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2013 Title 24 Summary Of Changes
 

2013 Title 24 Summary Of Changes

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    2013 Title 24 Summary Of Changes 2013 Title 24 Summary Of Changes Document Transcript

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    • Title 24: Where We’re Headed with the 2013 Nonresidential StandardsFall 2012These links are provided as information only and are not in any way to be considered a comprehensive listing or as anendorsement by PG&E. All links were current at time of list creation. An electronic version of this list is available atwww.pge.com/energyclasses/Related Online Resources:California Energy Commission. 2013 Building Energy Efficiency StandardsThe CEC provides background information for the Building Energy Efficiency Standards creation. MarkedVersions of the 2013 Standards, related documents, Workshop information and their documents are availablehere. http://www.energy.ca.gov/title24/2013standards/index.htmlCalifornia Energy Commission. Title 24 Energy Efficiency StandardsThe CEC’s web site provides access to the new Title 24 Standards, Residential and Nonresidential ComplianceManuals, Alternative Calculation Manuals, and the 2008 Reference Appendices. Links are also provided forinformation about Computer Compliance Software and HERS regulations.http://www.energy.ca.gov/title24/2008standards/California Energy Efficiency Strategic PlanThis CPUC plan is a roadmap with goals and strategies for achieving maximum energy savings across all groupsand sectors in California. The plan is for the years 2009 to 2020. The latest version of the plan can bedownloaded from the California Public Utilities Commission site.http://www.cpuc.ca.gov/PUC/energy/Energy+Efficiency/eesp/CALGreenThe latest edition of the California Green Building Standards can be downloaded from this page. New Guides tothe CALGreen Code and other related publications are also available.http://www.bsc.ca.gov/Home/CALGreen.aspxCalifornia Building Climate Zone MapA detailed map of California’s 16 climate zones can be downloaded here. A Google Earth™ version of the mapand lists of climate zones by city or zip code are also available.http://www.energy.ca.gov/maps/building_climate_zones.htmlBuildingGreenA great resource for information on environmentally friendly products and energy efficient building designpractices. This site provides abstracts of all articles from Environmental Building News, plus full text of selectedarticles, product reviews, GreenSpec® product information service, case studies on high performance buildingprojects, and a list of resources on green building topics.http://www.buildinggreen.com"PG&E" refers to Pacific Gas and Electric Company, a subsidiary of PG&E Corporation. ©2012 Pacific Gas and Electric Company. All rightsreserved.
    • California Commissioning CollaborativeThe California Commissioning Collaborative is a group of government, utility, and building service professionalsorganized to develop and promote commissioning practices in the California. The CCC site includes over 40 casestudies, and a Library under its Resources heading that contains articles, white papers, guides, and samplecommissioning documents.http://www.cacx.orgEnergy Design Resources (EDR)EDR contains a good collection of resources on the energy efficient operation, design, and construction ofbuildings. Topics include, design review, lighting systems, HVAC, building envelope, and daylighting. All of EDR’spublications, software, and training materials are organized by technology and building type.http://www.energydesignresources.com/High-Performance Buildings for High-Tech Industries. LBNLThis Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory site is a portal to an abundance of research information, BestPractice Guidelines, benchmarking tools, an annotated bibliography, technical papers, articles, and performancestandards for energy efficient equipment and practices for data centers, laboratories, and other high-tech facilities.http://hightech.lbl.gov/htindex.htmlLEED® Green Building Rating System Version 3This newest version of LEED launched in April 2009. Information about this updated building rating system,LEED training, webcasts, and LEED credentials are available here. All LEED Reference Guides can bedownloaded or ordered in hard copy from this USGBC site. Project Profiles and Case Studies can be foundunder the Resources navigation tab.http://www.usgbc.org/DisplayPage.aspx?CMSPageID=222New Buildings InstituteNew Buildings Institute is a nonprofit corporation that promotes energy efficient building design and operations.This site includes several useful publications under their Technologies category. These include Lighting, HVAC,and other mechanical systems. A link to NBI’s Advanced Buildings suite of building design and operationresources is under the Advanced Design tab.http://www.newbuildings.org/LightingAdvanced Lighting GuidelinesThe Advanced Lighting Guidelines are currently only available as a Web-based publication, by subscription. TheGuidelines are a comprehensive guide to energy-efficient lighting technologies, products, and best practices.Topics include a Luminaire Directory, Light & Vision, Health & Performance, Lighting Controls, Luminaires andDistribution, Daylighting, and Design Considerations.http://www.algonline.org/California Lighting Technology Center (CLTC)The CLTC is a collaboration between the University of California, Davis and the California Energy Commission.This center focuses on emerging energy efficient lighting technologies and systems. Resources includedescriptions of CLTC projects, profiles of lighting demonstrations, reports and presentations on current lightingtopics, case studies, and information about educational opportunities.http://cltc.ucdavis.eduInternational Dark-Sky Association (IDA)The IDA seeks to advance awareness of and solutions for nighttime light pollution. Resources include outdoorlighting design information; a guide to approved fixtures; and the Model Lighting Ordinance, and a list of lightingordinances for states throughout the U.S. and Europe.http://www.darksky.org/Energy Efficiency Class Resources Page 2 of 6
    • Lighting Research CenterThe Lighting Research Center at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute’s School of Architecture provides unbiasedtechnical and design information about lighting, lighting products, and lighting applications. Some of the topicscovered include outdoor lighting, controls, daylighting, environmental issues, street lighting, light and health, solid-state lighting, and lighting efficiency. Many of the LRC’s research program reports and articles are available fordownload.http://www.lrc.rpi.eduNational Lighting Product Information ProgramNLPIP researches and tests new lighting products. It provides unbiased information about energy-efficientlighting products and technologies. A glossary, NLPIP product reports, application guides, and searchablepublication database are among the sites many resources. NLPIP’s Lighting Diagnostics papers documentsolutions to actual lighting problems.http://www.lrc.rpi.edu/programs/NLPIP/index.aspHVACASHRAE Advanced Energy Design GuidesASHRAE developed design guides for six building types; schools, retail, healthcare, offices, hospitality, andwarehouses. The goal of these guides is to provide users with the tools to achieve building energy savings thatare 30% above the savings of buildings that meet the minimum requirements of ASHRAE Standard 90.1 1999.http://www.ashrae.org/publications/page/1604Consortium for Energy Efficiency (CEE). Commercial HVAC Installation GuidelinesBoth the Guidelines for