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115 117

  1. 1. 115RESEARCH ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION International Indexed & Refereed Research Journal, ISSN 0975-3486, (Print), E- ISSN -2320-5482, Aug- Oct, 2013 (Combind) VOL –V * ISSUE- 47-49 Aug- Oct ,2013 ‡ÊÊäÊ ¬òÊ- ‚◊Ê¡‡ÊÊSòÊ ‹Ê∑§ ‚¥S∑ΧÁà ∑§ ‚Ê◊ÊÁ¡∑§ ◊ÍÀÿ ∞fl¥ •ÊäÊÈÁŸ∑§ÃÊ ∑§Ê ¬˝÷Êfl * «UÊÚ. „U◊‹ÃÊ ◊„UÊfl⁄U * √ÿÊÅÿÊÃÊ , ‚◊Ê¡‡ÊÊSòÊ, ◊„UÊ⁄UÊáÊÊ ¬˝Ãʬ ⁄UÊ¡∑§Ëÿ SãÊÊÃ∑§ÊûÊ⁄U ◊„UÊÁfllÊ‹ÿ, ÁøûÊÊÒ«Uª…U∏ izLrkouk (Introduction) ekuoh; ewY; euq"; vkSj izd`fr ds lkeatL; ls mRiUu gksus okys ,sls lkekftd xq.k gSa ftuds }kjk ,d O;fDr lekt esa jgrs gq, oLrqvksa ?kVukvksa vFkok O;ogkjksa dk ewY;kadu djrk gSA ekuo thou esa ewY;ksa dk egRo fufoZokn gSA ;g Hkh ekuk tkrk gS fd ekuo lekt ewY;ksa dk laxBu ,oa ladyu gSA ewY;ksa ds lksikuksa ds lgkjs gh euq"; viuh bPNkvksa vkdk{kkvksa ,oa vkn'kksZa dks izkIr djrk gSA ewY; O;fDrxr] lkoZtfud ,oa jk"Vªh; Lrj ij egRoiw.kZ ekus tkrs gSaA ,p-,e-tkWulu (H.M.Johnson,1961) ds vuqqlkj ewY; O;fDrRo dks ;k lkekftd vUr% izfdz;k dh O;oLFkk dks laxfBr djus esa lgk;d gksrs gSa] D;ksafd dqN ewY; dqN lkekU; vkn'kZ] y{; ;k uhfr;ksa dks lkekftd thou esa izfrf"Br djrs gSa ftlds QyLo:i lkekftd la?k"kZ dh laHkkouk,W ;k lkekftd thou dh laHkkouk,W de gks tkrh gSaA blh izdkj bekby nq[khZe2 (EmileDurkheim,1924)ds vuqlkj ewY;ksa dk tUe lkekftd vUr% fdz;kvksa ds nkSjku gksrk gSA euq"; tc lkoZtfud mRloksa] lHkkvksa vkSj lkoZtfud LFkkuksa ij ,df=r gksrs gSa rc ;g vUr% fdz;k,sa rhoz gks tkrh gS ,sls le; esa ekuo vius vfLrRo dk foy; lewg esa djds lewg ds fopkjksa dks xzg.k dj ysrk gS vkSj O;fDrxr Lrj dks NksM lkewfgd Lrj ij igWqp tkrk gSA bl mPp Lrj ij thou ds mPp vk/kkjksa dk fuekZ.k gksrk gSA thou ds ;s mPp vk/kj lkekftd ewY; gSA vkj-ds eq[kthZ3 (R.K.Mukerjee,1949) ds vuqlkj ^^jk"Vªh; Lrj ij ewY;ksa dk viuk egRo gSA izR;sd jk"Vª vius ewY;ksa dk ikyu djus ds lkFk muls xkSjkokfUor Hkh gksrk gSA ;q) ds le; esa izpkj ds ek/;e ls jk"Vª turk esa ;g fo'okl mRiUu djrk gS fd vius jk"Vªh; ewY;ksa o vkn'kksZa dh th&tku yxkdj Hkh j{kk djuh gSA bl izdkj lkekftd ewY; lkjka'k %&izR;sd xzkeh.k] tutkrh; vkSj vkfnoklh lewg dh viuh laLd`fr] ijEijk] yksd fo'okl] yksd jhfr;kWa] O;ogkj djus ds <ax] [kku&iku] os'kHkw"kk] jhfr fjokt vkfn gksrs gaSA