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Early United States


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8th Grade first nine weeks lecture notes

8th Grade first nine weeks lecture notes

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  • 1. Early United States
    8th Grade
    Unit 1
  • 2.  
    U.S. History
    by the
  • 3. Three-Fifths Compromise
  • 4. Three-Fifths Compromise
    Issue was how to count the slaves
    Northerners felt slaves were property and should NOT count for representation
    Southerners demanded that Blacks be counted with
    This compromise allowed a state to count three-fifths of each Black person in determining representation in the House of Representatives
  • 5.  
    Great Compromise
  • 6. Great Compromise
    Solved the issue regarding representation in the legislature
    Large States v. Small States
    Congress would be bicameral (two houses) with a Senate and a House of Representatives
    Small states received equal representation in the Senate
    Large states received proportional representation in the House of Representatives
  • 7. Bill of Rights
  • 8. Bill of Rights
    The Constitution did not contain a section specifically outlining the rights of individual citizens.
    Supporters of the Constitution (Federalists) argued that guarantees of individual rights were not needed.
    Opposition to the Constitution (Anti-Federalists) believed some specific provision stating the rights of individuals was necessary.
  • 9. Bill of Rights
    A compromise was reached
    Anti-Federalists agreed to ratify the Constitution with the understanding that the first national legislature meeting would pass amendments guaranteeing individual rights
    The first 10 amendments to the Constitution are known as the Bill of Rights
  • 10. Alien and Sedition Acts
  • 11. Alien and Sedition Acts
    Was designed to hurt the Republican Party
    Goal was to muzzle the Republican press by making it a crime to speak or publish anything false or malicious against the federal government or any of its officers
    The Alien aspect of the law allowed the President to send immigrants back to their homeland if they spoke out against the government
  • 12. National Bank
  • 13. National Bank
    Jefferson and Madison argued that Congress had no right to set up a bank,
    It was not among the enumerated powers (specifically mentioned in the Constitution)
    Nor was it an implied power (a power that while not directly stated in the Constitution, is suggested and does allow Congress to exercise its stated powers)
  • 14. National Bank
    According to Jefferson and Madison if the federal government established a national bank, there would be no limits to federal power
    Hamilton argued that because the bank’s functions were among the powers given Congress, the Constitution gave the Congress the right to choose any legal means to carry out those functions
    And so the National Bank was created in 1791
  • 15. Foreign Policy
  • 16. Foreign Policy
    French Revolution
    Those in the majority, like Jefferson, who continued to support France believed that the excesses of the revolution would end at some point, and a republic would rise out of the chaos.
    They applauded France's declaration of war against Britain and viewed it as yet another blow to monarchy and tyranny.
  • 17. Foreign Policy
    Hamilton, on the other hand, saw devastating consequences to supporting France.
    In November of 1792, after he had learned that the King had been deposed, Hamilton suspended payments on the debt to France on the grounds that, if the monarchy were restored, any payments made to the interim regime would likely not be credited as such.
  • 18. War of 1812
    Political Parties
    Foreign Relations
  • 19. Nationalism
  • 20. War of 1812
    Ended as a stalemate
    Created a greater sense of nationalism in Canada and the United States
    Canada became a distinct nation
    British were no longer a powerful force in the United States
    Native Americans could no longer use the feud between America and Britain as a way to protect their lands from whites.