Energy-Efficient Commercial Unitary HVAC Systems and the accompanying White Papercan be downloaded from CEE’s site. The Guidelines provide best practices, selection criteria, and details ofcomponents and systems. HVAC commissioning is also outlined and discussed.http://www.cee1.org/com/hecac/hecac-spec.php3DDC Online. Iowa Energy CenterThe Iowa Energy Center provides unbiased information on Direct Digital Controls. This site includes a guide tocontrols manufacturers and their products, an introduction to Direct Digital Controls, and an Input/Output Tutorial.http://www.ddc-online.orgNational Building Controls Information Program (NBCIP)NBCIP was established by the Iowa Energy Center and provides unbiased information on building control systemproducts and strategies, including reports that describe the actual performance of products tested by the program.All publications on the site can be downloaded free of charge.http://www.iowaenergycenter.org/energy-efficiency/projects-partnerships/national-building-controls-information-program/Whole Building Design Guide. High-Performance HVACThis recently updated section of the WBDG presents a comprehensive overview of high performance HVACequipment and systems. It also describes practices for reducing HVAC energy use, emissions, and costs.http://www.wbdg.org/resources/hvac.php?r=minimize_consumptionBuilding EnvelopeBuilding Science Corporation (BSC)BSC promotes the design and construction of sustainable, high performance homes and buildings. This sitecontains numerous BSC publications on a variety of building and design topics, including wall assemblies andinsulation. Publications can be searched by document type or topic. Conference and seminar presentationsmade by BSC staff are available for download.http://www.buildingscience.com/index_htmlEnergy Efficiency Class Resources Page 3 of 6
    • High Performance Commercial Building FaçadesProduced by Building Technologies Program staff at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, this 133-pagedocument examines the performance of advanced building facades. The report includes technology overviews, alook at the design process, building performance, and case studies. It is available in both HTML and Acrobat®formats.http://gaia.lbl.gov/hpbf or http://gaia.lbl.gov/hpbf/documents/LBNL50502.pdfJournal of Building Enclosure DesignIssues of this journal from the Building Enclosure Technology and Environment Council can be downloaded fromthe Whole Building Design Guide site.http://www.wbdg.org/references/jbed.phpWhole Building Design Guide. Building Envelope Design GuideThis comprehensive design guide was developed by the National Institute of Building Sciences. Topics includebelow grade systems, wall systems (including exterior insulation and finish system), fenestration, roofing, andatria systems.http://www.wbdg.org/design/envelope.phpWhole Building Design Guide. DaylightingThis comprehensive overview by Gregg Ander discusses the benefits of daylighting, basic concepts, designrecommendations, materials, and tools for analysis and design. The overview concludes with an annotated list ofdaylighting related publications.http://www.wbdg.org/resources/daylighting.phpRoofsCool Roof Rating Council (CRRC)The CRRC provides unbiased ratings for roof products. The Product Listing Directory lists the solar reflectanceand thermal emittance of each product.http://www.coolroofs.orgEnergy Design Resources. Cool RoofsThis EDR Design Brief describes how cool roofing works and the benefits of its application to commercialbuildings. Estimating energy savings, design considerations, and long-term performance are also discussed.http://www.energydesignresources.com/resources/publications/design-briefs/design-brief-cool-roofs.aspxEnergy Star®: Reflective Roof ProductsEnergy Star qualified roof products and manufacturers, plus articles and case studies are provided on this site.http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=roof_prods.pr_roof_productsWindows and SkylightingEfficient Windows CollaborativeThe Efficient Windows Collaborative provides impartial information on the benefits of energy efficient windows,plus details on glazes, window types, how they work, a window selection tool, fact sheets, tool kits, and incentiveinformation.http://www.efficientwindows.orgEnergy Design Resources. SkyCalc™The SkyCalc software tool for calculating optimum skylighting strategies can be downloaded at no charge fromthe EDR site. They also provide a brief description of the tool, a User’s Guide and SkyCalc weather files. http://www.energydesignresources.com/resources/software-tools/skycalc.aspxEnergy Efficiency Class Resources Page 4 of 6
    • National Fenestration Rating CouncilThe NFRC provides an energy performance rating system for window products. This site includes descriptions ofwindow products, information about their site-built certification program, access to NFRC publications, links tosoftware tools, detailed information about their rating system, and a product directory.http://www.nfrc.orgWhole Building Design Guide: Windows and GlazingThis comprehensive overview by Gregg Ander describes issues and features of window systems and glazing.Terminology and recommendations for specifying windows and glazing are discussed. A case study is includedalong with resources for additional information.http://www.wbdg.org/resources/windows.phpWindow Systems for High Performance BuildingsThis site, from the Center for Sustainable Building Research at the University of Minnesota, provides technicalinformation, performance data, and tools useful in the design of window systems for high performance buildings.Contents include a Façade Design Tool, Case Studies, and resources for additional information.http://www.commercialwindows.org/PG&E Resources:Business ToolsPG&E Business Tools include Energy Usage, Billing History and Rate Comparison Tools.http://www.pge.com/mybusiness/myaccount/analysis/Demand Response IncentivesInformation on the various Demand Response incentives offered by PG&E can be found here.http://www.pge.com/mybusiness/energysavingsrebates/demandresponse/Energy Analyzer and AuditsHere are quick on-line tools for identifying and analyzing business energy use. Tools include an Online EnergyAnalyzer.http://www.pge.com/mybusiness/energysavingsrebates/analyzer/Money-Back Solutions for your Business by IndustryHere you will find information about cash rebates and incentives for replacing existing equipment with new energyefficient technologies or purchasing new equipment. Design assistance for a new facility and system process isalso available.http://www.pge.com/mybusiness/energysavingsrebates/incentivesbyindustry/Money-Back ToolUse the Money-Back Tool to instantly get a list of rebates that fit your needs—and see how much you could besaving each year.http://www.pge.com/mybusiness/energysavingsrebates/moneybacksolutions/moneybacktool/index.htmlPG&E PowerPathway™PowerPathway offers a Portfolio of programs aimed at building capacity within the state of California to producethe skilled workers needed by PG&E and the energy and utility industry. The PowerPathway Portfolio includesfour separate but interconnected efforts: Career preparation, Industry workforce challenges, Education, andGreen communities.http://www.pge.com/about/careers/powerpathway/Partners and Trade ProfessionalsPG&E program partners, local contractors and trade professionals offer special assistance in implementingenergy efficiency measures for your business.http://www.pge.com/mybusiness/energysavingsrebates/partnersandtradepros/Energy Efficiency Class Resources Page 5 of 6