bl izdkj dh fo'ks"krkvksa okys lekt dks ^yksd^ vkSj yksdkpkj iz/kku laLd`fr dks ^yksd laLd`fr^ dgrs gSaA Hkkjrh; xzkeh.k d`f"k lekt Hkh blh Js.kh ds lekt gSA bl lekt ds O;fDr vf'kf{kr] ijEijkoknh] :f<+oknh] rdZ jfgr ,oa ewY; iz/kku thou O;rhr djus okys gksrs gSaA orZeku ifjfLFkfr;ksa esa vk/kqfudrk ds izHkko Lo:i yksd laLd`fr ds lkekftd ewY; fNUu&fHkUu gks jgs gSaaaaaaaaaaA izLrqr 'kks/k i= esa y?kq ijEijk ds izrhd jktLFkku ds izfl) gsyk [;ky esa fo|eku lkekftd ewY;ksa ,oa ewY;ksa ij vk/kqfudrk ds izHkko ls lEcfU/kr tkudkjh dk fo'ys"k.k fd;k x;k gSA egRoiw.kZ 'kCn %& lkekftd ewY;] y?kq ijEijk vk/kqfudrk] yksd lkfgR;] yksd laLd`fr] lajpukRed vk/kkj] mn~fodkl lkekftd thou dk j{kk dop Hkh cu tkrs gSaA ewY;ksa dk egRo O;fDrxr Lrj ij] lkoZtfud Lrj ij vkSj jk"Vªh; Lrj ij fofHkUu :iksa esa gSA lekt esa ,drk LFkkfir djus esa ewY; egRoiw.kZ Hkwfedk fuHkkrs gSA ewY; gh vkn'kZ O;fDrRo dk pgqWeq[kh fodkl djrs gSa vkSj laLd`fr dks lgh vk/kkj nsrs gaSA le;kuqlkj O;fDr dk ewY;ksa ij izHkko iM+rk gS vkSj ewY;ksa ij O;fDr dkA vr% O;fDr vkSj ewY;ksa ds lanHkZ esa le; le; ij tks ?kfVr gksrk gS mlh dh dykRed vfHkO;fDr lkfgR; gSA lkfgR; Li"Vr% lkekftd ewY;ksa dk gh fp=.k gSA lkfgR;dkj lekt dh ftu ifjfLFkfr;ksa ls izHkkfor gksrk gS] mUgha dk fp=.k vius lkfgR; esa djrk gSA lekt dks lqlaLdkfjr] ikjEifjd vkSj laosnu'khy cukus esa ewY;ksa dk ;ksxnku ,oa ewY;ksa dh LFkkiuk rFkk ewY;ksa dks cuk;s j[kus esa lkfgR; dk ;ksxnku vlafnX/k gSA ewY; lekt dks vkUrfjd vkSj HkkokRed LokLFk; iznku djrk gS] vkSj lkfgR; lekt dks lajfpr gksus ds fy, dPpk eky iznku djrk gSA Mk;uk ykjsalu vkSj ,yufLoaxoqM4 (Diana Laureson and Alan Swingwood) ds vuqlkj ^^lekt dsoy laLFkkvksa dk la?kkr ek= ugha gS mlesa ,d vksj tgkW O;fDr ds vkpkj fopkj ds vkn'kksZa ,oa izfrekuksa dh O;oLFkk gS ogha nwljh vksj ,sls ewY;ksa dk vfLrRo gS ftUgsa lkekftd Lrj ij fl) djus ds fy, euq"; dks iz;Ru djuk gksrk gSA lkfgR; esa lkekftd ewY;ksa vkSj izfrekuksa dk izfrfcEc jgrk gS] blesa lUnsg ugha fdUrq mlesa lkfgR;dkj ds O;fDrxr ewY;ksa dh vfHkO;fDr Hkh mruh gh vfuok;Z gS] vkSj ;g dguk xyr u gksxk fd lkfgR;dkj ds ewY;ksa ds Lrj ij gh lkfgR; lekt'kkL=h; v/;;u dks 'kfDr ,oa vFkZiw.kZrk iznku djrk gSA^^ bDdhloha 'krkCnh esa foKku ds O;kid izos'k us ekuo dks rkfdZd nzf"Vdksa.k ls ns[kus ds fy, izsfjr fd;k gSA bl n`f"Vdksa.k ds fodkl ls iwoZ lkfgR; esa uSfrd vkSj /kkfeZd ewY;ksa