  • 21. Political Parties
  • 22. War of 1812
    The war was a turning point in political parties
    People were tired of the Federalists who were the ruling power and controlled everything
    Democrat-Republicans were accepted who focused more on farmers than wealthy business men
    Just because a person does not have land or money does not mean they are NOT valuable to the United States
  • 23. Foreign Relations
  • 24. War of 1812
    The US had gained independence from Britain, but the British were exerting its power over America
    British enticed the Native Americans to attack the US
    British attacked US ships and forced American sailors to fight for the British (impressment)
  • 25. War of 1812
    US decided to go to war rather than be pushed around by Britain
    Treaty of Ghent ended the War of 1812
    It did not contain a word about neutral rights or impressment, no territory changed hands, they just agreed to stop fighting
  • 26. Constitutional Interpretation
  • 27. Strict Interpretation of Constitution
    Involves doing only what is written (expressly) in the constitution—if it does not appear word for word in the constitution—then the government does not have the power to do it
  • 28. Loose Interpretation
    involves both expressed and implied powers of the Constitution—namely the necessary and proper clause
    The government has the power to do something because it is considered to be vital to the government there fore it is necessary and can be done
  • 29. Alien and Sedition Act
  • 30. Alien and Sedition Acts
    Used the necessary and proper clause to silence the Republicans from saying anything negative against the government or to send immigrants home for criticizing the government
  • 31. Louisiana Purchase
  • 32. Louisiana Purchase
    Although the Constitution did not specifically empower the federal government to acquire new territory by treaty, Jefferson concluded that the practical benefits to the nation far outweighed the possible violation of the Constitution
  • 33. Marshall Court
  • 34. Marshall Court
    In a series of historic decisions, he established the judiciary as an independent and influential branch of the government equal to Congress and the Presidency.
    Perhaps the most significant of these cases was that of Marbury v. Madison, in which the principle of judicial review.
  • 35. Marbury v. Madison
  • 36. Marbury v. Madison
    legally established the judiciary—and in particular, the Supreme Court—as an equal partner among the three branches of the American federal government.
  • 37. McCullough v. Maryland
  • 38. McCulloch v Maryland
    The Court determined the separate states could not tax the federal government
    The fundamental case established the following two principles:
    (1) that the Constitution grants to Congress implied powers so government can function
    (2) that state action may not override actions of the Federal government.
  • 39. Louisiana Purchase
  • 40. Louisiana Purchase
    The United States purchased (15 million)from France the Louisiana Territory, (800,000 sq. mi) of land extending from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains.
  • 41. Manifest Destiny
  • 42. Manifest Destiny
    Many Americans in the early 1800s believed that it was the destiny of America to control all of the North American continent.
    Americans believed that they were bringing God, technology and civilization to the lands in the west.
    What they brought, in fact, was death, disease and wars to the Native Americans and Mexicans who occupied these lands.
    Americans used the idea of Manifest Destiny to justify their dishonest, cruel, and racist treatment of the Indians and Mexicans who already occupied these lands.
  • 43. Northwest Ordinance
  • 44. Northwest Ordinance
    Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin
    Ordinance provided for at least three but not more than five states in this area
    Provided for education and exclusion of slavery in the area
    Accelerated westward expansion of the US
  • 45. Mexican-American War
  • 46. Mexican American War
    The first major conflict driven by Manifest Destiny
    Following the earlier Texas War of Independence from Mexico, tensions between the two largest independent nations on the North American continent grew as Texas eventually became a U.S. state.
    Disputes over the border lines sparked military confrontation, helped by the fact that President Polk eagerly sought a war in order to seize large tracts of land from Mexico.
    The United States acquired the northern half of Mexico. This area later became the U.S. states of California, Nevada, Arizona, New Mexico and Utah.
  • 47. Mexican-American War
    President Santa Anna lost power in Mexico following the war.
    Relations between the United States and Mexico remained tense for many decades to come, with several military encounters along the border.
    For the United States, this war provided a training-ground for the men who would lead the Northern and Southern armies in the upcoming American Civil War.
  • 48. Gold Rush
  • 49. Gold Rush
    The Gold Rush incited ambushes, massacres and deliberate extermination campaigns of native peoples in California. Some key statistics include the following:
    Indigenous impact of the Gold Rush in California
    Estimated native population before 1848 gold rush: 150,000
    Estimated native population in 1870: 31,000
  • 50. Gold Rush
    Estimated native population killed by new diseases brought by gold rush settlers: 60%
    Price for native American severed head in Shasta in 1855: $5
    Price for native American scalp in Honey Lake in 1863: 25 cents
    California state government reimbursement for scalping missions in 1851: $1,000,000
  • 51. Gold Rush
    Estimated number of native American children sold: 4,000
    Price for young boys : up to $60
    Price for young girls : up to $200
    Estimated value of gold dug up during gold rush in California: 24.3 million ounces (1848 - 1857)
    Estimated value of gold at 1998 gold prices: $6.9 billion (at $285 an ounce)
    July 28, 2011 $1,611 per ounce
  • 52. Industrial Revolution
  • 53. Industrial Revolution
    The Industrial Revolution was a dramatic change in the nature of production in which machines replaced tools, steam and other energy sources replaced human or animal power, and skilled workers were replaced with mostly unskilled workers.