    • Self-Generation Incentive Program at Pacific Gas and ElectricFinancial incentive information, description of eligible technologies, forms, resources, and program contactinformation can all be accessed here.http://www.pge.com/mybusiness/energysavingsrebates/selfgenerationincentive/Solar EnergyPG&E provides information on how a photovoltaic system works; steps to take before installing solar in your homeor business; solar schools; and requirements and applications for the California Solar Initiative Program.http://www.pge.com/solar/Tariff BookThis site contains all current gas and electric rate schedules.http://www.pge.com/tariffs/Third Party Incentive Programs and Fact SheetsPG&E has partnered with energy efficiency specialists in order to extend the reach and effectiveness of energyefficiency, demand response, renewable energy, and self-generation programs. A fact sheet describing all of thespecialists and their energy efficiency programs can be downloaded here. Use the search function to findinformation about all of the programs that are related to your market segment.http://www.pge.com/thirdparty/Understanding Your BillSample business class bills with explanations for each bill item.http://www.pge.com/mybusiness/myaccount/explanationofbill/smallbiz/index.shtmlPrint Resources Available in the PEC’s Resource Center:  ASHRAE Greenguide. ASHRAE, 2003  ASHRAE Handbook: Fundamentals. ASHRAE, 2009  Double-Skin Facades: Integrated Planning. Oesterle, Eberhard. Prestel Verlag, 2001  Energy Standard for Buildings except Low-Rise Residential Buildings. ASHRAE/ANSI Standard 90.1- 2007  Engineering Weather Data. Michael Kjelgaard. McGraw-Hill, 2001  Heating, Cooling, Lighting: Design Methods for Architects. Norbert Lechner. John Wiley & Sons, 2000 th  IES Lighting Handbook: Reference and Application, 10 edition. Illuminating Engineering Society, 2011  Intelligent Skins. Michael Wigginton and Jude Harris. Butterworth-Heinemann, 2002 th  Mechanical and Electrical Equipment for Buildings, 11 edition. Walter Grondzik, et al. Wiley, 2009 rd  Residential Windows: A Guide to New Technologies and Energy Performance, 3 ed. John Carmody, Stephen Selkowitz, Lisa Heschong. Norton, 2007  Standard for the Design of High Performance Green Buildings. ANSI/ASHRAE/USGBC/IES Standard 189.1-2009.  Window Systems for High-Performance Buildings. John Carmody, et al. W.W. Norton & Co., 2004Energy Efficiency Class Resources Page 6 of 6
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    • 61 .senigne noitsubmoc enilosag non evah derots eb ot detcepxe selcihev eht fo %02 naht erom erehw ,egarag a fo noitrop ro ,egarag ynA :)c(6.021 noitceS ot NOITPECXE .deipucco eb ot deludehcs si egarag eht nehw secaps elbaipucco rehto ot evitaler erusserp lartuen ro evitagen ta egarag eht niatniam llahs metsys ehT S .deipucco eb ot deludehcs si egarag eht c o p e nehw tf qs/mfc 51.0 tsael ta eb llahs etar noitalitnev ehT & .semit lla ta )mpp( noillim rep A p p strap 52 ≤ deniatniam si srosnes lla ta noitartnecnoc OC cil at oi )tnoc( slortnoC egaraG gnikraP n segaraG gn kraP segaraG gniikraP
    • 71 %3 =< snoitartnecnoc negyxo )sag kcats( ssecxe niatniaM h/utB 000,000,01 > yticapac tupni htiw relioB %5 =< snoitartnecnoc negyxo )sag-kcats( ssecxe niatniaM h/utB 000,000, 5 > yticapac tupni htiw relioB tnelaviuqe ro evird deeps elbairaV rewopesroh +01 ta detar srotom naf ria noitsubmoc htiw relioB S )repmad tnev a ro repmad c o eulf( .ffo-tuhs evitisop ria noitsubmoc a htiw deppiuqE p e & h/utB 000,005,2 > fo yticapac tupni taeh denibmoc a htiw A p p kcats tsuahxe nommoc a yb devres sreliob fo puorg ro ,relioB cil at )d(6.021 noitceS oi n sre oB ssecorP srelliioB ssecorP
    • 81 .rosnes a yb derusaem sa dnamed ria tnerruc eht no desab metsys eht nihtiw srosserpmoc fo noitanibmoc tneiciffe ygrene tsom eht esoohc ot elba si taht rellortnoc devorppa na htiw etarepo tsum ,ph 001 > gnitar rewopesroh denibmoc a gnivah ,rosserpmoc eno naht erom htiw smetsys ria desserpmoC .spag lortnoc diova ot dna metsys a fo egnar eht ssorca ecnamrofrep elbatpecca edivorp S c o ot egarots yramirp dna rosserpmoc mirt dezis etairporppa p e na htiw deppiuqe eb llahs metsys ria desserpmoc ehT & A ph 52 > si rewop rosserpmoc denibmoc p p latot eht erehw smetsys ria desserpmoc fo snoitaretla cil at oi ro snoitidda lla dna ,smetsys ria desserpmoc weN n r A desserpmoC riiA desserpmoC
    • 91 )EP( reenigne lanoisseforp desnecil a yb dengis dna detelpmoC ecnailpmoC fo )s(etacifitreC tsilkcehC weiveR ngiseD tnemucoD noitcurtsnoC S c o p e dna ecnailpmoC fo )s(etacifitreC & ffokciK weiveR ngiseD a seriuqeR A p p laitnediser esirhgih cil at oi & letom/letoh ,laitnedisernon llA n we veR ng seD weiiveR ngiiseD
    • 02 .ytrap driht a eb llahs reenigne lanoisseforp desnecil eht ,smetsys lacinahcem xelpmoc htiw sgnidliub lla dna tf qs 000,05 naht retaerg sgnidliuB reenigne ytrap driht a ro tnemevlovni tcejorp rehto S on htiw reenigne esuoh-ni deifilauq c o p e a eb llahs ,tf qs 000,05 naht ssel & tub tf qs 000,01 naht retaerg sgnidliuB A p p .drocer fo reenigne eht eb cil at oi yam tf qs 000,01 naht ssel sgnidliuB n we veR ng seD weiiveR ngiiseD
    • 12 A/N C- 34 1 ELBAT ro ,B- 3 41 ELBAT ,A- 34 1 ELBAT n i eu l av e lb ac i lpp a eht n aht ret ae rg on n i ag C-B.5) a( 3 41 t aeh r a lo s ev it ce lfer dn a rot c af-U a ev ah l l ah s swodn iW A/N ret ae rg s i reveh c ihw , retem i rep y a lp s id gn ic af t sew eht sem it 6 ro ae r a l l aw ro i ret xe gn i c af t sew s sorg fo %0 4 n aht A. 5) a(3 4 1 ret ae rg on eb l l ah s ae r a wodn iw gn i c af-t sew dn a l atoT A/N .) sthg i lykS :no itpec xE( .B-6 1 1 ELBAT n i ht rof te s CGHS t lu afed e lb ac i lpp a eht e su ro ,no it a rt senef t l iub-et i s rof 0 02 CRFN ht iw ecn ad ro c c a 3) a( 61 1 n i det ar eb l l ah s CGHS s’t cudo rp no it a rt senef A A/N .) sthg i lykS :no itpec xE( .A- 6 11 ELBAT n i htrof te s rotc afU t lu afed e lb ac i lpp a eht ro , 0 01 CRFN ht iw ecn ad ro c c a n i det a r eb l l ah s rot c af-U s’t cudo rp no it a rt senef A 2) a( 61 1 SROOD ROIRETXE D NA STCUDORP NOITARTSE NEF s eto N P r B e C C o o D C o erusaeM a c t n m oe m t t e si s p noitceS ci r d p N l l e e y o ei edoC r t s E POLEVNE S c o et a D : e sU yc n egA t n em ecr of nE y b d ekc e hC : e sU yc n e gA t n em ecr of nE p e :r e bm uN t imr eP :yc n e gA t n em ecr of nE & detti m bus e b ts u m m etsys b us/ metsys hc a e r of w eiv eR ngise D : eto N A :yc n e gA sr e w e iv eR : e m a N sr e w eiv eR p p :)f s( a erA d e n o it id n o C : e pyT gn i d l iuB : e n oZ et a m i lC noit amrofnI lar en eG cil at : s s erd dA/ e m aN tc ej orP oi)xx fo x egaP( S TNEMUCOD N OI TCUR TSN OC nC2-CSED TSILKCEHC WEIVER NGISED dna ECNAILP MOC FO E TACIFI TREC we veR ng seD weiiveR ngiiseD
    • 22 troper gninoissimmoC gniniart dna noitatnemucoD gnitset ecnamrofrep lanoitcnuF nalp gninoissimmoC stnemucod noitcurtsnoc eht ni nwohs serusaem gninoissimmoC weiver ngised esahp ngiseD S c o ngised fo sisaB p e stnemeriuqer tcejorp s’evitatneserper renwo ro s’renwO & A p p tf qs 000,01 > sgnidliub laitnedisernon llA cil at )dradnatS gnidliuB neerG morf devom( 8.021 noitceS oi n gn no ss mmoC gniinoiissiimmoC
    • 32 snoitatcepxe smetsys dna tnempiuqE noitarepo sruoh retfa rof deen dna ,noitarepo fo sruoh dna snoitcnuf ytilicaf gnidulcni ,margorp tcejorP stnemeriuqer noitalitneV slaog ycneiciffe ygrenE :gniwollof S eht edulcni llahs noitatnemucod sihT .snigeb tcejorp c o p e eht fo esahp ngised eht erofeb detnemucod eb llahs gnidliub & eht fo stnemeriuqer dna snoitatcepxe detaler-ygrene ehT A p p )RPO( cil at oi stnemeriuqeR tcejorP s’evitatneserper renwO ro s’renwO n gn no ss mmoC gniinoiissiimmoC
