Three-Fifths Compromise Issue was how to count the slaves Northerners felt slaves were property and should NOT count for representation Southerners demanded that Blacks be counted with This compromise allowed a state to count three-fifths of each Black person in determining representation in the House of Representatives
Great Compromise Solved the issue regarding representation in the legislature Large States v. Small States Congress would be bicameral (two houses) with a Senate and a House of Representatives Small states received equal representation in the Senate Large states received proportional representation in the House of Representatives
Bill of Rights The Constitution did not contain a section specifically outlining the rights of individual citizens. Supporters of the Constitution (Federalists) argued that guarantees of individual rights were not needed. Opposition to the Constitution (Anti-Federalists) believed some specific provision stating the rights of individuals was necessary.
Bill of Rights A compromise was reached Anti-Federalists agreed to ratify the Constitution with the understanding that the first national legislature meeting would pass amendments guaranteeing individual rights The first 10 amendments to the Constitution are known as the Bill of Rights
Alien and Sedition Acts Was designed to hurt the Republican Party Goal was to muzzle the Republican press by making it a crime to speak or publish anything false or malicious against the federal government or any of its officers The Alien aspect of the law allowed the President to send immigrants back to their homeland if they spoke out against the government
National Bank Jefferson and Madison argued that Congress had no right to set up a bank, It was not among the enumerated powers (specifically mentioned in the Constitution) Nor was it an implied power (a power that while not directly stated in the Constitution, is suggested and does allow Congress to exercise its stated powers)
National Bank According to Jefferson and Madison if the federal government established a national bank, there would be no limits to federal power Hamilton argued that because the bank’s functions were among the powers given Congress, the Constitution gave the Congress the right to choose any legal means to carry out those functions And so the National Bank was created in 1791
Foreign Policy French Revolution Those in the majority, like Jefferson, who continued to support France believed that the excesses of the revolution would end at some point, and a republic would rise out of the chaos. They applauded France's declaration of war against Britain and viewed it as yet another blow to monarchy and tyranny.
Foreign Policy Hamilton, on the other hand, saw devastating consequences to supporting France. In November of 1792, after he had learned that the King had been deposed, Hamilton suspended payments on the debt to France on the grounds that, if the monarchy were restored, any payments made to the interim regime would likely not be credited as such.
War of 1812 Nationalism Political Parties Foreign Relations
War of 1812 Ended as a stalemate Created a greater sense of nationalism in Canada and the United States Canada became a distinct nation British were no longer a powerful force in the United States Native Americans could no longer use the feud between America and Britain as a way to protect their lands from whites.
War of 1812 The war was a turning point in political parties People were tired of the Federalists who were the ruling power and controlled everything Democrat-Republicans were accepted who focused more on farmers than wealthy business men Just because a person does not have land or money does not mean they are NOT valuable to the United States
War of 1812 The US had gained independence from Britain, but the British were exerting its power over America British enticed the Native Americans to attack the US British attacked US ships and forced American sailors to fight for the British (impressment)
War of 1812 US decided to go to war rather than be pushed around by Britain Treaty of Ghent ended the War of 1812 It did not contain a word about neutral rights or impressment, no territory changed hands, they just agreed to stop fighting
Strict Interpretation of Constitution Involves doing only what is written (expressly) in the constitution—if it does not appear word for word in the constitution—then the government does not have the power to do it
Loose Interpretation involves both expressed and implied powers of the Constitution—namely the necessary and proper clause The government has the power to do something because it is considered to be vital to the government there fore it is necessary and can be done
Alien and Sedition Acts Used the necessary and proper clause to silence the Republicans from saying anything negative against the government or to send immigrants home for criticizing the government
Louisiana Purchase Although the Constitution did not specifically empower the federal government to acquire new territory by treaty, Jefferson concluded that the practical benefits to the nation far outweighed the possible violation of the Constitution
Marshall Court In a series of historic decisions, he established the judiciary as an independent and influential branch of the government equal to Congress and the Presidency. Perhaps the most significant of these cases was that of Marbury v. Madison, in which the principle of judicial review.
McCulloch v Maryland The Court determined the separate states could not tax the federal government The fundamental case established the following two principles: (1) that the Constitution grants to Congress implied powers so government can function (2) that state action may not override actions of the Federal government.
Manifest Destiny Many Americans in the early 1800s believed that it was the destiny of America to control all of the North American continent. Americans believed that they were bringing God, technology and civilization to the lands in the west. What they brought, in fact, was death, disease and wars to the Native Americans and Mexicans who occupied these lands. Americans used the idea of Manifest Destiny to justify their dishonest, cruel, and racist treatment of the Indians and Mexicans who already occupied these lands.
Northwest Ordinance Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin Ordinance provided for at least three but not more than five states in this area Provided for education and exclusion of slavery in the area Accelerated westward expansion of the US
Mexican American War The first major conflict driven by Manifest Destiny Following the earlier Texas War of Independence from Mexico, tensions between the two largest independent nations on the North American continent grew as Texas eventually became a U.S. state. Disputes over the border lines sparked military confrontation, helped by the fact that President Polk eagerly sought a war in order to seize large tracts of land from Mexico. The United States acquired the northern half of Mexico. This area later became the U.S. states of California, Nevada, Arizona, New Mexico and Utah.
Mexican-American War President Santa Anna lost power in Mexico following the war. Relations between the United States and Mexico remained tense for many decades to come, with several military encounters along the border. For the United States, this war provided a training-ground for the men who would lead the Northern and Southern armies in the upcoming American Civil War.
