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INTERNATIONAL INDEXED REFEREED RESEARCH PAPER
INTERNATIONAL INDEXED REFEREED RESEARCH PAPER
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  • 1. 60 SHODH, SAMIKSHA AUR MULYANKAN International Indexed & Refereed Research Journal, ISSN 0974-2832,(Print) E- ISSN-2320-5474, December,2013, VOL-V * ISSUE- 59 vk/kqfud gksus dk dnkfpr~ ;gh izek.k gksrk gS fd ge vius vrhr dh cklh o nwf"kr :f<+;ksa dks frykatfy nsdj] rRdkyhu ifjfLFkfr;ksa ds vuq:i vius O;ogkj] dk;Z'kSyh o fopkjksa dks ifjofrZr djsa A ,d LoLFk mUur lekt ds fuekZ.k gsrq fujarj vius dk;ksZa ds ewY;kadu o ifj"dkj djus dh vko';drk gksrh gSA ,slh ijaijk,¡] ekufldrk tks euq"; ds euq"; gksus dks gh lansgkLin cuk ns] og fdlh Hkh fLFkfr esa lekt] jk"Vª ds fy, dY;k.k&dkjh ugha gks ldrhA ,slh gh ,d nwf"kr lksp tks orZeku ;qx dh oSKkfud o rduhdh ;qx ij Hkh viuk dqizHkko cuk, gq, gS og gS &tkfroknh ekufldrkA tkfr vk/kkfjr la?k"kksZa dk ;qx u tkus dc ls pyrk vk jgk gSA ;qx cnys] ihf<+;k¡ cnyha fdarq tkfr dks ysdj tks Hkkouk gekjs Hkkjrh; lekt dh ulksa essa O;kIr gS] og bruh vk/kqfudrk ds ckn Hkh iwjh rjg cny ugha Ikk jgh gSaA fnudj us lu~ 1952 esa ^jf'ejFkh* dkO; }kjk lekt dh bl nq[krh jx dk Li'kZ fd;k FkkA vk'p;Z bl ckr dk gS fd tks ihM+k yxHkx 60 o"kZ iwoZ fnudj us O;Dr dh] ml osnuk esa orZeku ;qx rd dksbZ fo'ks"k cnyko utj vkrk fn[kkbZ ugha fn;k gS A ^d.kZ* tSls u tkus fdrus misf{kr O;fDrRo gekjs lekt esa O;kIr gSA ^jf'ejFkh* ds dfo us vius mís'; dh flf) ds fy, ,d vksj ijaijk&iksf"kr ,oa ttZfjr :f<+oknh ekU;rkvksa dk [kaMu fd;k gS rks nwljh vksj ;qx&lkis{k izxfr'khy thou&ewY;ksa dh izLFkkiuk ij cy fn;k gSA mlus lkekftd vU;k; ds dkj.k mPp dqy dh >wBh eku&e;kZnk vkSj tkfrokn ds naHk dh HkRlZuk dh gS( fdarq Je] iq:"kkFkZ] riL;k] nku] eS=h vkfn ekuoh; xq.kksa dh egÙkk dks ljkgrs gq, Lohdkj Hkh fd;k gS A fnudj dk tkfr dks ysdj ;g vk/kqfud n`f"Vdks.k mudh orZeku le; esa izklafxdrk fl) djrk gSA ;fn /;ku ls ns[kk tk, rks Hkkjr dh jk"Vªh; ,drk o izxfr dks fucZy o vlgk; djus okys rRoksa esa ^tkfr ij vk/kkfjr HksnHkko* Hkh izeq[k dkj.k jgk gSA ;gk¡ O;fDr ds xq.kksa dk ewY;kadu tkfr ij vk/kkfjr gksrk gS tks jk"Vªdfo fnudj dks fcYdqy Hkh lgu ugha FkkA blhfy, og ^jf'ejFkh* izca/k December ,2013 'kks/k i= & fgUnh lkfjdk pkS/kjh tkfroknh ekufldrk ds fo:) fnudj ds ^d.kZ* dk fonzksgh fcxqy& ^jf'EkjFkh* * 'kks/kkFkhZ] ¼ih,p-Mh½ Jh osadVs'Okj