    • 42 sessecorp derevoC .4 metsys gnitaeh retaW .3 slortnoc dna metsys gnithgil roodnI .2 slortnoc dna smetsys )CAVH( gninoitidnoc ria ,noitalitnev ,gnitaeH .1 :smetsys gniwollof eht revoc llahs tnemucod ngiseD S fo sisaB ehT .sesahp noitcurtsnoc dna ngised eht gnirud c o p e yrassecen sa detadpu dna ,tcejorp gnidliub eht fo esahp & ngised eht ta detelpmoc eb llahs RPO eht steem smetsys A p p gnidliub eht fo ngised eht woh fo noitanalpxe nettirw A cil at )DOB( ngiseD fo sisaB oi n gn no ss mmoC gniinoiissiimmoC
    • 52 noitatnemucod ecnailpmoC fo etacifitreC eht ni mrof ecnailpmoc tsilkcehC weiveR ngiseD eht edulcni llahs evitatneserper srenwo ro renwo gnidliub ehT .maet tcejorp eht S htiw etanidrooc lliw reweiver ngised eht woh dna eludehcs c o p e ,epocs tcejorp eht ssucsid ot teem tsum reweiver ngised & dna maet ngised ,evitatneserper s’renwo ro renwo eht A p p ,tcejorp gnidliub eht fo esahp ngised citamehcs eht gniruD cil at weiveR ngiseD esahP ngiseD oi n gn no ss mmoC gniinoiissiimmoC
    • 62 noitatnemucod ecnailpmoC fo etacifitreC eht ni mrof ecnailpmoc weiveR ngiseD stnemucoD noitcurtsnoC siht edulcni llahs evitatneserper srenwo ro renwo gnidliub ehT .ffo-ngis dna weiver rof maet S ngised dna renwo eht ot denruter eb llahs mrof detelpmoc c o p e ehT .weiver tnemucod noitcurtsnoc eht gnirud reweiver & ngised eht yb dekcehc eb llahs taht smeti eht stsil mrof A p p ecnailpmoc weiveR ngiseD stnemucoD noitcurtsnoC ehT cil at weiveR ngiseD stnemucoD noitcurtsnoC oi n gn no ss mmoC gniinoiissiimmoC
    • 72 .seitrap rotcartnoc-non fo selor ,ylno noitamrofni rof ,edulcnI .noitatnemucod dna noitucexe ,tnempoleved mrof tset dna tsilkcehc fo ,gniniart fo dna tnempoleved launam ecnanetniam dna snoitarepo fo ,eludehcs gninoissimmoc eht fo ,seussi fo tnemeganam ,sgniteem rof stnemeriuqer ,srotcartnoc fo seitilibisnopser dna selor ,epocs gnitset ,denoissimmoc seilbmessa dna smetsys fo tsil eht edulcni dluohs stnemeriuqer esehT .ssecorp gninoissimmoc eht yfiralc ot etelpmoc dna deliated ,raelc eb dluohs stnemeriuqer ro serusaem gninoissimmoC )snoitacificeps dna snalp( stnemucod noitcurtsnoc eht ni stnemeriuqer ro serusaem gninoissimmoc edulcnI stnemucod noitcurtsnoc eht ni nwohs serusaem gninoissimmoC gn no ss mmoC gniinoiissiimmoC
    • 82 .denoissimmoc eb ot smetsyS ;slaog gninoissimmoC ;noitamrofni tcejorp lareneG :gniwollof eht edulcni llahs nalP gninoissimmoC ehT S .tcejorp gnidliub eht fo c o p e esahp ngised eht gnirud detrats eb llahs dna denoissimmoc & eb lliw tcejorp eht woh tnemucod ot detelpmoc A p p eb llahs nalp gninoissimmoc a ecnaussi timrep ot roirP cil at nalP gninoissimmoC oi n gn no ss mmoC gniinoiissiimmoC
    • 92 .noitelpmoc eht rof snalP .seitilibisnopser dna seludehcs ,seitivitca ssecorp gninoissimmoC noitamrofni maet gninoissimmoC ecnamrofrep elbatpecca rof airetirc elbarusaeM demrofrep eb llahs tset eht hcihw rednu snoitidnoC detset eb ot snoitcnuF stset fo S c o tnetxe eht gnidulcni ,detset eb ot smetsys dna tnempiuqE p e tnetni ngised lanigiro eht fo noitanalpxe nA & A p p :edulcni llahs stnenopmoc dna smetsys tset ot snalP cil at )tnoc( nalP gninoissimmoC oi n gn no ss mmoC gniinoiissiimmoC
    • 03 .gnitset ecnamrofrep lanoitcnuf siht fo trap sa detelpmoc eb llahs ecnailpmoC edoC rof stnemeriuqeR ecnatpeccA llA .edam stnemtsujda dna sgnidaer yna edulcni dna ,dezilitu sdohtem gnitset eht ,detset stnenopmoc gnidliub eht fo hcae gnisserdda noitamrofni niatnoc llahs stroper gnitset ecnamrofrep lanoitcnuF S .stnemucoD noitcurtsnoC c o p e eht htiw ecnadrocca ni ecafretni metsys-ot-metsys & dna metsys ,tnenopmoc hcae fo noitarepo dna noitallatsni A p p tcerroc eht etartsnomed llahs stset ecnamrofrep lanoitcnuF cil at gnitset ecnamrofrep lanoitcnuF oi n gn no ss mmoC gniinoiissiimmoC
    • 13 gol stneve etis ,stnemeriuqer ecnanetniam dednemmocer ,gnitoohselbuort cisab ,serudecorp gnitarepo etis lareneg gnidulcni ,ecnanetniam dna snoitarepo cisaB noitamrofni tcatnoc etiS stnemeriuqer tnerruc dna yrotsih ,noitpircsed ytilicaf gnidulcni ,noitamrofni etiS :gniwollof eht edulcni llahs launaM smetsyS ehT .rotarepo seitilicaf dna evitatneserper ro renwo gnidliub eht ot S c o dereviled dna launaM smetsyS eht nihtiw detelpmoc eb llahs p e gnidliub eht fo stcepsa lanoitarepo eht fo noitatnemucoD & A p p .detelpmoc eb llahs launaM smetsyS A cil at gniniart dna noitatnemucoD oi n gn no ss mmoC gniinoiissiimmoC
    • 23 .noitatnemucod dna secruoser rehtO edoc siht ro ycnega gnicrofne eht S c o yb deriuqer snoitacifirev noitcepsni laiceps lla fo ypoc A p e & seton ecnanetniam dna yrotnevni tnempiuqe etiS A p p smetsys rojaM cil at oi )tnoc( launaM smetsyS n gn no ss mmoC gniinoiissiimmoC
    • 33 tnempiuqe/metsys eht no sgniward drocer eht fo weiveR launaM smetsyS eht ni noitamrofni eht fo weiveR ecnanetniam evitneverp dna gnicivres ,noitarepo fo noitartsnomed dna weiveR )secafretni ti tnempiuqe ro/dna smetsys rehto tahw htiw dna seod ti tahw ,si ti tahw( weivrevo tnempiuqe/metsyS :gniwollof eht edulcni llahs dna troper gninoissimmoc eht ni S c o detnemucod eb llahs metsys ro/dna epyt tnempiuqe hcae p e rof ffats ecnanetniam etairporppa eht fo gniniart ehT & A p p gniniart snoitarepo smetsyS cil at gniniart dna noitatnemucoD oi n gn no ss mmoC gniinoiissiimmoC
    • 43 .evitatneserper ro renwo S eht ot dedivorp dna detelpmoc eb llahs tcejorp gnidliub c o p e eht fo sesahp noitcurtsnoc-tsop rof snoitadnemmocer & gnitroper dna noitcurtsnoc ,ngised eht hguorht nekatrednu A p p seitivitca ssecorp gninoissimmoc fo troper etelpmoc A cil at troper gninoissimmoC oi n gn no ss mmoC gniinoiissiimmoC
    • 53 qe R doirep etar rep hWk qeR qeR qeR qeR hWk elbatteseR qeR qeR )Wk( dnamed kaep lacirotsiH qeR qeR qeR qeR dnamed Wk )emit eht ta( suoenatnatsnI aVk 0001 > aVk 0001 =< aVk052 =< S secivreS secivreS secivreS AVk05 =< epyT reteM c < AVk 052 < AVk 05 secivreS o p stnemeriuqeR gnireteM e & A p p daol lacirtcele fo gniretem rof tnemeriuqer muminiM cil at )a(5.031 noitceS oi n no tub rts D rewoP ac rtce E noiitubiirtsiiD rewoP llaciirtcellE
    • 63 )sliated rof dradnats ees( detagerggasid sdaol llA :D daol detagerggA :A A A A A snoitatS gnigrahC A A A sdaoL elbaweneR puorG hcaE puorG hcaE puorG hcaE puorG hcaE ecruoS rewoP elbaweneR D D A rehgih ro aVk 52 sretneC daoL D D A rehgih ro aVk 52 secnailppA A A A srotalacsE & srotavelE D A A sdaoL gulP A A A retaW toH citsemoD D D A smetsyS CAVH S D D A c gnithgiL o aVk 0001 =< aVk052 =< p e aVk 0001 > AVk05 epyT daoL & secivreS secivreS secivreS =< secivreS < AVk 052 < AVk 05 A p p daol lacirtcele fo noitarapes rof tnemeriuqer muminiM cil at )b(5.031 noitceS oi n no tub rts D rewoP ac rtce E noiitubiirtsiiD rewoP llaciirtcellE
    • 73 sgnidliub laitnedisernon lla ot ylppa lliw siht ,laitnediser ekilnu taht etoN )erutcurtsarfni eht eraperp ot emit wolla ot si yaled raey-1( 5102 ,1 yraunaJ :etad noitatnemelpmI tnemtraped gnidliub eht yb deriuqer eb lliw smrof ecnailpmoc eht fo snoisrev deretsigeR redivorp eht yb S c o deussi eb lliw smrof ecnailpmoc eht fo snoisrev deretsigeR p e & won ecalp ni ssecorp noitartsiger SREH ot ralimiS A p p )cte ,STREClaC( redivorp SREH a htiw stnemucod cil at oi ecnailpmoc laitnedisernon lla fo noitartsiger eriuqer lliW n no tarts geR sm roF a tned sernoN noiitartsiigeR sm roF llaiitnediisernoN
    • 83 CEC eht rof gnidliub eht fo ”tohspans“ devihcra na edivorp lliW S yrotisoper c o p e eht otni sgnidliub eht gnibircsed selif atad ylbaborp & dna ,stnemucod deretsiger ecalp lliw sredivorp SREH A p p stnemucod ecnailpmoc laitnedisernoN dna SREH cil at oi laitnediser lla evihcra ot msinahcem egarots cinortcele nA n y rot sopeR y rotiisopeR
    • 93 ruoh dna etad )laitnediser esir-wol .g.e( epyt gnidliub enoz etamilc epyt ygrene S c o yb yrav sreilpitlum VDT p e & )reilpitlum VDT elbacilppa( x )stinu ygrenE( A p p enaporp cil a dna ,sag larutan ,yticirtcele rof snoitaulaV t oi n ygrenE )VDT( no tau aV tnednepeD em T ygrenE )VDT( noiitaullaV tnednepeD emiiT
