INTERNATIONAL INDEXED REFEREED RESEARCH PAPER
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INTERNATIONAL INDEXED REFEREED RESEARCH PAPER INTERNATIONAL INDEXED REFEREED RESEARCH PAPER Document Transcript

  • 38 SHODH, SAMIKSHA AUR MULYANKAN International Indexed & Refereed Research Journal, ISSN 0974-2832,(Print) E- ISSN-2320-5474, December,2013, VOL-V * ISSUE- 59 Inroduction Perhaps the most spectacular and joyous part of Volley ball is smashing or spiking. Latest strategies insist on all spikers and all defenders. The final aim of the team during a rally is to 'kill' the ball, smashing is considered as the best form of attack. Even though snap shot and place shots have great importance in a game, a really good drive has its own charm and pace involleyball.Evenaboostingtheballplaysanimportant role in smashing the ball. With the progress in advanced defence tactics the job of smasher has become very difficult. Unfortunately, the physical requirements for top level smashers are more limiting than for any other role in Volley ball. The player must be tall and have a good functional efficiency. Physical and motor traits play a vital role in contributing to spiking ability of the player. The spiker's arts is one of themostdifficultofVolleyballaccomplishments,forat themovementofimpactboththespikerand theballare in the air, an attacking situation that appears to be unique in sports. The ingredients of successful spik- ing are speed, judgment of distance and space, concentration,timing,agility,ambidexterity,periferical vision and ability to keep high in air. Generally successful spiking is a total result of a good pass. That means the skill of booster, howhe set the pass skillfully. To setting the ball in a perfect positionintheairisdepend onthebooster'sskill.Good boosting includes judgment, foot work, leg and back Number of studies had been completed in the past to find out the relationship of body composition status and perfor- mance of the players in different discipline. The objectives of such studies to know the status of the performance and to improve the standard of the players. While going through the literature researcher across the studies on relationship of angle of foot or longitudinal height of the arch and functional efficiency of the foot. According to the purpose of the study researcher collected the data from the Inter collegiate Volley Ball Competition. Twenty-five Boosters and Smashers were selected for the study. Anthropometric measurements were recorded for determining the body composition. Angle of foot was recorded by foot prints taken down on a paper with the help of 'Pedograph'. Functional efficiency variables viz. vertical jump, standing broad jump, 400 Mt. run, Leg and Back strength, ankle flexibility and balance were recorded. To find out the correlation, Pearson's Product Movement Correlation was used. It was noted that there is no relationship of body composition with the functional efficiency of boosters, except the leg strength. Insignificant correlation was observed between the body composition and functional efficiency of smashers. Relationship of angle of foot with the functional efficiency of boosters and smashers were recorded insignificant except standing broad jump variable of boosters. From the findings of the study the results was not satisfactory and impressive, regarding the body composition and angle of foot with the playing activity. Keywords - Body Composition, Angle of Foot, Functional Efficiency. Boosters and Smashers. spring and other fitness factors. It is obvious from the above discussion that performance of boosters and smashers are totally related with the physical fitness and foot work of the players. The movement of each joints also plays important role in activity,particularly the movement of the leg joints affect the foot work. It is seen that few researcher have also tried to know the relation between angle of foot arch and functional efficiency of the athletes. Generally foot is used vigorouslyinallphysical activityincludinggamesand sports. So, it is therefore interesting to undertake the study to know the relationship of body composition and angle offootwiththefunctionalefficiency. Incase of Volleyball toes and heels plays a dominant role in boosting and smashing skills. So it was decided to find out the relationship of body composition and angle of foot with the functional efficiency of boosters and smashersinVolleyball. Methodology and Pocedure Accordingto purposeofthestudy,researcher collected the data from Inter collegiate Volley Ball Competition. Twentyfive boosters and smashers were selected for the study. Skinfold measurement of abdominal,chestandarmwerecollectedfordetermining the body composition. Angle of foot was recorded by foot prints taken down on a paper with the help of handmade device (8). This device was made by using the 'Padogram" technique. Standard procedure was adopted for scoring the angle of foot (CBD) as shown Relationship of Body Composition andAngle of Foot With The Functional Efficiency of Boosters and Smashers In Volley Ball * Dr. Ravindra M. Kadu. Research Paper -Physical Education December , 2013 A B S T R A C T *Assot. Prof, Shri Shivaji College of Physical Education,Amravati. (M.S.)
