INTERNATIONAL INDEXED REFEREED RESEARCH PAPER

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INTERNATIONAL INDEXED REFEREED RESEARCH PAPER

  1. 1. 47SHODH, SAMIKSHA AUR MULYANKAN International Indexed & Refereed Research Journal, ISSN 0974-2832,(Print) E- ISSN-2320-5474, December,2013, VOL-V * ISSUE- 59 Research Paper -Geography December , 2013 Introduction: Population is significant natural resource, which determines the level of socio-economic development and environmental degradation in area. Thus, the Populationdistributionanalysisis animportant aspect of geographical studies, which provides proper guide- lines for the regional planning and development. The rapid population growth is considered as an important determiningfactoramongotherfactorsofenvironmen- tal degradation. The increasing population requires additional land for farming, fuel wood, fodder, human settlement, road, industrial and institutional establish- ments etc., thus putting pressure on both renewable and nonrenewable resources. Population growth is a major problem in the socio-economic development of the region. It is in this context, the present study has endeavored, therefore, to examine the correlation be- tween some determinants and distribution of popula- tion i.e. Rainfall, Forest area, Commercial crop area, Irrigated area and Economic development. StudyArea: Haryana state is one of the most prosperous states ofIndia. It's lies between 27?37'north to 30?53'north- ernlatitudeand 74?28'eastto 77?36'easternlongitude. Haryana was carved out fromPunjab in 1966 as a new state of India. On the northern side of it Punjab and HimachalPradesh,UttarPradeshand Rajasthanareon east and south of Haryana and Punjab and Rajasthan share the western boundary. The total area is 44212sq.km.having21districtsin2011.Haryanastate hastotalpopulationof2,53,53,081personsin2011,out ofwhich1,35,05,130aremaleand1,18,47,951female. The density ofpopulation recorded as 573 persons per sq.kilometer,whichisfifthhighestinIndianstates.The childsexratiorecorded830femalesperthousandmales, which is lowest in India. Haryana state has 76.64 per- centliteracyratewithdifferentialof85.38percentmale DistributionofPopulationInHaryana: ACorrelationAnalysis *Mr.MonuKumar *Extension.Lecturer,Dept.ofGeography,Govt.College,Bhiwani. A B S T R A C T The present paper is an attempt to examine the relationship between physical & non-physical determinants and distribution of population. Spearman's Rank Difference method is used for analyze the correlation between selected physical & non- physical factors and distribution of population. The result of correlation coefficient between population distribution and net sown area, commercial crop area, forest area and irrigation found low degree negatively correlation. Among them, two variables namely, level of economic development and Rainfall are positive associated with population distribution. Key Words: Population Distribution, correlation Analysis, Physical determinants, Non- Physical, Spearman's Rank literacyand 66.77 percent female literacy. LiteratureCited: Anumberofstudieshasbeenmadebythescholar to analyze correlation between distribution of popula- tion and its determinants acrossthe world. Some ofthe important contribution are byMishra (2002) analyzed the relationship between population, socio-economic developmentusingdistrictleveldata. Vaikunte(2006) analyses the relationship between ofpopulation distri- butionandsocio-economicdevelopmentandthelinked health problemsin Indiaat nationaland regional level. Nagdeve (2007) examined the association of popula- tion, poverty and urbanization in the environment is degrading rapidly. Mohanty (2009) analyses the trend in population growth, socio- economic development. Arundhati&Shinde(2011)intheirstudyexamined the relationship between physical and non-physical deter- minants and population distribution in Maharashtra state. However, perhaps there is no particular study on distribution of population in Haryana a correlation analysis. The present study has endeavored, there- fore,toexaminethecorrelationbetweendistributionof population and some determinants i.e. rainfall, forest area,commercialcroparea,irrigatedareaandeconomic development. Methodology: Present study is based on secondary sources of datacollected fromcensusofIndia2011and statistical abstract of Haryana2011-12. 11.5 SPPS software has used for examine the correlation between selected physical and non-physical factors and distribution of populationand Spearman'sRankDifferencemethod is used. A suitable cartographic techniques has used for the present analysis. Spearman's Rank correlation de- noted by 'r' is given by the formula r= 1- 6d2/ N3- N D-Difference between the rank of each item N- the number of observation