fo'Okfo|ky;] xtjkSyk] mÙkj izns'k ^^lkjka'k** %& fu%lansg tkfr ds uke ij euq";&euq"; esa Hksn djuk ,d lH; o f'kf{kr lekt ds fy, dyad gSA nqHkkZX; ;g gS fd lfn;ksa ls ge Hkkjrh; tkfr dss fo’kSys /kq,¡ esa ?kqV&?kqV dj thus dks foo'k gSa fdUrq blds fo:) vfHk;ku pykus esa drjkrs gSaA bl tkfrHksn dh ekufldrk us u dsoy lekt dks iaxq o ,drkfoghu djk gS vfirq jk"Vª ds lEeku o ;ksX;rk dks Hkh vuns[kk fd;k gS ftldk dqifj.kke Hkkjr ds vusd {ks=ksa esa visf{kr ykHk u feyus ds :i esa lkeus vk jgk gSA fnudj us ^d.kZ* ds ek/;e ls vius vk/kqfud n`f"Vdks.k dks O;Dr djrs gq, tkfr Hksn ij u dsoy izgkj fd;k gS vfirq mldk lek/kku izLrqr djus dk LrqR; iz;kl Hkh fd;k gSA izLrqr 'kks/k&i= fnudj dh blh lksp dks O;Dr djus dk fouez iz;kl gS A dkO; esa d.kZ ds eq[k ls tkfrokn ds fo:) l'kDr vfHkO;fDr djkrs gSa %& ^tkfr ! gk; jh tkfr ! d.kZ dk ân; {kksHk ls Mksyk] dqfir lw;Z dh vksj ns[k og ohj Øks/k ls cksyk & ^^tkfr tkfr jVrs] ftudh iw¡th dsoy ik’kaM] eSa D;k tkuw¡ tkfr tkfr gSa ;s esjs HkqtnaM A** ^d.kZ* ds ek/;e ls fnudj us ;g Li"V fd;k gS fd tks okLro esa izfrHkkoku o ;ksX; gksrs gSa] og fdlh Hkh vuq'kalk dk vkJ; ugha ysrsA mUgsa tkfr] xks=] fcjknjh ds BIis dh dksbZ t:jr ugha gksrh D;ksafd mudk gquj gh mudh igpku gksrk gS %& ^^rstLoh lEeku [kkstrs ugha xks= crykds] Ikkrs gSa tx ls iz'kfLr viuk djrc fn[kykds A^^ ^jf'ejFkh* dk dFkkud tkrh;rk ds tgj ij viuk l'kDr izgkj djrk gSA l'kDr o LoLFk lekt ds fuekZ.k esa lekt ds izR;sd oxZ dk ;ksxnku egRo j[krk gSA tUe ds vk/kkj ij fdlh euq"; dks Å¡p&uhp dh ifjf/k esa ck¡/kuk u dsoy euq";rk dk vieku gS vfirq l`f"VdrkZ ds fu;eksa dh Hkh vogsyuk gSA tc bZ”oj fdlh esa Hksn ugha djrk rks ge euq";ksa dks ;g vf/kdkj fdlus ns fn;k fnudj ;gh fl) djuk pkgrs Fks fd tkfr dqN egRo ugha j[krh D;ksafd izd`fr Hkh fcuk fdlh HksnHkko ds lc ij viuk Lusg cjlkrh gSA os dgrs gSa %& ^^ewy tkuuk cM+k dfBu gS ufn;ksa dk] ohjksa dk] /kuq’k NksM+dj vkSj xks= D;k gksrk j.k/khjksa dk Ikkrs gSa lEeku rikscy ls Hkwry ij 'kwj] ^tkfr&tkfr* dk 'kksj epkrs dsoy dk;j] Øwj A** Tkc ge ^jf'ejFkh* dk v/;;u djrs gSa rks ikrs gSa fd ^d.kZ* ds iwjs pfj= esa dgha dksbZ ghu Hkkouk ugha gS vkSj u gh og fdlh jktdqekj ls cy] cqf)] lkSUn;Z] foosd vkfn esa Hkh de gSA cl ,d gh ckr }kjk lnSo mls ekufld vk?kkr igq¡pk;k tkrk jgk gS vkSj og gS mldh tkfrA ;gh fLFkfr orZeku ifjisz{; esa Hkh viuh izklafxdrk j[krh gSA orZeku le; esa ;fn dksbZ nfyr mPp f'k{kk izkIr dj mPp in ij vklhu