    • 04 etadpU sdradnatS ycneiciffE ygrenE gnidliuB 42 eltiT 5002 lasoporP egnahC edoC E&GP :ygolodohteM scimonocE – )VDT( noitaulaV tnednepeD emiT :ecruoS yadirF yadsruhT yadsendeW yadseuT yadnoM )thgin etal ,gninrom ylrae( ygrene eulav-rewoL E n e gr y V a ul e S c o )noonretfa ylrae ,yad dim( p e eulav ygrene VDT ygrene eulav-hgiH & A eulav ygrene talF p p cil a ruoh kaep-ffo na gnirud devas hWk a naht ylhgih erom t oi n deulav si ruoh kaep tsoc-hgih a ta devas hWk a ,eulav VDT htiW skaeP yaD-fo-em T yt c rtce E dna VDT skaeP yaD-fo-emiiT ytiiciirtcellE dna VDT
    • 14 D N O S A J J u M A M F J a e c o v c e p u g u n a p a e b n 1t 1l 1 y 1r r 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 02 04 k 06 B t u 08 / k W h 001 S c o p e 021 & A 041 p p cil a 061 t 21 enoZ etamilC — yticirtcelE laitnediseR launnA oi n skaeP raeY-fo-em T dna VDT skaeP raeY-fo-emiiT dna VDT
    • 24 ecnerefnoc CEBAC 1102 voN ,relttiN neK :ecruoS %25 %611 %8 esaercnI 32.6 11.4 06.1 3102 90.4 09.1 84.1 8002 yticirtcelE enaporP saG larutaN raeY S c o sreilpitluM VDT egarevA p e & A p p enaporP dna yticirtcelE ni sesaercni tnacifingiS cil at oi esaercni lliw ygrene VDT rof seulaV n no tau aV tnednepeD em T noiitaullaV tnednepeD emiiT
    • 34 emas eht niamer seiradnuob enoz etamilC noynaC eulB – 61 enoZ sgnirpS mlaP – 51 enoZ eladmlaP – 41 enoZ notrelluF – 8 enoZ ecnarroT - 6 enoZ S ”seitic ecnerefer“ weN c o p e egareva lacirotsih nopu desab ataD & A p p 9002 morf tesatad LERN sesU cil atecnamrofrep ni desu atad rehtaew weN oi n rehtaeW detadpU rehtaeW detadpU
    • 44 stluser 42 eltiT rof ni-gulp reganaM ecnailpmoC emas eht esu lliw srodnev erawtfos llA gniledom selur gnidliub desoporP/dradnatS edivorp lliw taht erawtfos reganaM ecnailpmoC wen niatniam lliw CEC senoz etamilc niatrec ni smetsys ciatlovotohP rof tiderC rewols eb lliw semit nuR snoitalumis ssam etarucca erom rof S c o ruoh rep semit 03 ot ruoh rep ecno morf og lliw noitalumiS p e & )enignE noitalumiS A p p ainrofilaC( ESC enigne noitalumis wen esu lliw gniledoM cil at tnempoleved rednu llits selur dna launaM MCA oi n gn edoM ecnam rofreP a tned seR es r-woL gniilledoM ecnam rofreP llaiitnediiseR esiir-woL
    • 54 S c o nosirapmoc p e rof sepyt metsys ”dradnats“ lanoitidda edulcni lliW & A p p sepyt gnidliub lanoitidda ssapmocne lliW cil at tnempoleved rednu senilediug gniledom ecnamrofrep weN oi n gn edoM ecnam rofreP a tned sernoN gniilledoM ecnam rofreP llaiitnediisernoN
    • gnithgiL roodtuO laitnedisernoN gnithgiL roodnI laitnedisernoN gnithgiL laitnediseR lacinahceM laitnedisernoN lacinahceM laitnediseR esir-woL epolevnE laitnedisernoN senoZ raloS ● snoitaretlA dna snoitiddA ● sreirraB tnaidaR ● noitalusnI & noitartseneF ● serusaeM yrotadnaM ● epolevnE laitnediseR esir-woL noitacilppA dna epocS ni segnahC llarevO emocleWepolevnE laitnediseR esir-woLepolevnE laitnediseR esir-woL
    • 74 noitartsenef fo )aera roolf semit %5.0 ro( tfqs 01 ot pu :noitpecxE emoh eritne ssorca egareva naC 85.0 = rotcaf-U noitartsenef mumixaM L reirrab ropav ecapslwarc detnevnu ,senoz llA o w - r si 61 & 41 senoZ ni sllaw no reirrab ropaV e R e s 91-R = muminim noitalusni roolf desiaR di e n t 91-R = noitaretlA/noitiddA :noitpecxE ai l E n v 03-R = muminim noitalusni fooR/gnilieC e ol p 31-R = muminim noitalusni llaw emarF e serusaeM y rotadnaM
    • 84 noitartsenef tliub-etis gnisu nehw ssalg fo retnec rof salumrof 6-AN esu naC L o w - )6 & 5,3,1 senoz tpecxe( %5 r si fo aera tsew mumixam evitpircserP e R e s i )5 & ,3,1 senoz d e tpecxe( 52.0 = CGHS evitpircserP n t ai l senoz etamilc E n lla ni 23.0 = rotcaf-U evitpircserP v e ol p :swodniW e noitartseneF
    • 94 61 > IRS /rotaluclac_irs/sdradnats8002 RO /42eltit/vog.ac.ygrene.www//:ptth rotaluclaC 57.0 > ecnattimE )IRS( xednI ecnatcelfeR raloS 02.0 > ecnatcelfeR)51-01 senoz( 21/2 > epols-peetS L o w - 57 > IRS r si e R RO e s 57.0 > ecnattimE di e n t 36.0 > ecnatcelfeR ai l E )51 ,31 senoz( 21/2 < epols-woL n v e ol p e tnemeriuqeR evitpircserP sfooR looC
    • 05 L o w - r si e R e s di e n t ai 01-2 senoz ni 03-R l E n v e l )61-11 ,1 senoz( 83-R ot o p sesaercni noitalusni gniliec evitpircserP e no ta usnI noiitallusnI
    • 15 tnirp ot noissimrep tnarg ton did renwo sthgiR .dettimo egamI srebmem gnimarf revo digir 5-R lanoitiddA ytivac llaw 4x2 ni 31-R L o w - ;ro r si e R e srebmem s gnimarf revo digir 4-R lanoitiddA di e n t ytivac llaw 4x2 ni 51-R ai l E n v 560.0 = rotcaF-U e ol p noitalusnI llaW evitpircserP e no ta usnI noiitallusnI
    • 25 tnirp ot noissimrep tnarg ton did renwo sthgiR .dettimo egamI L o w - r si e R e s di e n t ai l E n v e l 51-2 senoz o p etamilc ni tnemeriuqer evitpircserP e sre rraB tna daR sreiirraB tnaiidaR
    • 35 tiderc lluf swolla noitacifirev ytrap drihT tiderc ssel sevig hcaorppa dradnatS sisylana rof shtap ecnamrofrep owT )61-6 ,4 ,2 senoz( 53.0 =< CGHS 04.0 =< rotcaf-U L o w - r tfqs 57 =< aerA si e tem lla fi seilppa noitpecxE R e s di edils suoiverp morf airetirc evitpircserp e n eht teem ot deen stnemecalper gnizalG t ai l E noitalitnev esuoh elohw n v e eht tpecxe tfqs 000,1 naht ssel snoitidda ol p ot ylppa stnemeriuqer QAI lla taht seifiralC e sno taret A dna sno t ddA snoiitaretllA dna snoiitiiddA
    • 45 /rotaluclac_irs/sdradnats8002 61 > IRS /42eltit/vog.ac.ygrene.www//:ptth RO rotaluclaC )IRS( xednI ecnatcelfeR raloS 57.0 > ecnattimE 02.0 > ecnatcelfeR L o w )51-01 senoz( 21/2 > epols-peetS - r si e 57 > IRS R e s di e RO n t ai l 57.0 > ecnattimE E n 56.0 > ecnatcelfeR v e ol p )51,31 senoz( 21/2 < epols-woL e stnemeca peR fooR stnemecallpeR fooR
    • 55 tteeff 5 < noiisnemiid ee 5 < no snem d on sno ces erom ro qs 08 o n ded v d eb yam aera ehT on ,,snoiittces erom ro ttffqs 08 ottnii dediiviid eb yam aera ehT s enap ra os o hg ew ro deng seD sllenap rallos ffo tthgiiew roff dengiiseD sno cur sbo foor oN snoiittcurttsbo foor oN ffoor ttallff ro seerged 072 dna seerged 011 neewtteb dettneiiro fooR oor a ro seerged 072 dna seerged 011 neew eb de ne ro fooR enoZ ra oS enoZ ralloS tfqs 051 si deriuqer L o aera foor ,tfqs 0002 =< dna seirots +3 w - r si teef erauqs 052 fo aera foor muminiM e R e s 3102 ,13 ceD di e retfa pam noisividbus rof noitacilppA n t ai l E secnediser n v e l elgnis erom ro net htiw snoisividbus o p ni detacol secnediser ylimaf elgniS e senoZ ra oS y maF e gn S senoZ ralloS ylliimaF ellgniiS
    • 65 tteeff 5 < noiisnemiid ee 5 < no snem d on sno ces erom ro qs 08 o n ded v d eb yam aera ehT on ,,snoiittces erom ro ttffqs 08 ottnii dediiviid eb yam aera ehT s enap ra os o hg ew ro deng seD sllenap rallos ffo tthgiiew roff dengiiseD sno cur sbo foor oN snoiittcurttsbo foor oN ffoor ttallff ro seerged 072 dna seerged 011 neewtteb dettneiiro fooR oor a ro seerged 072 dna seerged 011 neew eb de ne ro fooR enoZ ra oS enoZ ralloS L o w - r si e R e s di erehwesle e n enoz ralos gnitacol rof 01.011 noitceS ni nevig era snoitpecxE t ai l E n v aera foor fo %51 muminiM e ol p sgnidliub ylimaF-itluM e senoZ ra oS y maF- t uM senoZ ralloS ylliimaF-iitlluM
    • gnithgiL roodtuO laitnedisernoN gnithgiL roodnI laitnedisernoN gnithgiL laitnediseR lacinahceM laitnedisernoN lacinahceM laitnediseR esir-woL senoZ raloS ● gnithgilyaD ● sreirraB riA ● sfooR looC ● noitalusnI & noitartseneF ● epolevnE laitnedisernoN epolevnE laitnediseR esir-woL noitacilppA dna epocS ni segnahC llarevO emocleWepolevnE laitnedisernoNepolevnE laitnedisernoN
