International Indexed & Refereed Research Journal, ISSN 0974-2832, (Print), E- ISSN- 2320-5474, Aug-Oct, 2013 ( Combind...
International Indexed & Refereed Research Journal, ISSN 0974-2832, (Print), E- ISSN- 2320-...
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  1. 1. 26 International Indexed & Refereed Research Journal, ISSN 0974-2832, (Print), E- ISSN- 2320-5474, Aug-Oct, 2013 ( Combind ) VOL –V * ISSUE – 55-57 Introduction: Translation has contributed to the develop- ment of all the modern languages. It has played a vital role in constructing their identities. There was a time when there was no demarcation in creative knowledge activities. Translation was happening with the pur- pose of enlightening the people or sharing the knowl- edge.Insomecommunities,itwasaplanned conscious act, whereas in some other communities it was a by- process (it was happening in an unplanned manner, it wasapartofotherprocessesof civilization).Establish- ing modern English language and the nation might not be theintention ofGeoffrey Chaucerwhile translating fromItalian,FrenchandLatintoEnglish.Buthistrans- lation has made it. But if we look at the language movementsthataregoingonwhereplanned conscious effort is taking place for establishing their identities, translation is becoming a strong weapon for them. It will be interesting to see translation in a World where there is no struggle for identity and compare it to a World where there is power struggle. Does translation differ from the World of harmony, peace to the World of unrest, struggle, and rebellion? What does it do in these two worlds? One silently goes for dissemination of knowledge, and another's immediate need is an instrument for power. What does translation mean to a Hindi speaker who has an identity, a boundary, ample literary and scien- tific materials and what does translation mean to a Bodo speaker who doesn't have much literature and involved in a movement of establishing BODO or Bodoland? For the first one, translation, selection of thetextwillbemore important,andforthesecondone, material whether through translation or any other meansisimportant. IntheWorldofHindispeaker,what kindoftextandwhosetextswould betranslated isabig question, but for the second one who and what does not matter. Research Paper Aug- Oct, 2013 Translation behaviorin the Central and Peripheral languages: AnIntroductoryStudy * Aditya KumarPanda * Academic Consultant, National Translation Mission, Central Institute of Indian Languages ,Mysore- A B S T R A C T Translation, a phenomenon, can be observed how it behaves in the central languages and how it behaves in the peripheral languages of the World. Broadly, central languages are the dominant major languages of the world whereas the smaller languages are peripheral. These days, translation happens both in central as well as peripheral languages. This paper will evaluate the behavior of translation in both. Key words: central, peripheral, languages, translation Discussion: There is a report from UNESCO (in Index Translationum) which states that the more central a language in the World's translation system, the more types of books are translated from this language. The category of books in English which has already been translated into other languages has 33 categories. Translations from German are found in 28 categories. ThestatisticaldataofflowoftranslationsintheWorld's languageshasbeengiveninIndexTranslationum.The IndexTranslationumstatesthat50to60 %ofallbooks translations are done from English. After English, German and French occupy the central positions. Chinese, Japanese and Arabic are major world's languages but still they are in the peripheral position in terms of translation. Russian had a central position till the fall of communism. Ideological literature can push a language to a central position but it may also cause its fall if the ideology is defeated or suppressed byanother.Here"central"means,itisaninternationally recognized official language, it has its own territories around theWorld,literatureinampleisavailableinthe language; it has a large number of speakers or users etc. Most of the languages which can be considered central are found in the developed countries of the World. English occupies a central position in the World's translation system. More number of books are being translated into English and also from English to other languages. Once English was not enjoying this position, it was a receptor,gradually,thankstocolonialismandempirical expansion, industrial revolution it has become a giver language. In the history of major World languages, we can see that once they were peripheral. From this we could generalize that a language to occupy a central position, should first receive from others. Receptivity is a criterion for a language to move towards a central position.Variousactivitiesoftranslationcouldbeseen