  • 2. 61SHODH, SAMIKSHA AUR MULYANKAN International Indexed & Refereed Research Journal, ISSN 0974-2832,(Print) E- ISSN-2320-5474, December,2013, VOL-V * ISSUE- 59 gks Hkh tkrk gS rks dgha u dgha vf/kdka'k mPpoxhZ; ekufldrk mldh izfrHkk] dk;Z'kSyh ij foijhr fVIi.kh vo'; djrh gSA ^d.kZ* dks ^vaxns'k ujs'k* cuus ij tks O;aX; o dVq opu Hkhe }kjk cksys tkrs gSa oks mPpoxhZ; lksp dks Li"V djrs gSa %& ^^g; dh >kM+s iw¡N] vkt rd jgk ;gh rks dkt] Lkwriq= fdl rjg pyk ik;sxk dksbZ jkt A** orZeku le; esa Hkh dkQh dqN fLFkfr oSlh gh cuh fn[kkbZ nsrh gSA vkt Hkh ;fn dksbZ uhph tkfr dk euq"; Åij mBus dk iz;kl djrk gS rks lekt ds Å¡ps rcds ds yksx vusdksa ck/kk,¡ [kM+k djus esa ihNs ugha gVrsA Hkyk ;g dgk¡ dk U;k; gS fd Hkaxh dk cPpk lnSo lQkbZ deZpkjh gh cusxkA D;k f'kf{kr gksdj mls vf/kdkjh cuus dk dksbZ vf/kdkj ugha A ;fn dksbZ ifjJe o vkj{k.k ds ek/;e ls ml in rd igq¡p Hkh tkrk gS rks mPp oxhZ; yksx mlds vk/khu dke djus rd ls euk dj nsrs gSaA D;k gksxk ,sls lekt dk ftldh lksp bruh NksVh o ladqfpr gksxh nqHkkZX; Hkh gS vkSj foMEcuk Hkh fd ge ckrsa rks ekuork] izse] lfg".kqrk dh djrs gSa] vk/kqfud rduhdh vkfo"dkjksa ls f?kjs jgrs gSa] geus i`Foh ls pk¡n dh nwjh dks Hkh ikV fn;k gS fdarq ,d ekuo ls nwljs ekuo ds chp dh nwjh dks ge vHkh rd iwjh rjg feVkus esa ukdke jgs gSaA ^jf'ejFkh* esa d.kZ dk usr`Ro orZeku vLi`";rk ewyd vfHk;ku dk izrhd gSA ^d.kZ* loZFkk vk/kqfud gSA og dqyhurk vkSj tkfr ds iz'uksa ls ikS:"kef.Mr lkFkZd fonzksg djrk gSA ^'kwnz* 'kCn dh ihM+k mls Hkhrj rd phj nsrh gS %& ^^eSa tkfr&xks= ls ghu] nhu] jktkvksa ds lEeq[k eyhu] tc jkst+ vuknj ikrk Fkk] dg ^'kwnz* iqdkjk tkrk Fkk A** orZeku le; esa Hkh lekt ds dqN fo'ks"k yksx tkfrokpd lacks/kuksa dk iz;ksx djrs gSa tks dkuwu ds fo:) rks gS gh] O;fDrxr Hkkoukvksa ds Hkh f[kykQ gSA fnudj dh ys[kuh] ^jf'ejFkh* esa iwjh rjg ls nfyr LokfHkeku dh j{kk esa [kM+h gS A tkfrokn dh dqgsfydk ls fnXHkzfer lekt esa psruk dh e'kky tykus dk iquhr dk;Z fnudj us vius [k.M dkO; ^jf'ejFkh* ds ek/;e ls fd;kA tkfr dh bl ladh.kZfopkj/kkjk ds izfr tks Økafrdkjh mn~?kks"k dchj us fd;k Fkk] fnudj mlh Økafr dks vkxs c<+krs gSaA tkfr ls xq.kksa dh rqyuk djus okys yksxksa ij fnudj O;aX; djrs gSa %& ^^gk;] tkfr NksVh gS] rks fQj lHkh gekjs xq.k NksVs] Tkkfr cM+h] rks cM+s cusa os] jgsa yk[k pkgs [kksVs A** ;g lH; lekt esa 'keZ dh ckr gS fd oxZ&O;oLFkk ds vk/kkj ij rFkkdfFkr fuEu le>s tkuk okyk oxZ lfn;ksa