    A key element of the Industrial Revolution was the harnessing of steam power through steam engines
  • 54. Industrial Revolution
    The Industrial Revolution resulted in work that had been performed in the home by family members, such as spinning yarn, being performed with the help of large powerful machines in factories, such as the early textile mill.
  • 55. Industrial Revolution
    Interchangeable Parts
  • 56. Interchangeable Parts
  • 57. Interchangeable Parts
    Interchangeable parts are components of an assembly which are designed to meet specific tolerances so that any component of one type can be fitted with any component of a second type.
    This streamlines the manufacturing process, since all pieces are guaranteed to fit with all others, and it similarly creates the opportunity for replacement parts.
  • 58. Cotton
  • 59. Cotton Gin
    After the invention of the cotton gin, the yield of raw cotton doubled each decade after 1800.
    By mid-century America was growing three-quarters of the world's supply of cotton, most of it shipped to England or New England where it was manufactured into cloth.
  • 60.  
  • 61. Railroads
    Allowed products to be shipped to numerous areas of the United States on land
  • 62. Steamboats
  • 63. Steamboats
    Allowed products to be shipped to numerous areas of the United States on rivers
  • 64. Canals
  • 65. Canals
    Built to connect rivers in towns which facilitated shipment of goods made during the American Revolution
  • 66. Andrew Jackson
    Expansion of Suffrage
    Appeal to the Common Man
    Justification of the Spoils System
  • 67.  
    Expansion of Suffrage
  • 68. Expansion of Suffrage
    Greater political democracywas aided by the admission of six new states to the union.
    Five of which had manhood suffrage, along with the extension of the suffrage
    laws by many of the older states, weakened the power of the older political organizations and opened the way for the rise of new political leaders skilled in appealing to the mass of voters.
  • 69.  
    Appeal to the Common Man
  • 70. Appeal to the Common Man
    Andrew Jackson's election in 1828 is described as The Revolution of 1828.
    It brought to power the first American President not rooted in the Eastern aristocracy. He was elected by the "common" man and acted within that mandate.
    Jackson's Presidency is the beginning of the modern Presidency, one in which the powers vested in the office of the President grew immensely.
  • 71.  
    Justification of the Spoils System
  • 72. Justification of the Spoils System
    Jackson was the first President to introduce the spoils system to national government, basing appointments on political support.
    Thus, patronage - present on a state level - became predominant on a national level.
    Jackson used his function as the head of the party to enhance his power.
  • 73. Andrew Jackson (continued)
    Opposition to Elitism
    Opposition to Bank of the US
    Indian Removal Act 1830
  • 74.  
    Opposition to Elitism
  • 75. Opposition to Elitism
    Jackson was not one to follow the wishes of the wealthy and well born just because they were wealthy.
    He was viewed as working for the average—common man—he was born in a log cabin after all!
  • 76.  
    Opposition to Bank of the US
  • 77. Opposition to the Bank of the United States
    Jackson was a major opponent of the Second Bank of the United States, considered an instrument of the Eastern establishment.
    He succeeded in having the bank's charter revoked.
  • 78.  
    Indian Removal Act 1830
  • 79. Indian Removal Act 1830
    Passed into law during Jackson's second year as President, this Act set the tone for his administration's handling of all Indian affairs.
    Though all Eastern tribes were eventually relocated West of the Mississippi
    Nearly all relocation was carried out under duress, whether by military escort, or when no other option remained after tribal decimation by broken treaties, fraudulent land deals and the wars these often caused.
  • 80. Navitism
  • 81. Reaction to Immigration
    A movement that spread throughout the US in response to the increase of immigrants who came to America looking for work. This became a problem when those immigrants took jobs away from people already living here.