    • 85 emarf eht rof tnuocca ot alumrof 3-6-AN esU 6-AN xidneppA morf = fTV RO TV ssalG fo retneC = cTV ,emarf gnidulcni tcudorp fo ecnattimsnart thgilyad llarevo rof gnitar ecnattimsnarT elbisiV :TV cTV X TV = TV f stifeneb gnahrevo tnuocca otni sekat hcihw ,tneiciffeoC niaG taeH raloS evitaleR :CGHSR N 71.0 32.0 54.0 srooD o n r e 64.0 62.0 14.0 llawniatruC s di e 23.0 22.0 64.0 elbarepO n t ai l 24.0 52.0 63.0 dexiF E n v TV niM CGHSR xaM rotcaF-U xaM epyT e ol p )aerA xaM %04( swodniW e sgnitaR ecnamrofreP dethgieW aerA stnemeriuqeR evitpircserP wodniW noitartseneF noitartseneF
    • 95 46.0 enoN 88.0 citsalP N o 94.0 22.0 64.0 bruC oN ,ssalG n r e s 94.0 52.0 85.0 bruC ,ssalG i d e n TV niM CGHS xaM rotcaF-U xaM epyT t ai l )aerA xaM %5( sthgilykS E n v e ol sgnitaR ecnamrofreP dethgieW aerA p e tnemeriuqeR evitpircserP thgilykS noitartseneF noitartseneF
    • 06 82.0 :slenaP lerdnapS )11-R( 011.0 :demarf dooW 96.0 :llaw ssaM yvaeH 44.0 :llaw ssaM thgiL )gnimarf revo digiR 8-R( 501.0 :demarf lateM N o )31-R( 311.0 :gnidliub lateM n r e sllaW s di e n t )gnimarf doow 91-R( 570.0 :rehtO & demarf dooW ai l E n v )11-R( 890.0 :sgnidliub lateM e ol sfooR p e srotcaF-U mumixaM noitalusnI y rotadnaM noitalusnI y rotadnaM
    • 16 N o n r e s di e n )11-R( 170.0 :thgiewthgiL t ai l etercnoc thgiewthgil ”3 ro 962.0 :sroolF ssaM E n v e sroolF desiaR ol p e )tnoc( srotcaF-U mumixaM noitalusnI y rotadnaM noitalusnI y rotadnaM
    • 26 82-R llaW egarotS dloC 82-R gnilieC/fooR 02-R noitaregirfer morf taeh/w roolF N 53-R roolF o egarotS n r e s nezorF 63-R llaW di e n t 04-R gnilieC/fooR ai l E )utB/fs×rh×F°( ecafruS ecapS n v eulaV-R muminiM e ol p )sleveL yrotadnaM( sesuoheraW detaregirfeR e noitalusnI esuoheraW detaregirfeR noitalusnI esuoheraW detaregirfeR
    • 36 /rotaluclac_irs/sdradnats8002 61 > IRS /42eltit/vog.ac.ygrene.www//:ptth RO rotaluclaC )IRS( xednI ecnatcelfeR raloS 57.0 > ecnattimE 02.0 > ecnatcelfeR N o )senoz lla( 21/2 > epols-peetS n r e s i 57 > IRS d e n t i RO a l E 57.0 > ecnattimE n v e ol 36.0 > ecnatcelfeR p e )senoz lla( 21/2 < epols-woL sfooR looC evitpircserP laitnedisernoN
    • 46 61 > IRS RO 57.0 > ecnattimE 02.0 > ecnatcelfeR )51-2 senoz( 21/2 > epols-peetS N o 46 > IRS n r e s di RO e n t 57.0 > ecnattimE ai l E n 55.0 > ecnatcelfeR v e ol p e )51,41,31,11,01 senoz( 21/2 < epols-woL sfooR looC evitpircserP letoM/letoH & seR esiR-hgiH letoM/letoH & seR esiR-hgiH
    • 56 stnemecalper foor ot ylppa osla stnemeriuqer foor looC 230.0 430.0 420.0 720.0 330.0 52.0-92.0 530.0 730.0 520.0 920.0 530.0 03.0-43.0 730.0 930.0 720.0 130.0 930.0 53.0-93.0 040.0 340.0 820.0 330.0 340.0 04.0-44.0 440.0 740.0 030.0 530.0 740.0 54.0-94.0 N o n 840.0 250.0 230.0 830.0 940.0 05.0-45.0 r e s di 350.0 850.0 430.0 140.0 450.0 55.0-95.0 e n t 950.0 560.0 630.0 540.0 160.0 06.0-26.0 ai l E 61 n 8 & 7 senoZ 6 enoZ -9 ,4-1 senoZ 5 & 1 senoZ senoZ llA ecnatcelfeR v e gnidliuB raloS degA ol rehtO dna demarF dooW lateM p e laitnedisernoN elbaT f fo-edarT fooR looC elbaT f fo-edarT fooR looC
    • 66 edilS txeN no slairetaM RO .g.w .ni 3.0 ta 2tf/mfc 40.0 deecxe ot ton egakael ria egareva na evah taht stnenopmoc dna slairetam fo seilbmessa esU RO N o n r e .g.w .ni 3.0 ta s di2tf/mfc 400.0 gnideecxe ton ecnaemrep e n t ria na evah taht slairetam esU ai l E n )smoorssalC v e ol p elbatacoleR dna laitnediseR e esiR-hgiH tpecxe( 61 – 01 senoz etamilc ni tnemeriuqer evitpircserP sreirraB riA sreirraB riA
    • 76 munimula ro leets teehS • yrnosam kcolb etercnoc detuorg ylluF • etercnoc tsacerp dna ecalp-ni-tsaC • retsalp muspyg ”8/5 ro ,egrap dnas/tnemec dnaltroP A • enarbmem foor ylp-elgnis derehda ylluF • enarbmem foor suonimutib deifidoM • enarbmem gnifoor pu tliuB • N o draob tnemeC ”½ • n r e draob muspyg roiretni ro roiretxE ”½ • s di e fcp 5.1ot 4.0 ytisned muminim a htiw maof yarps llec nepO ”½5 • n t ai l fcp 0.2 ytisned muminim a htiw maof yarps llec desolC ”½1 • E draob noitalusni etarunaycosiylop kcab-lioF ”½ • n v e draob noitalusni enerytsylop dedurtxE ”½ • ol p draob dnarts detneirO ”8/3 • e doowylP ”8/3 • sreirraB riA sreirraB riA
    • 86 .tf .qs/sttaw 5.0 < )DPL( ytisneD rewoP gnithgiL :3 noitpecxE .cte ,sroiretni dehsinifnu ,secaps erutuF :2 noitpecxE sesuoheraw detaregirfer dna ,smuesum ,sretaeht eivom ,sehcruhc ,smuirotiduA :1 noitpecxE hcaorppA ecnamrofreP eht rednu enilesab eht ni desU N ylpmoc osla tsum sgnidliub dna secaps denoitidnocnU o n r e .tf 51 > sthgieh gnilieC s di DNA e n t foor a rednu yltcerid .tf .qs 000,5 > secaps desolcnE ai l DNA E n v 51 hguorht 2 senoz etamilC e ol p ssel ro seirots 3 sgnidliub rof ecnailpmoc evitpircserP ot seilppA e )c(341 noitceS gnithgilyaD gnithgilyaD
    • 96 dellortnoc eb llahs tnirp ot noissimrep tnarg ton did renwo sthgiR .dettimo egamI senoz tilyad ni gnithgil lareneG rerutcafunam morf si gnitar ezaH )gnitar ezah %09( gnisuffid eb llahs sthgilykS sthgilyks fo egde eht morf thgieh gniliec N o egareva semit 7.0 nihtiW n r e s RO di e n t swodniw morf ai l thgieh daeh eno nihtiW E n v :detacol e ol aera roolf eht fo %57 tsael tA p e gnithgilyaD gnithgilyaD
    • 07 tteeff 5 < noiisnemiid ee 5 < no snem d on sno ces erom ro qs 08 o n ded v d eb yam aera ehT on ,,snoiittces erom ro ttffqs 08 ottnii dediiviid eb yam aera ehT s enap ra os o hg ew ro deng seD sllenap rallos ffo tthgiiew roff dengiiseD sno cur sbo foor oN snoiittcurttsbo foor oN ffoor ttallff ro seerged 072 dna seerged 011 neewtteb dettneiiro fooR oor a ro seerged 072 dna seerged 011 neew eb de ne ro fooR enoZ ra oS enoZ ralloS N o n r e erehwesle s di enoz ralos gnitacol rof 01.011 noitceS ni nevig era snoitpecxE e n t ai l aera foor fo %51 muminiM E n v e ssel ro seirots 01 sgnidliub letoM/letoH & seR esir-hgiH ol p e ssel ro seirots 3 sgnidliuB laitnedisernoN senoZ raloS senoZ raloS
    • gnithgiL roodtuO laitnedisernoN gnithgiL roodnI laitnedisernoN gnithgiL laitnediseR lacinahceM laitnedisernoN retaW toH citsemoD ● stcuD nruteR ● CAVH ● lacinahceM laitnediseR esir-woL epolevnE laitnedisernoN epolevnE laitnediseR esir-woL noitacilppA dna epocS ni segnahC llarevO emocleWlacinahceM laitnediseR esir-woLlacinahceM laitnediseR esir-woL
    • 27 tnirp ot noissimrep tnarg ton did renwo sthgiR .dettimo egamI L o )61-41 ,11 w - r si senoz( 8 = eulaV-R tcud evitpircserP e R e 6 = eulav-R tcud muminiM s di e n t i dewolla ton stcud ssapyb CAVH a l M ecaps denoitidnoc e c h ni era stcud sselnu smetsys a n ci detcud rof gnitset SREH yrotadnaM a l CAVH CAVH
    • 37 tnirp ot noissimrep tnarg ton did renwo sthgiR .dettimo egamI aera roolf fo tfqs/mfc 2 fo muminim a sedivorP yrotcerid ecnailppa CEC ni detsiL 41-8 senoz L o deriuqer naf esuoh elohw evitpircserP w - r si e hcaorppa QAI sa dewolla R e ton naf CAVH fo noitarepo suounitnoC s di e n t i noitacifirev dna gnitset a l SREH eriuqer snaf QAI esuoh elohW M e c h teltuo tnev reyrd morf a n ci ’5 tsael ta eb tsum stinu gnisnednoC a l CAVH CAVH
    • 47 ²ni 0051 ”02 ”02 snot 5 ²ni 0021 ”81 ”81 snot 4 ²ni 0001 ”61 ”61 snot 5.3 ²ni 009 ”41 ”61 snot 3 ²ni 008 ”41 ”41 snot 5.2 ²ni 008 ”02 snot 5.2 L ²ni 006 ”21 ”41 snot 2 ²ni 006 ”81 snot 2 o w - r ²ni 005 ”01 ”21 snot 5.1 ²ni 005 ”61 snot 5.1 i s e retemaiD retemaiD R aerA 2-tcuD 1-tcuD yticapaC aerA llirG rettemaiD yticapaC e llirG muminiM gnilooC s muminiM muminiM i muminiM mucuiDiM gnilooC mn d e tcuD elpitluM tcuD elgniS n t ai l M e mfc/w 85.0 & not/mfc 053 rof tset SREH evaH c h a n ci ro ;selbat rep dezis )s(tcud nruter yrotadnaM a l stcuD nruteR stcuD nruteR
    • 57 tnirp ot noissimrep tnarg ton did renwo sthgiR .dettimo egamI detalusni regral ro ”¾ sepip retaw toh llA L o hutB 000,002 w tsael ta reviled ot dezis ylppus saG - r si e niard etasnednoC R e s tnev di e n t epip thgiarts )B ro( VI ro III yrogetaC ai l teef 3 nihtiw teltuo v 021 M e c h stinu laudividni a n ci gnivres sretaeh retaw enaporP ro saG a l retaW toH c tsemoD retaW toH ciitsemoD
