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INTERNATIONAL INDEXED REFEREED RESEARCH PAPER
 

INTERNATIONAL INDEXED REFEREED RESEARCH PAPER

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    INTERNATIONAL INDEXED REFEREED RESEARCH PAPER INTERNATIONAL INDEXED REFEREED RESEARCH PAPER Document Transcript

    • 41SHODH, SAMIKSHA AUR MULYANKAN International Indexed & Refereed Research Journal, ISSN 0974-2832,(Print) E- ISSN-2320-5474, December,2013, VOL-V * ISSUE- 59 Research Paper December , 2013 Introduction Informationandcommunicationstechnology or information and communication technology, usu- ally abbreviated as ICT, is often used as an extended synonym for information technology (IT). ICT con- sists of IT as well as telecommunication, broadcast media, all types of audio and video processing and transmission and network based control and monitor- ing functions. The term ICT is now also used to refer to the mergingofaudio-visualand telephonenetworks with computer networks through a single cabling or link system. ICTs use is depends on the services pro- vided to the group or country, which is based on In- come, geographical location, education, age, gender are some of the factors. While the impact of ICT on sectors such as banking,tourism,medicine,engineeringetc.havebeen enormous, the uptake of ICT in education is fraught withdifficulties.Lackoffunding,trainingamongprac- titioners,motivationand perceived needamongteach- ers to adopt ICT as teaching tools impede the required uptake of ICT in education. The main purpose ofICT in education means implementing of ICT equipment and tools in teaching and learningprocess asa media and methodology.The purpose ofICT in education is generally to familiarize students with the use and workings of computers, and related social and ethical issues. In India, the need for reforms in education by harnessing newICTs is increasingly being accepted as essential by universities and cultural organizations acrossIndia.TheNationalPolicyforICTinEducation, underformulation,highlightstheneedtointegrateICT as a subject in the curriculum as well as to strengthen the overall teaching learning process. Open and dis- tance education systems in India use EDUSAT and ImprovingQualityInHigherEducation ThroughE-learningManagementSystem * Reena Masih *23,AkashTown,TulsiGarnalaRoad,Anand. A B S T R A C T Information and communication technology (ICT) has brought about a revolution in every walk of Today's life. Particularly it has become an integral part of education and its impact on teaching and learning is widely accepted. Computer literacy, internet knowledge and mobile use are one of the major parts of student's life. But it has been seen that ICT is mostly favored by the students of other discipline as compared to arts discipline. Even in the Indian content, the boys are much more aware about it. They know about the internet as well as Wi-Fi and mobile use also. But the students of arts discipline especially the girls are not aware about use of ICT. This study will reflect why there is less use of ICT; how it can be increase the level of usage among the girl students of arts discipline in Gujarat. otherTVandradiochannelsfordeliveringcontent.But ICT is yet to be used significantly for the delivery of content. The University Grants Commission (UGC), the apex body responsible for maintaining standards in higher education in India, has acknowledged the role of ICT inimprovingteaching-learningparadigms,buildingnew knowledge, collaborating with peers and in the gover- nance of education in universities. World Economic Forum and INSEAD have published their report for Network Readiness Index, Outof138countriestrackedandrankedbywidespread use of mobile phones, Internet, personal computer as well as regulatory environment and IT infrastructure, China ranks 36th and India 48th. KCG-KnowledgeConsortiumofGujarathas made concerted efforts to transform the State through the up gradation in terms of ICT resources. KCG has playedakeyroleintheprocessthroughwhichcolleges canacquire1GBPSinternetconnectionintheState.As per the scheme of the central government, the 75 % amount for the internet connection will be paid by the MHRD and the remaining 25 % to be paid by the state universities. Gujarat is the only state in the country to pay the 25 % of the amount which is supposed to be paid by the state universities. KCG proposes to promote e-content devel- opment in Gujarati too under the project `Sakshat - thi -Shikshith'.GujaratwillbethefirstStateinthecountry to promote e-content development in the regional lan- guage as a State level initiative. InN.S.PatelArtsCollegearesearchworkhas been carried out of 35 students. They were chosen on the basis of simple random sampling to understand how the girl students relate to new ICTs especially the Internet.