    Navitism became the theme of those who wanted to hire those already here in the US over new immigrants coming in.
  • 82. Germans
  • 83. Germans
    By far the most Germans who immigrated to the United States left Germany in search of an improved standard of living. 
    Religious freedom prompted many groups to immigrate, as did fear of compulsory service in the Prussian military. 
  • 84. Irish
  • 85. Irish
    Ireland’s 1845 Potato Blight is often credited with launching the second wave of Irish immigration to America.
    The fungus which decimated potato crops created a devastating famine. Starvation plagued Ireland and within five years, a million Irish were dead while half a million had arrived in America to start a new life.
    Living conditions in Ireland were deplorable long before the Potato Blight of 1845, however, and a large number of Irish left their homeland as early as the 1820s.
  • 86. Religious Reform
  • 87. Religious Reform
    New religious groups arose including those that practiced community living
    Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons) and Shakers
  • 88. Philosophical Reform
  • 89. Philosophical Reform
    Socialism—socialists believed that business competition and individual ownership of property caused poverty and inequality
    They wanted to substitute cooperation for competition and common ownership for individual ownership
  • 90. Abolition
  • 91. Abolition
    Those persons in favor of doing away with slavery
    Men such as William Lloyd Garrison worked to end slavery—without compensation to southern slave holders
  • 92. Education
  • 93. Education
    Because of Horace Mann most northern states provided tuition-free elementary education
    There was also a movement toward adult education for the common person
  • 94. Mental Health
  • 95. Mental Health
    1840—Dorothea Dix began visiting prisons where she found many mentally ill person who were being treated like criminals
    She established asylums where mental illness could be treated as a disease rather than a crime
    Because of her influence many states established asylums
  • 96. Women’s Rights
  • 97. Women’s Rights
    1800s women were considered second class citizens—could not vote, hand no legal right to manage the affairs of their own children—received less pay than males
    Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton organized the Seneca Falls Convention where they drew up the Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions—not much was gained, however many did gain the right to own property
  • 98. Temperance
  • 99. Temperance
    Was popular among Protestant groups—was the attempt to ban the use of alcohol
    The movement wanted to do away with social evils such as poverty and crime that were thought to be brought on by heavy drinking
  • 100. Influences on International Trade
  • 101. Influences on International Trade
    US economic sanctions
    International sanctions are actions taken by countries against others for political reasons, either unilaterally or multilaterally.
    Sanctions consist of three major forms:
    Diplomatic sanctions - the reduction or removal of diplomatic ties, such as embassies.
    Economic sanctions - typically a ban on trade, possibly limited or with certain exceptions (such as food and medicine)
    Military sanctions - military intervention
  • 102. Influences on International Trade
    Drought, flood, hail
    Exchange Rates
    Impact patterns of imports and exports by changing competitiveness of products from different countries
    Damage goods and relations, can be viewed as an aggressor nation
  • 103. Influences on International Trade
    Keep countries from buying, using or dealing with nations as an expression of protest
    To prohibit trade with a certain country
  • 104. Goods/Services Provided by Local Government
  • 105. Services Provided by Government
    Schools, head start programs, free and reduced lunches
    Health Agency
    Rush County Health Nurse
    Fire Department
    Volunteer fire department, trucks, equipment
  • 106. Services Provided by Government
    Some towns have their own—we share Rush County Sheriff’s office or sometimes send to Barton County/Ness County
    Care for Property
    Try to make sure the town is clean, notify people to clean up lots, if they do not, then take bids to have someone clean up the lot
  • 107. Services Provided by Government
    Fund parks and swimming pools in some areas
    Some tax dollars to go to summer recreation programs
  • 108. Spending Decisions
  • 109. Spending
  • 110. Saving
  • 111. Borrowing
  • 112. Impact of Indian Removal Act on Kansas
    Impact of Indian Removal Act on Kansas
  • 113. Impact of Indian Removal
    Loss of Land
    Loss of Customary Resources
    Disease and Starvation
    Inter-Tribal Conflict