    • 67 metsys ralos FSN %05 edivorP ● DNA elbaliava sag larutan oN ● sselnu WHD cirtcele llatsni tonnaC 61-01 senoz ni FSN %53 ● L 9-1 senoz o w - r ni )FSN( noitcarF raloS teN %02 ● i s e metsyS raloS R e s spool noitalucricer owt fo di e n t muminim a eriuqer stinu gnillewD +8 ai l spool M e c noitalucricer no lortnoc dnameD h a n ci ylimaf-itluM evitpircserP a l retaW toH c tsemoD retaW toH ciitsemoD
    • gnithgiL roodtuO laitnedisernoN gnithgiL roodnI laitnedisernoN gnithgiL laitnediseR slortnoC ● snaF ● srezimonocE ● tnempiuqE ● lacinahceM laitnedisernoN lacinahceM laitnediseR esir-woL epolevnE laitnedisernoN epolevnE laitnediseR esir-woL noitacilppA dna epocS ni segnahC llarevO emocleWlacinahceM laitnedisernoNlacinahceM laitnedisernoN
    • 87 tnirp ot noissimrep tnarg ton did renwo sthgiR .dettimo egamI N o n r e s i REE 7.11 hutB d e 000,042 < hutB 000,56 => tnempiuqE n t ai l REES 41 hutB 000,56 < tnempiuqE M e c h a n 5102 ,1 naJ no noitatnemelpmI ci a l tnempiuqe XD rof seicneiciffe weN CAVH CAVH
    • 97 N o n r e s di e n t ai l M e c h a n B htaP rednu smumixam VLPI ci a l dna ycneiciffe daol lluf htiw ecnailpmoc seriuqer evitpircserP srellihC srellihC
    • 08 tnirp ot noissimrep tnarg ton did renwo sthgiR .dettimo egamI N o n r e s di noitatimil evitpircserP e n t ai l elur lanigiro ot noitacifidom thgilS M e c h srellihc delooc a n ria yb dedivorp snot 003 naht erom ci a l evah ton llahs stnalp retaw dellihC srellihC srellihC
    • 18 .C5 HCEM mroF ecnailpmoC no noitartnecnoc fo selcyc mumixam tnemucod llahs renwo gnidliuB .ssel ro 5.2 fo )ISL( xednI noitarutaS reilegnaL a no desab selcyc mumixam enimreted ot dednetni si rotaluclac ehT .rotaluclac dedivorp-noissimmoC ygrenE eht gnisu ,snoitidnoc ytilauq retaw lacol no desab noitartnecnoc fo selcyc mumixam eht tnemucod llahs renwo gnidliuB .noitartnecnoC fo selcyC mumixaM fo noitatnemucoD N o n r e s .emit deelb ro ,emulov deelb deretem ,emulov puekam di deretem ot noitroporp ni ro/dna ,ytivitcudnoc no desab e n t deef lacimehc dna deelb metsys etamotua llahs slortnoC ai l .snoitidnoc ytilauq retaw lacol no desab noitartnecnoc M e c h fo selcyc ezimixam taht slortnoc fo noitallatsni edulcni a llahs srewoT .slortnoC desab-wolF ro ytivitcudnoC n ci a l :eriuqer srewoT gnilooC nepO ro evitaropavE srewoT gnilooC srewoT gnilooC
    • 28 .snot 051 < yticapac detar htiw srewoT : NOITPECXE .srewot wolf-ssorc rof %500.0 dna srewot wolfretnuoc rof emulov retaw detalucric eht fo %200.0 ot noitcuder tfird eveihca taht srotanimile tfird tneiciffe htiw deppiuqe eb llahs srewoT .srotanimilE tfirD tneiciffE .wolfrevo pmus fo esac ni rotarepo rewot eht ot metsyS tnemeganaM N o n gnidliuB eht aiv trela na edivorp ro langis elbidua r e s na dnes llahs mrala wolfrevO .eruliaf evlav retaw puekam di e fo esac ni pmus eht fo wolfrevo tneverp ot mrala wolfrevo n t ai na fo noitallatsni edulcni llahs srewoT .mralA wolfrevO l M e c h .enil retaw puekam eht no retem a wolf a fo noitallatsni edulcni llahs srewoT .reteM wolF n ci a l )tnoc( srewoT gnilooC nepO ro evitaropavE srewoT gnilooC srewoT gnilooC
    • 38 N o n r e s di e n t ai l M e c h a n ci a l )sesaercni ssenkciht emos( stnemeriuqer EARHSA sehctaM no ta usnI ep P noiitallusnI epiiP
    • 48 smetsys wolf tnaregirfer elbairaV spmup taeH smetsys-tilpS spotfoor XD degakcaP N sedulcnI o n r metsys e s di e )DDF( scitsongaiD dna noitceteD tluaF a edulcni tsuM n t ai hutB 000,45 => yticapac gnilooc lacinahceM l M e c h dna rezimonoce a na htiw stinu noisnapxe-tcerid yratinu delooc-ria llA n ci a l )DDF( scitsongaiD dna noitceteD tluaF yrotadnaM srez monocE sreziimonocE
    • 58 snoitacinummocelet dna tnempiuqe retupmoc ot detaler snoitpmexe devomeR wolfria N o f o mfc 008,1 neht retaerG n r e s DNA di e n t )snot ai l 5.4( hutB 000,45 ot nwod M e c h hutB 000,57 morf devoM a n derewol srezimonoce ci a l rof dlohserht evitpircserP srez monocE sreziimonocE
    • 68 4102 ,1 naJ hutB 000,56= > 4 ro 3 emuloV elbairaV 6102 ,1 naJ hutB 000,56= > 2 emuloV tnatsnoC N o n 4102 ,1 naJ hutB 000,57 => 2 emuloV tnatsnoC r e s di etaD evitceffE yticapaC gnilooC deriuqeR segatS epyT naF e n t noitaludoM ro gnigatS yticapaC gnilooC ai l M e c h a n :swollof sa yticapac gnilooc etaludom ci a l ro egats ot elba eb tsum srezimonoce htiw smetsys XD srez monocE sreziimonocE
    • 78 6102 ,1 naJ yna ph ¼ > pavE & retaW dellihC 4102 ,1 naJ yna ph 1 > pavE & retaW dellihC 6102 ,1 naJ hutB 000,56= > yna noisnapxE tceriD 4102 ,1 naJ hutB 000,57 => yna noisnapxE tceriD etaD evitceffE yticapaC gnilooC eziS rotoM naF epyT metsyS gnilooC snaF fo lortnoC wolfriA elbairaV N o n r e s di e n t ai l M e c h .daol lautca fo noitcnuf a sa etar a n wolfria eht yrav ot dengised eb llahs ci a l B-4.041 elbaT ni detsil metsys hcaE snaF snaF
    • 88 evird deeps elbairaV erusserp citats ngised latot tnirp ot noissimrep tnarg ton did renwo sthgiR .dettimo egamI eht fo 3/1 slauqe tniop tes erusserp citats nehw emulov ria ngised fo tnecrep 05 ta egattaw ngised latot eht fo tnecrep 03 naht erom on ot dnamed rotom naf eht timil taht slortnoc edulcni llahs smetsys enoz elpitluM N o n r e s evird di deeps elbairav ro naf deeps-owT e n t ai deeps naf ngised fo tnecrep l M 66 ta egattaw ngised fo tnecrep 04 e c h naht erom on fo dnamed rotom naf ni a n tluser lliw taht secived ro/dna slortnoc ci a l evah llahs smetsys enoz elgniS snaF snaF
    • 98 naf ehtffo elcyc osla tsum ,metsys enoz elgnis fI ycnacav fo setunim 03 nihtiw ria edistuo ffo tuhs tsuM doirep .rh 2 a revo etar ria roodtuo egareva eht niatniam N ot ecneuqes lortnoc elcyc naf seriuqeR o n r ycnapucco lamron e s di ot roirp egrup-erp ruoh eno od tsuM e n t ai moor rep rosnes enO l M e c orez ot etar noitalitnev eht ecuder yaM h a n ci noitalitnev lortnoc dnamed rof noitpo a l lortnoc a sa dewolla srosnes ycnapuccO s ortnoC sllortnoC
    • 09 deipucconu si enoz eht nehw ffo naf ylppus eht nrut ro orez ot etar noitalitnev deriuqer muminim eht teser yllacitamotuA DNA erom ro N o n r F˚2 yb tniop tes erutarepmet gnitaeh eht kcabtes dna erom e s i ro F°2 yb tniop tes gnilooc eht putes yllacitamotua tsuM d e n t tfqs 057 naht retaerg smoor ecnerefnoC ai l M tfqs 057 naht retaerg smoorssalC e c h a tfqs 0001 naht ssel smoor esoprupitluM n ci a l :ni lortnoc CAVH desab rosnes ycnapuccO yrotadnaM s ortnoC sllortnoC
    • 19 osla ffo dehctiws si gnithgiL edom gnitaeh ni F°5 tsael ta nwod-teS N o edom gnilooc ni F°5 tsael ta pu-teS n r e :er a stniopteS s di e n detacav neeb sah moor tseug eht t ai l retfa setunim 03 naht regnol on detavitcA M e c h .slortnoc citamotua ro ,slortnoc gnisnes a n ycnapucco ,slortnoc yek drac evitpac ci a l evah llahs smoor tseug letom dna letoH smooR tseuG etoM/ etoH smooR tseuG lletoM/lletoH
    • gnithgiL roodtuO laitnedisernoN gnithgiL roodnI laitnedisernoN roodtuO ●smooR ytilitU & smooR yrdnuaL ,segaraG ● smoorhtaB ● snehctiK ● gnithgiL laitnediseR lacinahceM laitnedisernoN lacinahceM laitnediseR esir-woL epolevnE laitnedisernoN epolevnE laitnediseR esir-woL noitacilppA dna epocS ni segnahC llarevO emocleW gnithgiL laitnediseR gnithgiL laitnediseR
    • 39 noitadnuoF waL noitavresnoC fo ysetruoc otohp LFC 42-UG srosnes ycnacav yb dellortnoc R e ro ycaciffe hgih eb llahs moorhtab s di hcae ni dellatsni gnithgil rehto llA e n t ai l DNA L gi h t moorhtab ni g hcae ni dellatsni eb llahs erianimul ycaciffe hgih eno fo muminim A smoorhtaB smoorhtaB
    • 49 tnirp ot noissimrep tnarg ton did renwo sthgiR .dettimo egamI R e s di e rosnes n t ai ycnacav l L a yb dellortnoc eb tsuM gi h t DNA i n g gnithgilycaciffe hgih eb tsum gnithgil deriw-drah llA smooR yt tU & smooR y rdnuaL segaraG smooR ytiilliitU & smooR y rdnuaL ,,segaraG
