vxj gekjs jktuhfrK Hkh mudh rjg ¼izksQslj gz;qe½ lkspus yxs rks ge fdruh tYnh izxfr dj ldrs gSA**4 vFkkZr e`nqyk xxZ ds ik=ksa ij Hkh jktuhfr dk izHkko fn[kkbZ nsrk gSA le; ds vuqlkj ls dHkh lkfgR;dkj] rks dHkh Nk=ksa dks rks mlesa jktuhfr esa etcwjh ls f'kdk;r djuh gh iM+rh gS bldk gh ,d mnkgj.k e`nqyk xxZ th us viuk miU;kl ^mlds fgLls dh /kwi* esa fd;k December ,2013 'kks/k i= & fgUnh MkW- larks"k lksyads e`nqyk xxZ ds miU;klksa esa jktuhfr dk c<+rk izHkko * fgUnh foHkkx] fo'Okfo|ky;] foØe fo'Okfo|ky;] mTTkSu gSA&^^vkt gekjs Nk= iwjh fnYyh dh nqdkuksa ij rSukr gS] ;g ns[kus ds fy, fd jkstejkZ dh phtsa Bhd nkeksa ij fcd jgh gS ;k ughaA fQj ge lc tqywl ysdj yksdlHkk tk jgs gSA ;g yksdlHkk Hkax djuh gksxh] ij vc u ekStwnk Hkz"V O;oLFkk dks cnkZ'r fd;k tk;sxk vkSj u bl Hkz"V pquko iz.kkyh dksA**5 2- oa'kt e`nqyk xxZ th dk ;g nwljk miU;kl ^oa'kt* lu 1978 esa us'kuy ifCyf'kax gkÅl ls izdkf'kr gqvk gSA bl miU;kl esa e`nqyk xxZ th us vaxzstksa dh jktuhfr dk fp=.k fd;k gSA vFkkZr vktknh ds rqjar igys dh O;oLFkk ls xqtjrh gqbZ ,d vaxzst fopkjksa ds] Hkkjrh; ifjokj dh dgkuh gSA jktuhfr ds c<+rs izHkko dk fp=.k e`nqyk xxZ th us vius bl ^oa'kt* miU;kl esa lq/khj uked uk;d ds }kjk vPNh rjg ls fd;k gS& ^^lq/khj nloha Qsy gksus ds ckn muds firkth tt lkgc vius vki dks gh dgrs jgrs gS] og lh/kk tkdj jk"Vªh; Lo;a lsod la?k dk lsod cu tk,xkA foØe HkkbZ dh rjgA fgUnqLrku Hkys gh vktkn gks pqdk gks lq/khj dh vktknh dh yM+kbZ vHkh tkjh gS] firkth dks ukjkt djds lq/khj th us jk"Vªh; Lo;aa lsod la?k dh 'kk[kkvksa eas tkuk 'kq# dj fn;kA fgUnq Hkkjr dh LFkkiuk] eqlyekuksa ds izfr ?k`.kk] la?k dks yydkjrs O;k[;kuksa dks lqudj lq/khj dk eu fopfyr gks tkrk gS vkSj ,dne QM+drh vkokt esa dgrk gS fd & ^^flQZ ftUuk vkSj xka/kh dh otg ls ikfdLrku ugha cukA**6 ,d ckr rks ;gk¡ ij Li"V #i ls dgh tk ldrh gS fd] turk dks rks bl jktuhfr ls cgqr vk'kk,¡] bPNk,¡ jgrh gSA ij ;g ckr blesa ;g t#jh dgh tkrh gS] lq/khj dk vkj- ,l-,l- esa lnL;rk Lohdkjus ds fy, ,d vkSj dkj.k gS] muds firkth vaxzsft;r ds fopkj vkSj lq/khj ds cycqrs ij viuk f'kuk rkus jgrs FksA vf/kdkj ls gh lcdks Mjkrs jgrs FksA bu dBksj g`n;h vaxzstksa dks Hkxkus ds fy, vkj-,l-,l- gh lqxe jkLrk ekudj og la?k esa Hkkx ysrk gSA pksjh ls viuh cgu jsok ds ikl ls #i;s ys tkdj la?k ds v/;{k dks ns nsrk gSA jktuhfr esa izHkko ds varxZr ;g dgk tkrk gS fd] ^^,sls yksdra= esa jktuhfr izHkkfor jkT; lekIr gks tkrk gSA ;gh ls oxZghu lekt dh dYiuk vkjaHk gksrh gS] tSls ljdkjh {ks= esa 'kks"kd oxZ Hkkjh osru nsdj iz’kkldh; vf/kdkjh vkSj ttksa rd lHkh ukSdj j[k ysrs gS] bl oxZ dks lekIr djus