    • 42 SHODH, SAMIKSHA AUR MULYANKAN International Indexed & Refereed Research Journal, ISSN 0974-2832,(Print) E- ISSN-2320-5474, December,2013, VOL-V * ISSUE- 59 Theobjectivesofthestudy: 1.Assess the level of awareness about Internet among graduate students in arts discipline. 2. Identify the various factors that affect the students' use of Internet. 3. Know the students' awareness, perceptions and use of the Internet and the reasons for not using ICT. Analysis ofTheData Generalprofileofthestudents Students who participated in the study fall under the age group of 18-20 years. Majority of them (80% boys and 73% girls) live in Panchayat area. Apart from the computer training received at school, many respondents had also received specialized train- ingfromprivatecomputercenters.Thespecializedtrain- ingconsistsofofficePackages(MSWord,Excel).Stu- dents most commonly use word processor to prepare projectreports as wellas power point for presentation. Amongthosewhowerefamiliarwithcomput- ers,fewergirlshadusedtheInternet-60%girls.Internet use is not promoted by educational institutions or private institutions on which these students depend for training. Thus, even though students, especially girls, gain exposure to computers, they don't seem to gain much insight into the use of computers for infor- mation gathering and communication. It is widely be- lieved that computer training enhances ones employ- ability and publicity by private computer institutes continues to hitch on this promise. Yet training in Internetapplicationshasnotgainedrecognitionamong entrepreneurs and the public. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Percentage Below rs.5000 5000-10000 Above rs.10000 We see that monthly parental income of 74% is more than 10000rs. 23% of the respondent's family income is 5000-10000rs. And remaining 3% respon- dents' income is below 5000rs. Academicprofileofthestudents We did a profiling of the schooling and past performance of the students who participated in the study to find out patterns, if any, that suggest relation- ships between academic performance and adoption of ICT. Ananalysisoftheacademicbackgroundofstudents showsthat: A majority of the students had studied in Gujaratimediumschools.Only6%girlshadEnglishas their medium of instruction at school. A profiling of interests and other activities shows that, girls attach great importance to studies as well as games/hobbies. ExposuretoComputersandInternet Another aspect that we looked into was the extent of exposure the respondents had to Computers and the Internet. Among those who took part in the study, 54% girls had received training in computers and knew basic office applications. 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 Percentage Trained untrained Yes , 60 No , 40 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Percentage INTERNET USUERS Yes No A large number of girls said that they did not have anyone to demonstrate the use of Internet appli- cations. This is true even in the case of girls who have a familymember (usuallyan olderor younger brother) whoaccessedInternet.NotknowinghowInternetcould actually"help"themwasaproblemforgirlsalike.They depended on books and notes handed down by teach- ers,and accessed Internetonlywhentheyhad aproject or assignment due. When asked about the sites they accessed, very few students were able to give details of websites. AbilityandConfidencetouseInternet To assess ability of the students to access Internet, we posed a question as to whether they used Internet by themselves or with help of someone. 60% girlsusedInternetalone.EventhegirlsfromPanchayat place also access the internet alone. Girls usually de- pend on net-savvy friends or brothers to browse for examresultsortocollectmaterialfortheirassignments. Very few students were found to be using social net- workingsitessuch asOrkutand Facebookonly2of35 girls use social networking sites. A confidence level among girls in accessing Internet for purposes such as for gathering information is not high. Almost 46% of