Gold Rush The Gold Rush incited ambushes, massacres and deliberate extermination campaigns of native peoples in California. Some key statistics include the following: Indigenous impact of the Gold Rush in California Estimated native population before 1848 gold rush: 150,000 Estimated native population in 1870: 31,000
Gold Rush Estimated native population killed by new diseases brought by gold rush settlers: 60% Price for native American severed head in Shasta in 1855: $5 Price for native American scalp in Honey Lake in 1863: 25 cents California state government reimbursement for scalping missions in 1851: $1,000,000
Gold Rush Estimated number of native American children sold: 4,000 Price for young boys : up to $60 Price for young girls : up to $200 Estimated value of gold dug up during gold rush in California: 24.3 million ounces (1848 - 1857) Estimated value of gold at 1998 gold prices: $6.9 billion (at $285 an ounce) July 28, 2011 $1,611 per ounce
Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution was a dramatic change in the nature of production in which machines replaced tools, steam and other energy sources replaced human or animal power, and skilled workers were replaced with mostly unskilled workers. A key element of the Industrial Revolution was the harnessing of steam power through steam engines
Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution resulted in work that had been performed in the home by family members, such as spinning yarn, being performed with the help of large powerful machines in factories, such as the early textile mill.
Interchangeable Parts Interchangeable parts are components of an assembly which are designed to meet specific tolerances so that any component of one type can be fitted with any component of a second type. This streamlines the manufacturing process, since all pieces are guaranteed to fit with all others, and it similarly creates the opportunity for replacement parts.
Cotton Gin After the invention of the cotton gin, the yield of raw cotton doubled each decade after 1800. By mid-century America was growing three-quarters of the world's supply of cotton, most of it shipped to England or New England where it was manufactured into cloth.
Expansion of Suffrage Greater political democracywas aided by the admission of six new states to the union. Five of which had manhood suffrage, along with the extension of the suffrage laws by many of the older states, weakened the power of the older political organizations and opened the way for the rise of new political leaders skilled in appealing to the mass of voters.
Appeal to the Common Man Andrew Jackson's election in 1828 is described as The Revolution of 1828. It brought to power the first American President not rooted in the Eastern aristocracy. He was elected by the "common" man and acted within that mandate. Jackson's Presidency is the beginning of the modern Presidency, one in which the powers vested in the office of the President grew immensely.
Justification of the Spoils System Jackson was the first President to introduce the spoils system to national government, basing appointments on political support. Thus, patronage - present on a state level - became predominant on a national level. Jackson used his function as the head of the party to enhance his power.
Opposition to Elitism Jackson was not one to follow the wishes of the wealthy and well born just because they were wealthy. He was viewed as working for the average—common man—he was born in a log cabin after all!
Opposition to the Bank of the United States Jackson was a major opponent of the Second Bank of the United States, considered an instrument of the Eastern establishment. He succeeded in having the bank's charter revoked.
Indian Removal Act 1830 Passed into law during Jackson's second year as President, this Act set the tone for his administration's handling of all Indian affairs. Though all Eastern tribes were eventually relocated West of the Mississippi Nearly all relocation was carried out under duress, whether by military escort, or when no other option remained after tribal decimation by broken treaties, fraudulent land deals and the wars these often caused.
Reaction to Immigration A movement that spread throughout the US in response to the increase of immigrants who came to America looking for work. This became a problem when those immigrants took jobs away from people already living here. Navitism became the theme of those who wanted to hire those already here in the US over new immigrants coming in.
Germans By far the most Germans who immigrated to the United States left Germany in search of an improved standard of living. Religious freedom prompted many groups to immigrate, as did fear of compulsory service in the Prussian military.
Irish Ireland’s 1845 Potato Blight is often credited with launching the second wave of Irish immigration to America. The fungus which decimated potato crops created a devastating famine. Starvation plagued Ireland and within five years, a million Irish were dead while half a million had arrived in America to start a new life. Living conditions in Ireland were deplorable long before the Potato Blight of 1845, however, and a large number of Irish left their homeland as early as the 1820s.
Philosophical Reform Socialism—socialists believed that business competition and individual ownership of property caused poverty and inequality They wanted to substitute cooperation for competition and common ownership for individual ownership
Mental Health 1840—Dorothea Dix began visiting prisons where she found many mentally ill person who were being treated like criminals She established asylums where mental illness could be treated as a disease rather than a crime Because of her influence many states established asylums
Women’s Rights 1800s women were considered second class citizens—could not vote, hand no legal right to manage the affairs of their own children—received less pay than males Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton organized the Seneca Falls Convention where they drew up the Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions—not much was gained, however many did gain the right to own property
Temperance Was popular among Protestant groups—was the attempt to ban the use of alcohol The movement wanted to do away with social evils such as poverty and crime that were thought to be brought on by heavy drinking
Influences on International Trade US economic sanctions International sanctions are actions taken by countries against others for political reasons, either unilaterally or multilaterally. Sanctions consist of three major forms: Diplomatic sanctions - the reduction or removal of diplomatic ties, such as embassies. Economic sanctions - typically a ban on trade, possibly limited or with certain exceptions (such as food and medicine) Military sanctions - military intervention
Influences on International Trade Weather Drought, flood, hail Exchange Rates Impact patterns of imports and exports by changing competitiveness of products from different countries War Damage goods and relations, can be viewed as an aggressor nation
Influences on International Trade Boycotts Keep countries from buying, using or dealing with nations as an expression of protest Embargos To prohibit trade with a certain country
Services Provided by Government Education Schools, head start programs, free and reduced lunches Health Agency Rush County Health Nurse Fire Department Volunteer fire department, trucks, equipment
Services Provided by Government Police Some towns have their own—we share Rush County Sheriff’s office or sometimes send to Barton County/Ness County Care for Property Try to make sure the town is clean, notify people to clean up lots, if they do not, then take bids to have someone clean up the lot
Services Provided by Government Parks Fund parks and swimming pools in some areas Recreation Some tax dollars to go to summer recreation programs