  2. 2. 116 RESEARCH ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION International Indexed & Refereed Research Journal, ISSN 0975-3486, (Print), E- ISSN -2320-5482, Aug- Oct, 2013 (Combind) VOL –V * ISSUE- 47-49 dh iz/kkurk Fkh vkSj mlh ds vuq:i lkfgR; dh jpuk gksrh FkhA orZeku esa lkekftd i;kZoj.k esa fnu izfrfnu oSKkfud vfo"dkjksa ds }kjk ewY;ksa] :f<+;ksa] ijEijkvksa vkSj va/kfo'oklksa vkfn dh vko';drk fl) djus ds dkj.k lekt rsth lsca/ku eqDr gksrk tk jgk gSA bl lkekftd Loar=rk dk izHkko lkfgR; ij Hkh rsth ls iM+k gS vkSj dBksj vkn'kZoknh izo`fRr;ksa ds LFkku ij Lora= fopkjksa vkSj laosnukvksa ds laizs"k.k dh izo`fRr c<+h gSA lkfgR; esa rkfdZdrk dk izos'k vk/kqfudrk dk izrhd gSA vk/kqfudrk ds izHkkoLo:i lkfgR; ls lkekftd ewY;ksa ds fp=.k dk yksi gksrk tk jgk gSaA lkfgR; vkn'kZ ewY;ksa dh LFkkiuk ds LFkku ij O;olkf;d :i xzg.k djrk tk jgk gSA vk/kqfud lkfgR; ds ik= lkekftd ewY;ksa ds fonzksg ls Hk;Hkhr ugha gksrs cfYd ewY;ksa ls fonzksg djus okys ik= vk/kqfud fopkj/kkjk ds izrhd ekus tk jgs gSaA O;fDrxr Lora=rk] vkS|ksfxd laca/kksa dh tfVyrk dk fp=.k djus okyk vkt dk lkfgfR;d i;kZoj.k bruk cny pqdk gS fd ijEijkxr lkfgfR;d ewY; u dsoy fo?kfVr gks jgs gSa cfYd vk/kqfud lkfgR; uohu lkekftd leL;kvksa dks Hkh tUe ns jgk gSA lkfgR; esa ewY;ksa dh VdjkgV gks jgh gSA O;fDr&fu"Bk bruh c<+ xbZ gS fd lfg".kqrk vkSj ijfgr Hkkouk ds fy;s LFkku lhfer gks x;k gSA jktLFkku jkT; ds nkSlk ftys dh ykylksV rglhy esa izfro"kZ x.kxkSj ioZ ds volj ij gksus okys gsyk [;ky naxy esa izLrqr fd;s tkus okys lkfgR; ij vk/kkfjr 'kks/k v/;;u ds ek/;e ls ;g fLFkfr vkSj Hkh vf/kd Li"V gksrh gSA 'kks/ k v/;;u ds vUrxZr gsyk [;ky esa fo|eku lkekftd ewY;ksa ,oa ewY;ksa ij vk/kqfudrk ds izHkko ls lEcfU/kr tkudkjh dk fo'ys"k.k djus ds fy, eq[; :i ls ,e-,u- Jhfuokl ,oa ;ksxsUnz flag5 (M.N.Srinivas and Yogendra Singh) ds ekin.M dks vk/kkj cuk;k x;k gSA ,e-,u- Jhfuokl vk/kqfudrk dk izkjEHk vaxzstksa ds vkxeu ls ekurs gSaA muds fy;s e'khuhdj.k] jsyxkM+h] NikbZ dh e'khu vkfn vk/kqfudrk ds izek.k gSaA muds vuqlkj vaxzst bl ns'k esa O;kikjh dh rjg vk;s] ij ckn esa tc mUgksaus ;gkWa dh lRrk dks viuk;k rc viuh tMsa etcwr djus ds fy;s ,d fo'ks"k izdkj dh vk/kqfudrk