  2. 2. 48 SHODH, SAMIKSHA AUR MULYANKAN International Indexed & Refereed Research Journal, ISSN 0974-2832,(Print) E- ISSN-2320-5474, December,2013, VOL-V * ISSUE- 59 Rainfall andDistribution ofPopulation: Fig. 1 depicts the correlation between rainfall and population growth. It is moderate degree positive correlation with average r-value +0.45 for the entire state. Faridabad, Mewat districts show negative correlation. The remaining districts of the state show positive correlation. In some districts, the distribution ofrainfallisnotthemostimportantfactorforpopulation distribution. A Gurgoan, Ambala, Yamunanager, and Sonipat district has recorded high rainfall but theses districts show low population growth. Forest Area andDistributionof Population: Fig.2 shows the correlation between percentage of the area under the forest and population growth. The correlation between these two variables in the entire stateshows lowdegree negativecorrelation with-0.21 r-value. Faridabad, Gurgoan, Panchkula,Ambala dis- tricts show negative correlation between these two variables. These districts have high growth of population, due to the high level of urbanization, industrialization and transport facilities.Also Karnal, Rohtak, Jhajjar, Sonipat districts have developed agriculture districts show the less under the forest area. Net SownArea andDistributionof Population: Fig.4 shows the high degree negative correlation between net sown area and distribution of population with-0.64 r-value.Panchkula,Faridabadand Gurgoan districts show negative correlation. The economy of these districts is not dependent on agriculture. It is dependent on secondary and tertiary activities. Rest 18 districts of the state show positive correlation between these two variables. Commercial Crop Area and Distribution Population: Fig.6showslowdegreenegativecorrelationwith-0.18 r-values between these variables in the state. Mahendergrah,Rewari,Hissar,FatehabadandBhiwani districtsshowpositivecorrelation.Theareaundercash crops in these districts is higher than others districts. Remaining districts show negative correlation. Irrigation And Distribution of Population: Fig.3, depicts the correlation between these two variables in the state on an average is low degree negative with -0.14 r-value. The districts of Haryana, which show the negative correlation, are Bhiwani, Panchkula, Mewat and Mahendergrah. The gross irrigated area is lowin these districts. Moreover, other districts of Haryana show the positive correlation between these variables. Level of Economic Development and Distribution of Population: Haryana state is one of the most prosperous states ofIndia.Fig.5explainsthecorrelationbetweenlevelof economic development and growth of population is low degree of positive correlation with +0.16 r-value. Panchkula,Ambala, Faridabad, and Gurgoan districts showpositive correlation. It is because to high level of economicdevelopment,urbanization,industrialization and transport facilities. Remaining districts of study area show negative correlation these two variables. Therefore, these districts have low growth of population. Conclusion: Amongthevariousphysicaldeterminants,thathave been considered in the present study are rainfall and forest. The rainfall distribution population is not im- portant factor for population distribution because Gurgoan,Ambala, Yamunanager, and Sonipat district hasrecordedhighrainfallbutthesesdistrictsshowlow population growth. In non-physical determinants, the factors considered are irrigation, net sown area, level of economic development. The correlation between Fig.1 Fig.2 Fig.3
  3. 3. 49SHODH, SAMIKSHA AUR MULYANKAN International Indexed & Refereed Research Journal, ISSN 0974-2832,(Print) E- ISSN-2320-5474, December,2013, VOL-V * ISSUE- 59 1 Arundhati, B & Shinde (2011), "Distribution of population of population in Maharashtra Correlation analysis," NGJI, Vol.57, Pt (1), March 2011:89-96. 2 Keshwa, M. (2013), "Correlation Between Female Literacy & Child Sex Ratio in Haryana (2011): A Geographical Analysis," IJARMSS, Vol. 2 No. 10 October 2013, 3 Mohammad Noor (1973), "A Study in Agricultural Land use (1951- 1970)", Geographical Review of India, Vol. XXXV, No. 3, Pp 277-288. R E F E R E N C E actual and level of economic development show posi- tivecorrelation,percentageofirrigated areaand actual population shows low degree negative correlation. Forestareaandcommercialcropfactorsalsoshowlow degree negative correlation. These factors have af- fected the growth of population directly or indirectly.

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