    • 43SHODH, SAMIKSHA AUR MULYANKAN International Indexed & Refereed Research Journal, ISSN 0974-2832,(Print) E- ISSN-2320-5474, December,2013, VOL-V * ISSUE- 59 the respondents are confident while using internet While 37% girls can manage the situation. Accessto Internet Over the last fewyears, the number ofInternet cafes in Gujarat has grown considerably. With less than 20% student respondents having Internet connectivity at home, the only access points available are Internet cafes. Negative media reports on pornography, ma- nipulationofphotos,identitytheftsetc.involvingcafes haveaffected howpeople (inthis instance,parents and teachers) perceive these centers. Those who visit ca- fes took along a friend or family member or they only visited cafestheywerequitefamiliarwith.Muchofthe existingresearchamongschoolstudentsabroad shows that there is clear difference between computer use at school and at home. There are students who access the Internet from different places such as home, college, Internet cafes and other places. Due to problems of access, the frequency of use of Internet by girls was also very low. Frequency of computer use in the home is higher than at school and those students explored different modes of learning with computers at home than at school. Out of 35 girls 17 girls use the internet from cyber café. The girls suggested that if they were providedfacilitieswithintheircollege,theywouldspend more time to explore the net. UseofMobilePhones 97% girls use mobile phones. Cheaper hand- setsand affordablecallrateshavemademobilephones more accessible for students than before. Most of the girls use the mobile phones for voice call, texting, lis- teningmusicandfilming(photoand video).GPRSand file sharing are not uncommon. When compared with use of Internet, use of mobilephonesishigh(97%girls),whichdemonstrates the high adoption of ICT when it easily accessible and affordable.Theparentsaremoreprotectivewhiletheir children use mobile phones. We were able to under- stand from the discussions that media reports of mis- use of mobile phones among students have created a scare among parents. Conclusion ICT can be useful for learners of all kinds, because of the resources available on the Internet, applications that make it possible to explore subjects and thepossibilitiesofnetworkingamonglearnersand teachers. While Gujarat has made considerable progress in improving computer literacy of its school students, it is yet to create opportunities for them to be equippedinnewinformationandcommunicationtech- nologiesastheygo forhighereducation.Thediffusion ofInternetexemplifiestherealityofglobalization,and education needs to be geared towards enabling stu- dents to thrive in this new world order. ICT combined with lectures, books, and other traditional media and waysofteachingisalreadythenorminhighereducation sector of many developed countries. Students of arts discipline, as compared to students of professional courses, do not receive exposure to ICTs since their courses are largely modeled on conventional peda- gogy. The three year graduation course does not in- volve any ICT related activity. There is no ICT programme to build on the capacity of the students as visualizedbytheUGCatthecollegelevel.Effortsinthis direction are ad hoc, and not systematized. The present study also demonstrates the social acceptability of accessing Internet. The socio- cultural ethos of Gujarat makes Internet out of bounds for girls, unlessthey are from highincome groups who can afford connectivity at home. The proper use of it is depends on the students capability as well as its mentalitytoo.Manyatimethehomeenvironmentplays vital role in the student's mentality. New learning spaces need to be created to addressthese concerns within institutions. Networked computing facilities provided by colleges are inad- equate.Collegesshouldprovidemorenetworkedcom- puters to students, and facilitate fair and equitable access to Internet forgirls. Training in ICT needs to be imparted to both students and the faculty members of artsdiscipline.Women-friendly/Women-onlyInternet cafes need to be established and promoted by organi- zations. Suggestions: The research has been focused upon the use ofICTamongthegirlsofArtstream;basicallyinGujarat theArts students never show their extra interest out of class work. Their fully depends upon the class notes and the library. So after this research study it can be suggested to the students as well as the teachers to encourage the girl students for proper and appropriate use of ICT. * To encourage students for e-learning * Wide use of internet surfing for the information * Appropriate and correct use of internet facility * Extra work on current technology 1. ICT world report 2003 2. P. Tata, "Local heroes", New Scientist, vol. 174, No. 2341 (2002) 3. C. Ainsworth, "Slum TV", New Scientist, vol. 174, No. 2341 (2002) 4. Magazines and news papers R E F E R E N C E