  • 39SHODH, SAMIKSHA AUR MULYANKAN International Indexed & Refereed Research Journal, ISSN 0974-2832,(Print) E- ISSN-2320-5474, December,2013, VOL-V * ISSUE- 59 infollowingfigureno.1.Similarly,functionalefficiency variables viz. vertical jump, standing broad jump, 400 Mt. Run, leg and back strength, ankle flexibility and balance were recorded with the help of standard test. The score of the two days tests thus obtained were correlated and the coefficients of reliability was ob- tained for the each test by using test and retest method of body composition variables, angle of foot, with the functional efficiency variables. Analysis of Data and Result ofThe Study All the score of angle of foot, body composi- tion and functional efficiency, collected from the sub- jects were converted in to standard score. After con- version of raw score to standard T- score, relationship ofindependent variablesi.e.foot angle and bodycom- position to the dependent variables of functional effi- ciency was calculated by applying the formula of Pearson'sProductmovementCorrelation.Aftergiving the statistical treatment values of correlation, were analyzed and tested with null hypothesis and follow- ing conclusions were drown. 1) There was no relationship of body composition with the functional efficiency of boosters, except the leg strength. The coefficient of correlation valuesoflegstrength'r'(0.5805)wasmoresignifi cant. Hence, the leg strength maximumcorrelates with the body composition of boosters. 2) Insignificant correlation was observed between thebodycompositionandfunctionalefficiencyof smashers in each dependent variable. 3) Relationship of angle of foot with the functional efficiencyofboosterswas recorded insignificant, exceptstandingbroadjump(SBJ)variable.Incase of booster's SBJ variable of functional efficiency correlates maximum with the angle of foot (r = .7088). 4) In case of angle of foot with the functional effi ciency of smashers, value of coefficient correla tion 'r' were insignificant. Hence, in case of angle of foot of smashers were not correlates with the functional efficiency variable. 5) When comparison between boosters and smash ersofbodycompositionwithfunctionalefficiency was drawn, it was concluded that, except leg strengthvariableofboosters,thevariables offunc tional efficiency indicates the poor relationship. 6) Similarly,thecomparativevaluesofcoefficientof correlation between angle of foot and functional efficiency of boosters and smashers, clearly showed that all the variables of functional effi ciency,otherthanstandingbroad jump(SBJ),was poorlycorrelated.However,valueofcoefficientof correlation'r'(0.7088)ofSBJofboosterswascor- relates maximum with the angle of foot. Discussion From the statistical analysis of the score, the results of the correlations are not impressive. The only relationship seem to be ('r') with leg strength and SBJ of boosters with body composition and angle of foot respectively. It has been commonly observed that boosters are usually stands in a half squat position for lifting or passing the ball as compare to the smashers. Therefore, in foot work activity of boosters in Volley ball, extensor and planter flexor muscles of legs plays a dominant role.As the test of leg strength and SBJ the same muscle group is involved. So it can be said that, positive correlation between leg strength and SBJ of boosters with body composition and foot angle re- spectively, is the result of stronger flexor and extensor muscles of legs. The findings of correlation between angle of foot and functional efficiency of boosters and smash- ers were found insignificant. It may be mention here that, the pedograph print shows that flexy pad of the planter surface of the foot and not the bony alignment of the arch. If the planter muscles are relativelystrong, there will be relatively more flesh present underneath
  • 40 SHODH, SAMIKSHA AUR MULYANKAN International Indexed & Refereed Research Journal, ISSN 0974-2832,(Print) E- ISSN-2320-5474, December,2013, VOL-V * ISSUE- 59 1. Carlton R Meyers, "Measurement in Physical Education", The Ronald Press Company, New York, 1974. 2. Harold, M Barrow & Gee Rosemary Mc: A Practical Approach to Measurement in Physical Education, Philadelphia. Lea and Fibiger (second edition) 1971. 3. Harrison H Clark. "An Objective Method of Measuring the height of longitudinal Arch in Foot Examination", Research Quarterly, IV: 3(oct.1933) 99. 4. Harrison H Clark. "Relationship of Strength and Anthropometric Measures to Physical Performance involving the trunk and legs". Research Quarterly, 28 (oct.1955) 23. 5. Janice M Bosworth, "Relationship between vertical jump performance of college women and selected Anthropometric Measurements and Strength variables". Com pleted research in Health, Physical Education and Recreation. 7 (1965) : 93 6. Thomas Kirk Cureton Jr. "The Validity of Foot Prints as a measure of vertical height of the arch and functional efficiency of the foot", Research Quarterly, III, (1935):7080. 7. Thompson Cameron, "Relationship between Deviations in Human Feet and Their Strength and Flexibility" Doctoral Dissertation, University of Oregon, 1969. 8. Carlton R Meyers, "Measurement in Physical Education", The Ronald Press Company, New York, 1974. R E F E R E N C E the arch. This might cause an "apparent" flat foot, whereas, the foot is in fact a strong and well-muscled one. Therefore foot angle measurement cannot be a criterion to know the relationship with the foot skill performance in which the feet are most actively used. It is observed that the findings of the study and the conclusions derived by the Cureton (6) as previously discussed, regarding the foot angle and functional efficiency was seem to be similar. Hence, it can be concluded that, the results derived by Cureton is rela- tively similar with results of this study even in Indian condition.