  • 2. 68 SHODH, SAMIKSHA AUR MULYANKAN International Indexed & Refereed Research Journal, ISSN 0974-2832,(Print) E- ISSN-2320-5474, December,2013, VOL-V * ISSUE- 59 ds fy, gh e/;oxZ dks vkxs vkuk gksrk gS] ftls dkyZ ekDlZ us lPps yksdra= dk lkjrRo ekuk gSA**7 oSls vxj ns[kk tk, rks ^oa’kt* esa rhu izdkj ls dgkuh vkxs c<+rh gS] ,d vaxzstksa ds jkt&dkt dks ekuusokys 'kqDyk lkgc dh vksj ls] nwljh ckr Hkkjrh; ekfDlZLV ds fopkjksa lsA jktuhfrd nkao&isapksa ds xq.k ysdj lq/khj lkeus vkrk jgrk gS vkSj rhljh ckr ;g fd] laLdkjc) Hkkjrh; lekt ds jhfrfjoktksa dks nqgjkus okyh lfork ds pfj= ls ;g dgkuh [kRe gksrh gSA ^^lq/khj dh iRuh dk uke lfork gS] lq/khj dk lfork ds fopkjksa ds lkeus vaxzsth vkSj jktuhfrd fopkjksa dk dksbZ vlj ugha jg tkrk] ftruk jktuhfr dk izHkko lq/khj ij gS] mruk mldh iRuh lfork ij ugha fn[kkbZ nsrkA**8 vkt ds ;qx esa lHkh oxksaZ ds yksx mPp] e/; vkSj fuEu buesa jktuhfr ds c<+rs izHkko dk vlj fn[kkbZ nsrk gSA ewy :i ls oa’kt ,d ikfjokfjd dgkuh dgykrk gSA 3- fprdkscjk cgqpfpZr ysf[kdk e‘nqyk xxZ th ds ^fprdkscjk* bl fooknkLin miU;kl ds brus de le; esa X;kjg laLdj.k izdkf’kr gks pqds gSA ;gh bldh yksdfiz;rk dk vkdj izek.k 1- MkW- eatjh _rq & ledkyhu dgkuh esa ;qok psruk] izFke laLdj.k 2000] lkFkZd izdk’ku] ubZ fnYyh] i`-Ø- 74 2- MkW- 'ksokys /kujkt & ;qok mnHkzkUr] izFke laLdj.k 1999] ok.kh izdk’ku] ubZ fnYyh] i`-Ø- 132 3- vnhc lq/kkdj & fgUnh miU;klksa esa iz’kklu] f}rh; laLdj.k 2002] fou; izdk’ku] ubZ fnYyh] i`-Ø- 126 4- xxZ e`nqyk & mlds fgLls dh Nkao] izFke laLdj.k 1977] us’kuy ifCyf’kax gkÅl] ubZ fnYyh] i`-Ø- 21 5- ogh & i`-Ø- 147 6- xxZ e`nqyk & oa’kt] izFke laLdj.k 1978] us’kuy ifCyf’kax gkÅl] ubZ fnYyh] i`-Ø- 23 7- 'kkgh ;ksxsUnz & fddZxknZ ls dkew rd vfLrRookn] r`rh; laLdj.k 1999] r{kf’kyk izdk’ku] ubZ fnYyh 8- xxZ e`nqyk & oa’kt] izFke laLdj.k 1978] us’kuy ifCyf’kax gkÅl] ubZ fnYyh] i`-Ø- 81 9- xxZ e`nqyk & fprdkscjk] vkBoka laLdj.k 1979] us’kuy ifCyf’kax gkÅl] ubZ fnYyh] i`-Ø- 09 10- ogh] i`-Ø- 20 11- ogh] i`-Ø- 42 gSa ^fprdkscjk* rks ewy:i ls izse n’kZu ij vk/kkfjr —fr fQj Hkh e‘nqyk xxZ th us bl miU;kl esa euq vkSj fjpMZ ds ek/;e ls jktuhfr ds c<+rs izHkko dk fp=.k fd;k gSA fjpMZ gfplu rks fons’k ls Hkkjr esa blfy, vkrk gS fd] lektdk;Z ds ek/;e ls yksxksa dh dqN lsok d:¡ ij lkFk esa og jktuhfr esa Hkh :fp j[kk djrk gSA lkFk esa Hkkjrh; L=h euq Hkh mldk lkFk nsrh gSA euq vkSj fjpMZ ,d ikVhZ esa pys tkrs gS rks] fjpMZ] euq ds QksVks f[kapokrk gS rks euq dgrh gS&^^blfy, QksVks [khaprs gks ns[kks* >wB cksyk rks dk;ns ls ojuk lp ls dke pykvksA**9 oSls ns[kk tk, rks dk;nk Hkh rks ,d jktuhfr dk Hkkx gSA ,sfrgkfld jktuhfr ds izHkko dk fp=.k fjpMZ ds dgus ls gksrk gSA ^^baXySM dk ,d ckn’kkg pkYlZ QLVZ Fkk] ftldk flj [kqn vaxzsth ikfyZ;kesaV us dVok fn;k FkkA**10 tc fjpMZ vkSj euq muds vius dejs esa cSBds ckrsa djrs gS] rks euq fjpMZ dks viuh ckrsa lkQ crkrh gS&^eSa iz/kkuea=h cu ldrh Fkh] vkSj vius ns’k esa Økafr Hkh yk ldrh Fkh] fjpMZ chp esa gh euq dh ckr dks jksddj dgrk gS ^^ugah&ugha* ;g Bhd gS] fd rqe esjs lkFk ?kweksxh rks ns’k dh lqj{kk blh esa gSA**11

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