ls vLi`'; le>k tkrk jgk gS] mls ekuo ds ewyHkwr vf/kdkjksa ls Hkh oafpr fd;k x;k] iwtk&LFkku] f'k{kk laLFkku esa muds fy, dksbZ LFkku ugha FkkA ;g lkspus dh ckr gS fd tks oxZ vU; mPp oxksZa ds lHkh ?k`f.kr dk;Z Lo;a djrk gS og vLi`'; dSls gks ldrk gS tks xanxh o ey dks lkQ djrk gS og vNwr dSls gks ldrk gS orZeku le; dks VVksysa rks dkQh dqN ifjorZu gqvk gS fdUrq dkQh lq/kkj gksuk ckdh gSA tks xanxh fdlh ,d tkfr ds euq"; dks feryh yk ldrh gS] mls fdlh nwljh tkfr dk ekuo dSls lgtrk ls ys ldrk gS bZ'oj us lHkh dks Hkkouk,¡ nh gSa rks ek= dqN fo'ks"k oxZ gh bl lQkbZ dk;Z dk nkf;Ro D;ksa mBk,¡ vkf[kj ;g fdlus izekf.kr fd;k gS fd Å¡ps in ;k Å¡ph f'k{kk ek= mPp oxhZ; O;fDr;ksa dk gh vf/kdkj gS ^jf'kejFkh* esa Hkh fnudj ^d.kZ* ds ek/;e ls ;gh dguk pkgrs gSa fd izR;sd euq"; izR;sd dk;Z djus esa l{ke gS] mlesa tkfr dk dksbZ laca/k ugha gS A jaxHkwfe esa d.kZ vtqZu ds 'kkS;Z dks bu 'kCnksa esaa pqukSrh nsrk gS %& ^^rwus tks & tks fd;k] mls eSa Hkh fn[kyk ldrk gw¡] Pkkgs rks dqN u;h dyk,¡ Hkh fl[kyk ldrk gw¡ A^^ bl dkO; esa d.kZ mu lHkh dk izfrfuf/kRo djrk gS tks lkekftd fo"kerkvksa ds vkMacj esa fil jgs gSa A fnudj muds lkFk gS ftUgsa lekt] tkfr] xks= o dqy dh n`f"V ls ghu ekurk gS %& ^^eSa mudk vkn'kZ] ftUgsa dqy dk xkSjo rksMs+xk] ^uhpoa'ktUek* dgdj ftudks tx f/kDdkjsxk A Tkks lekt dh fo"ke ofà esa pkjks vksj tysaxs] Ikx&ix ij >syrs gq, ck/kk fu%lhe pysaxs A** d.kZ dh foMEcuk jgh fd og ml dqy dk ugha] ftldk mls gksuk iM+k gS vkSj ftl dqy dk og gS] mleas mlds Lohdkj dh dksbZ jkg ughaA tkfr dk ekeyk izFker% vkSj vUrr% tkfr dk ekeyk gh cuk jg tkrk gSA varr% bl tkfrxr HksnHkko ls ihfM+r gksdj fnudj dk d.kZ phRdkj dj dgrk gS %& ^^/k¡l tk;s og ns'k vry esa] Xkq.k dh tgk¡ ugha igpku] Tkkfr&xks= ds cy ls gh] vknj ikrs tgk¡ lqtku A* 1- fnudj ds izca/kdkO; % MkW0 vkj-ih-,l- pkSgku “kyHk ifCyf”kax gkÅl] esjB] yksdrRo ,oa f”kYi izFke laLdj.k] 2001 2- dfo *fnudj* % Jherh ,l-ds-in~ekorh tokgj iqLrdkYk;] eFkqjk O;fDrRo ,oa d`frRo izFke laLdj.k] 1967 3 fnudj % ikB&iquikZB la0 lq/khj izrki flag Jh uVjkt izdk”ku] fnYyh izFke laLdj.k] 2011 4- fnudj lkfgR; essa Jherh jek jkuh flag vfer izdk”ku] xkft;kckn O;fDrRo dh vfHkO;fDr izFke laLdj.k] 1984 5- fnudj % oSpkfjd MkW0 ih- vkns”oj jko ok.kh izdk”ku] fnYyh Øakfr ds ifjos”k esa izFke laLdj.k] 1976 6- fnudj dh Mk;jh fnudj mn;kpy izdk”ku] iVuk izFke laLdj.k] 1973

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