dks tUe fn;kA eqnz.k ds fy;s fizfVax izsl] vkokxeu ds fy;s jsyxkfM+;kWa] esdkys }kjk izLrkfor vaxzsth Hkk"kk dks f'k{kk dk ek/;e cuk;k x;kA ewy :i ls Jhfuokl us rduhdh vkSj rkfdZdrk ds iz;ksx dks gh vk/kqfudrk dk i;kZ; ekuk gSA blh izdkj ;ksxsUnz flag us vk/kqfudrk ds nks izeq[k vk/kkjksa dk mYys[k fd;k gSA o lajpukRed (Structural) o mn~fodklh; (Evolutionary) buds vuqlkj lajpukRed vk/kkj esa lapkj] rduhdh ra=] vFkZO;oLFkk] iztkra=] jktuhfrd laLFkk,as ,oa ekuo ewY; lfEefyr gSaA ;s lc rRo vk/kqfudrk ds rRo gSa vkSj lS)kafrd Lrj ij vk/kqfudrk ds bu rRoksa ds }kjk tc dksbZ lkekftd ifjorZu lekt esa vkrk gS rks bls vk/kqfudrk dk mn~fodklh; ifjorZu dgk tkrk gSA 'kks/k i)fr gsyk [;ky naxy ij vk/kkfjr 'kks/k v/;;u ds vUrxZr lkekftd ewY;ksa ls lEcfU/kr tkudkjh ds fy;s gsyk [;ky izLrqr djus okys xq:] eqf[k;k] dykdkj ,oa n'kZd oxZ ls vuqlwph ds ek/;e ls iz'uksa ds mRrj izkIr fd;s x;s gSaA mRrjksa dh izkfIr ds fy;s xq:] eqf[k;k ,oa dykdkj ds fy, ,d lkekU; rFkk n'kZd oxZ ds fy;s fHkUu vuqlwph dk iz;ksx fd;k x;k gSA v/;;u esa lEHkkouk jfgr fun'kZu (Non ProbabilitySampling)ds izdkj mÌs';iw.kZ fun'kZu (Purpo- sive Sampling) dk iz;ksx fd;k x;k gSA fun'kZu esa naxy izLrqr djus okys 10 nyksa ds lHkh 10 xq:vksa] 10 eqf[k;kvksa ,oa izR;sd ny ds 10&10 lg;ksxh dykdkjksa dk p;u fd;k x;k gSA blh izdkj n'kZd oxZ esa ls 30 n'kZdksa dk p;u Hkh vuqla/kku ds mÌs'; ds vuq:i fd;k x;k gSA fo'ys"k.k ,oa fu"d"kZ 'kks/k v/;;u ds vkadM+s n'kkZrs gSa fd gsyk [;ky izn'kZu ds ,sfrgkfld Lo:i esa ifjorZu gqvk gSA orZeku esa izn'kZu dk lajpukRed i{k vk/kqfud rRoksa ls lokZf/kd izHkkfor gS v/;;u ds O;Ld mRrjnkrk bl rF; dks vf/kd Lohdkj djrs gSaA izn'kZu dk xk;u i{k vk/kqfudrk ls lokZf/kd izHkkfor gSA izkjEHk esa xk;u esa 'kkL=h; /kquksa ¼y;½ dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk FkkA orZeku izn'kZu esa fQYeh /kquksa dk iz;ksx vf/kd gksrk gSA ns[ksa lkj.kh 1 v/;;u ls ;g Li"V gksrk gS fd vk/kqfud ;a= Hkh gsyk [;ky izn'kZu dks izHkkfor dj jgs gSa izn'kZu ij Vh-oh- flusek] lh-Mh- Iys;j ,oa jsfM;ks lokZf/kd izHkko Mkyus okys ;a= gSA mRrjnkrk ekurs gSa fd izn'kZu ij vk/kqfud ;a=ksa dk ldkjkRed ,oa udkjkRed nksuksa izdkj dk izHkko gks jgk gSA vk/kqfud ;a=ksa ds ek/;e ls gsyk [;ky dh jpukvksa dk laj{k.k fd;k tk jgk gSA bls mRrjnkrk vk/kqfud ;a=ksa dk izn'kZu ij ldkjkRed izHkko ekurs gSA vk/kqfud ;a=ksa ds izHkko ds dkj.k izn'kZu esa yksxksa dh :fp de gksuk udkjkRed izHkko dks n'kkZrk gSA orZeku esa gsyk [;ky tSls ijEijkxr euksjatu ds lk/ kuksa ds izfr ;qok ih<+h ds mRlkg esa deh dk dkj.k Hkh vk/ kqfud ;a= gh gSaA Vh-oh- o flusek dh rhozrk rFkk mRrstdrk ;qokvksa dks vf/kd vkdf"kZr djrh gSA mRrjnkrkvksa us crk;k fd gsyk [;ky izzn'kZu esa ;qok ih<+h dks vkdf"kZr djus ds mik; fd;s tk jgs gSaA buesa f'k{kkizn fo"k;ksa dk p;u ,oa f'kf{kr O;fDr;ksa dks f'k"; cukuk izeq[k gSA dk;Zdze dks vf/kd euksjatd cukdj Hkh ;qokvksa dks vkdf"kZr fd;k tk jgk gSA v/;;u ls ;g Hkh Li"V gksrk gS fd orZeku esa dykdkjksa ds lekt ds vU; yksxksa ds lkFk laca/kksa esa Hkh ifjorZu gqvk gSA laca/kksa esa ifjorZu dk Lo:i ldkjkRed ,oa udkjkRed nksuksa
  3. 3. 117RESEARCH ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION International Indexed & Refereed Research Journal, ISSN 0975-3486, (Print), E- ISSN -2320-5482, Aug- Oct, 2013 (Combind) VOL –V * ISSUE- 47-49 izdkj dk yksx vkt Hkh dykdkjksa dh dyk dks ns[kdj vk'p;Zpfdr gksrs gaSA ;g laca/kksa dk ldkjkRed Lo:i gS] fdUrq dykdkjksa dh vkfFkZd fLFkfr ds dkj.k mUgsa mis{kk dh n`f"V ls ns[krs gSa ;g laca/kksa dk udkjkRed Lo:i gSA v/;;u ds vYi vk; okys mRrjnkrk bl rF; dks vf/kd Lohdkj djrs gSAA ,sfrgkfld dky esa gsyk [;ky izn'kZu dh O;oLFkk lekt ds yksxksa }kjk lkewfgd :i ls dh tkrh FkhA ml le; LoLFk izfrLi/kkZ dks c<+kok nsus ds mÌs'; ls bls izfrLi/kkZRed :i esa vk;ksftr fd;k tkrk FkkA orZeku esa la?k"kZ dh laHkkouk dks ns[krs gq, blds izfrLi/kkZRed Lo:i dks lekIr dj fn;k x;k gSA izfrLi/kkZ ek= lEeku ds Lrj rd gh lhfer gSA izn'kZu esa Hkkx ysus okys lHkh nyksa ds eqf[k;k dks vPNh ixMh igukdj lEekfur fd;k tkrk gSA izn'kZu dh O;oLFkk Hkh orZeku esa gsyk [;ky naxy lfefr ,oa uxjikfydk nksuksa ds }kjk lfEefyr :i ls dh tkrh gSA gsyk [;ky izn'kZu dks lHkh tkfr ,oa /keksZa ds yksx ,d lkFk cSBdj ns[krs gSaA fdlh Hkh izdkj dk HksnHkko ugha fd;k tkrk gS v/;;u ds mRRkjnkrk ;g Hkh ekurs gSa fd tkfrxr HksnHkko dks lekIr djus esa f'k{kk dh Hkwfedk egRoiw.kZ gSA v/;;u ds fuj{kj mRrjnkrk bl rF; ls vf/kd lger gSA izn'kZu esa fn[kk;s x;s vkn'kksZa dk vuqlj.k djus ,oa lkFk cSBdj ns[kus dz-la- izn'kZu ij izHkko Mkyus okys vk/kqfud ;a= mRrjnkrk dqy ;ksx xq: eqf[k;k dykdkj n'kZd 1- Vh-oh- 2 ¼1-33½ 1 ¼0-67½ 17 ¼11-33½ 4 ¼2-66½ 24 ¼16½ 2- jsfM;ks 1 ¼0-67½ 1 ¼0-67½ 13 ¼8-67½ 3 ¼2½ 18 ¼12½ 3- flusek 1 ¼0-67½ 2 ¼1-33½ 16 ¼10-67½ 5 ¼3-33½ 24 ¼16½ 4- eksckby 1 ¼0-67½ 1 ¼0-67½ 8 ¼5-33½ 3 ¼2½ 13 ¼8-67½ 5- ykmMLihdj 1 ¼0-67½ 1 ¼0-67½ 7 ¼4-67½ 2 ¼1-33½ 11 ¼7-33½ 6- dEI;wVj 1 ¼0-67½ 1 ¼0-67½ 6 ¼4½ 3 ¼2½ 11 ¼7-33½ 7- lh-Mh- Iys;j 1 ¼0-67½ 1 ¼0-67½ 15 ¼10½ 6 ¼4½ 23 ¼15-33½ 8- fons'kh pSuy 1 ¼0-67½ 1 ¼0-67½ 9 ¼6½ 2 ¼1-33½ 13 ¼8-67½ 9- irk ugha 1 ¼0-67½ 1 ¼0-67½ 7 ¼4-67½ 4 ¼2-66½ 13 ¼8-67½ ;ksx 10 ¼6-69½ 10 ¼6-69½ 100 ¼66-66½ 30 ¼20½ 150 ¼100½ lkj.kh 1 izn'kZu dks izHkkfor djus okys vk/kqfud ;a= ls ikfjokfjd izse c<+rk gSA vr% Li"V gS fd izn'kZu lkEiznkf;d ,oa ikfjokfjd ,drk dks c<+krk gSA gsyk [;ky izn'kZu esa ,sfrgkfld dky ls gh dykdkj ,oa n'kZd nksuksa gh :iksa esa efgykvksa dh lgHkkfxrk ugha jgh gSA bldk izeq[k dkj.k efgykvksa dh e;kZnk ds vuqdwy vyx O;oLFkk laHko ugha gks ikuk gSA mRrjnkrkvksa dk ekuuk gS fd izn'kZu esa ;fn efgykvksa dks 'kkfey fd;k tk;s rks blds lekjkRed ,oa udkjkRed nksuksa izdkj ds izHkko gksaxsA efgykvksa dh lgHkkfxrk ls izn'kZu vf/kd vkd"kZd gksxk] dykdkjksa ,oa n'kZdksa dh la[;k esa o`f) gksxh rFkk dyk ds uohu i{kksa esa o`f) gksxhA udkjkRed izHkkoLo:i efgykvksa dh lgHkkfxrk ls izn'kZu ds nkSjku la?k"kZ dh laHkkouk esa o``f) gksxhA lq>ko fu"d"kZr% ;g dgk tk ldrk gS fd gsyk [;ky yksd laLd`fr dk izrhd gSA blds lkekftd ewY; yksd ijEijk dk izfrfuf/kRo djrs gS] fdUrq vk/kqfud fopkj/kkjk ds QyLo:i bldk ikjEifjd Lo:i u"V gksrk tk jgk gSA dykdkjksa ,oa n'kZdksa dh la[;k esa deh ds dkj.k bls cpk;s j[kus ds mÌs'; ls izn'kZu dRrkZ blds ewy Lo:i esa yxkrkj ifjorZu djrs tk jgs gSaA yksd laLd`fr ds bl ekSfyd rRo dks cpk;s j[kus ds fy;s ,d Li"V lkekftd ,oa ljdkjh uhfr dh vko';drk gSA 1. Johnson, H.M. Sociology: A Systematic Introduction. P. 49.1961 2. Durkheim, Emile in R.K. Mukerjee. Culture and art of India.1959. George Alen and Unwin-London. 3. Mukherjee, Radhakamal. Culture and Art of India. 1959-George Allen and unwin. London. 4. Lowenthal, L..Literature and Image of Man 1957. Beacon Press- 5. Doshi,S.L.. Modernity,Post Modernity and Neo sociological theories.2002 Rawat Publication. Jaipur. ‚¥Œ÷¸ ª˝¥Õ

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