  2. 2. 27SHODH, SAMIKSHA AUR MULYANKAN International Indexed & Refereed Research Journal, ISSN 0974-2832, (Print), E- ISSN- 2320-5474, Aug-Oct, 2013 ( Combind ) VOL –V * ISSUE – 55-57 as the acting forces behind the movement. The activi- ties found in the movement from a peripheral position to a central position and the same found in the move- ment in the central are different and heterogeneous in nature.Moretranslation fromalanguageinthecentral positionmakesthesamelanguagemorecommunicative. More translations from English and into English have made English an international language forcommunicationWorldwide. Translationbehaviorintheperiphery: Where translation is treated as a means to establish one's identity, one's boundary. Here periph- ery means which is at the primary stage of develop- ment, the first attempts are being made for establish- ment. Any kind of text can be selected for translation because here there is a need to produce materials for enriching the language and for the establishment of its own territory.Whetherthereisamarketfortranslation or not, is secondary in the languages that are at the periphery.It is in the movementtowards being central. Translation creates a space at the peripherywhich will concretizethelanguage,whichwillgiveacontexttothe givenlanguageforafunction.Themore thesecontexts arecreated,themorefunctionalthelanguagebecomes. One of the major feature of a major language is it has gotmorecontextsforcommunication.Attheperiphery, as we discussed earlier that the languages are in a receptive state. It is the translation which enables a language to receive more and more from others. The languages which are at the periphery do have a space throughtranslation forcommunicating globally.But if weseethetranslationflowintheperipherallanguages, it gets more from others than it gives. Translation at the peripheryis alwaysin need ofan empowered patron whocan supportit financially and politically. The languages which are central are politicallyand financiallywell-supported.Translation creates literature, empowers the script, and facilitates communicationinthelanguages.Thelanguageswhich are at peripheral state may not have developed scripts, so it is the translation from others develop the same. Translation in the language that is at the pe- riphery is always in search of a model. In style and formats, rules, it is always imitative. In most of the developed Indian languages, translation has followed mostly Western's style and approaches of translation. And now the other developing Indian languages are following the style and rules of developed Indian lan- guages.Translationalso changes the style ofthe target language. Translation, not only contributes to the knowledge system of a society, it also influences the discourseand thelanguagestyleofthetarget language. Translation at the center: Here we are talking about translation in an established system, it has already established its territory, it has ample literature, huge readership. Moreover what Abram says, "The central languages are used in elementary education and usually also at the level of secondary and higher education. They appear in print, in newspapers, in textbooks and in fiction, they are spoken on radio, on cassettes and increasingly on television. Most of them are used in politics, in the bureaucracy and in the courts. They are usually na- tional languages and quite often the official languages of the state that rules the area."[Abram, 2002]. Now the selection of the text will be conser- vative. Itmayselect textsthat maysuitto its objectives or it may prefer some author's texts for ideological reasons. Why Marx has been translated into more no of established languages when they are not at the peripherybutatthecenter?Marxcanalsobetranslated at the periphery without having the same reason for which the established might have gone for. The languageatthecenterhasgotmorenumberofcontexts forcommunicationanduse.Marketisofmuch concern for the central languages. Before translating a book, the publisher of these languages will think about its marketability.Ifabookisabest-sellerinalanguage,the publisher will immediatelygo for it. Conclusion: This is an interesting field of enquiry into the behavior of translation in major lan- guages and in smaller languages. Translation creates a space where a major language communicates to the smaller languages and vice versa. Here translation cannot be seen as a passive actor but it is a force of a contestant who starts to compete and who is already in a competition. The more the flow of translation, the more the language develops. 1 Heilbron, Johan.2010, Structure and Dynamics of the World System of Translation. UNESCO 2 Gentzler, Edwin. 2008, Translation and Identity in the Americas. Routledge 3 House, Juliane. English as Lingua Franca and its influence on Discourse Norms in Other Languages. 2010, Translation Today: Trends and Perspectives, Gunilla Anderman, Margaret Rogers, eds. Multilingual Matters: England 4 Crystal, David.1997, English as a Global Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 5 Swaan, Abram de.2001, Words of the World: The Global Language System, Polity R E F E R E N C E