    • 59 tnirp ot noissimrep tnarg ton did renwo sthgiR .dettimo egamI )7.041 noitces( snoitcirtser DPL roodtuo laitnedisernon htiw ylpmoc tsuM rO rosnes noitom dna llecotohp yb dellortnoc ro ,ycaciffe hgih eb tsuM )selcihev 8 naht ssel( stropraC )selcihev 8 naht ssel( stoL gnikraP R e sehcroP s di seinoclaB e n t ai secnartnE l L gi h t soitap etavirP i n g stinu gnillewd +4 htiw sgnidliub laitnediser ylimaf-itlum esir-woL roodtuO y maF- t uM roodtuO ylliimaF-iitlluM
    • 69 selcihev erom R e s i ro thgie htiw stol gnikrap rof elur emaS d e n t gnithgil ai l L i roodtuo laitnedisernon htiw ylpmoc tsuM g h t ni g edils suoiverp no nwohs ton saera rehtO stinu gnillewd erom ro ruof esir-woL roodtuO y maF- t uM roodtuO ylliimaF-iitlluM
    • gnithgiL roodtuO laitnedisernoN dohteM deroliaT ● dohteM yrogetaC aerA ● dohteM gnidliuB etelpmoC ● srotcaF tnemtsujdA rewoP ● serusaeM yrotadnaM ● gnithgiL roodnI laitnedisernoN gnithgiL laitnediseR lacinahceM laitnedisernoN lacinahceM laitnediseR esir-woL epolevnE laitnedisernoN epolevnE laitnediseR esir-woL noitacilppA dna epocS ni segnahC llarevO emocleWgnithgiL roodnI laitnedisernoNgnithgiL roodnI laitnedisernoN
    • 89 tnirp ot noissimrep tnarg ton did renwo sthgiR .dettimo egamI dezingocer ton tnecseroulf no snoisrevnoc DEL raeniL dezingocer si noisrevnoc DEL neve ,noitacifidom dleif oN tnenamrep fi neve ,dezingocer N ton era sretpada esab wercS o n r e s sttaw 05 .nim sa detnuoc stekcos esab di e wercs muidem htiw serutxif desseceR n t ai l I n d gnithgil kcart rof dezingocer o slenap tnerruc-revo egatlov eniL o r L gi )stnemeriuqer gnilebal osla( deifitrec h t ni eb tsum sretimil tnerruc gnithgil kcarT g serusaeM y rotadnaM serusaeM y rotadnaM
    • 99 .rewop lluf naht level rewol a ta slevel thgil mumixam tes ot ytiliba eht si gninuT .sega pmal sa tuptuo thgil tnatsnoc niatniam lliw ecnanetniaM nemuL slortnoc gnithgil evisnopser dnameD slortnoc gnithgilyad citamotuA N gninuT o n r e s i ecnanetniam nemuL d e n t i gnimmid launaM a l I n d :sdohtem gniwollof eht fo eno fo tsael o ta yb dellortnoc eb llahs erianimul hcaE o r L gi tfqs 001 => dna tfqs/w 5.0 h t ni > saera ni deriuqer slortnoc level-itluM g slortnoC level-itluM slortnoC level-itluM
    • 001 sllewriats dna srodirroc ni dellatsni gnithgiL sdne htobmorf elbissecca era taht regnol ro teef 02 dne eno ylnomorf elbissecca era taht regnol ro teef 01 N o n r selsia kcats koob yrarbiL e s di e ecnawolla yrogetaC aerA fo %08 n t ai l naht ssel si DPL fi noitcuder rewop %04 I n d elsia ralucitrap taht lortnoc tsuM o o r L sesuoheraw ni saera nepo dna selsiA gi h t ni %05 yb rewop ecuder ot srosnes tnapuccO g srosneS tnapuccO srosneS tnapuccO
    • 101 tnirp ot noissimrep tnarg ton did renwo sthgiR .dettimo egamI N o n r e saera gnidaolnu dna gnidaol s dna saera gnikrap ,segarag gnikraP di e n t ai letom/letoh & laitnediser esir-hgih rof l I n d srodirroc aera nommoc dna sllewriatS o o r slortnoc ffotuhs citamotua L gi rof tnemeriuqer eht rof etutitsbus h t ni a sa srosnes tnapucco esu naC g srosneS tnapuccO srosneS tnapuccO
    • 201 N o n r e s di e n t ai l I n d o o r L gi thgilyks eht fo gninepo hguor eht h t ni fo egde eht morf noitcerid hcae ni thgieh gniliec semit 7.0 g noitinifeD enoZ tily kS noitinifeD enoZ tily kS
    • 301 N o n r e s di e n wodniw t ai eht fo gninepo hguor eht fo edis l I n d hcae no ediw thgieh daeh wodniw o semit 5.0 sulp htdiw wodniw sedulcnI o r L gi aera eht h t ni otni peed thgieh daeh wodniw enO g no t n feD enoZ t ed S y ram rP noiitiiniifeD enoZ tiillediiS y ramiirP
    • 401 gnizalg fo tfqs 42 naht sseL gnithgil fo sttaw 021 naht sseL :snoitpecxE N o n r e s di e yletarapes dellortnoc eb tsum n t e n o z f o e p y t h c a e ni s e r i a n i m u L ai l I n d o snalp no detnemucod senoZ o r L senoz tiledis yramirp ni deriuqeR gi h t ni senoz tilyks ni deriuqeR g s ortnoC gn thg yaD c tamotuA sllortnoC gniithgiillyaD ciitamotuA
    • 501 N o n r e s gnithgil fo sttaw 06 naht di e ssel sah enoz tiledis fi ylppa ton seoD n t ai l I n d gninepo o ro gnizalg fo erom ro teef erauqs 63 fo o r L latot denibmoc htiw aera egarag gnikraP gi h t ni deriuqer slortnoc gnithgilyad citamotuA g gn thg yaD egaraG gn kraP gniithgiillyaD egaraG gniikraP
    • 601 edils txen no nwohs A-1.031 elbaTtnirp ot noissimrep tnarg ton did renwo sthgiR .dettimo egamI gnihctiws deppets ro gnimmid deppets aiv A-1.031 elbaT htiw ecnadrocca ni NO lluf woleb level eno yb gnithgil ni noitcuder A N o ro ;gnimmid aiv n r e rewop gnithgil ni noitcuder %51 A s di e :rehtie edivorp yllacitamotua tsuM n t ai l I n d .tfqs 000,01 naht o regral sgnidliub lla ot seilppa woN o r L gi .liater h t ni ot deilppa ylno ,dradnats roirp nI g s ortnoC gn thg L ev snopseR dnameD sllortnoC gniithgiiL eviisnopseR dnameD
    • 701 N o n r e s di e n t ai l I n d o o r L gi h t ni g s ortnoC gn thg L ev snopseR dnameD sllortnoC gniithgiiL eviisnopseR dnameD
    • 801 N o n r e s di e n t ai l I n d o ecnailpmoc evitpircserp o r L ni tiderc nevig regnol on )srehto dna( slortnoc gnithgilyaD gi h t ni stiderc lortnoc gnithgil desiveR g srotcaF tnemtsu dA rewoP srotcaF tnemtsujjdA rewoP
    • 901 N o n r e s di e n t deriuqer slortnoc gnithgilyad citamotuA ai l I n d o aera yradnoces ni gnithgil fo erom ro sttaw 021 o r L enoz thgilyad yradnoceS gi h t ni ecnailpmoc evitpircserP g senoZ thg yaD y radnoceS senoZ thgiillyaD y radnoceS
    • 011 N o n r e s di e n t ai l I n d o o r L gi h t ni segaraG gnikraP dna seciffO rof sDPL ni noitcudeR g dohteM gn d uB ete pmoC dohteM gniidlliiuB etellpmoC
    • 111 N o n r e s di e n t ai l I n d o o r L gnicnerefnocoediV rof yrogetac weN gi h t ni gnikraP & liateR ,yrecorG ,seciffO rof sDPL decudeR g dohteM y rogetaC aerA dohteM y rogetaC aerA
    • 211 N o n r e s di e n t ai l I n d o o r L cte ,latnemanrO ,sksaT ot seilppA gi h t ni secnawolla lanoitidda rof setontoof weN g dohteM y rogetaC aerA dohteM y rogetaC aerA
    • 311 N o n r e s di e n t ai l I n d o o r L secnawolla rewol evah snoitcnuf ynaM gi h t ni devomer snoitcnuf ynaM g dohteM dero aT dohteM derolliiaT
    • 411 tnirp ot noissimrep tnarg ton did renwo sthgiR .dettimo egamI N o syawdaor laredef dna n r eetats gnola saera tser cilbuP s di e snoitatS eriF ro eciloP n t ai l I eraC lacinilC dna lacideM n d o omuisanmyG ,retneC esicrexE r L gi level XUL SEI nopu desab h t ni gnithgil dengissa sesu niatreC g dohteM dero aT dohteM derolliiaT
    • 511 N o n r e s di e n t ai l I n d o sisab sa )D-6.041 elbaT morf( eulav xuL eht sesU o r L sDPL desiver sedulcni elbaT gi h t ni G-6.041 elbaT ni nevig ecnawolla gnithgil cisaB g dohteM deroliaT dohteM deroliaT
    • 611 N o n r e s di e n t ai l I n d o decuder sreilpitluM o r L gi sesaercni egattaw h t ni rof swolla thgieh gnitnuom rehgiH g dohteM deroliaT dohteM deroliaT
    • 711 N o )wollof ot noitinifed( ecalP-ni-noitacifidoM n r e erianimuL a sa yfilauq taht snoitaretlA :noitpecxE s di e n E-0.141 elbaT ot tcejbuS t ai l I .erehwesle n d dellatsni ro noitacol emas eht ni rehtehw ,dellatsnier o o r dna devomer ,tiucric eht morf detcennocsid era serianimul ro L gi ,decalper era serianimul ,deifidom si metsys gnithgil gnitsixe h t ni na erehw snoitaretla edulcni llahs snoitaretlA metsyS gnithgiL g snoitaretlA snoitaretlA
    • 811 N o n r e s di e n t ai l I n d o o r L gi h t ni g snoitaretlA snoitaretlA
    • 911 .erianimul tnemecalper eht gnitcennocer dna erianimul gnitsixe eht gnitcennocsid sevlovni noitacifidom lacirtcele ylno eht hcihw ni eno rof eno serianimul elohw fo tnemecalpeR .secived smetsys lortnoc gnithgil gnillatsnI N o n r e .erianimul a fo metsys lacitpo eht gnignahC s di e.stekcos fo noitacoler ro lavomer ,lawener tekcos gnidulcni n t ai erianimul a ni ecruos thgil fo epyt ro rebmun eht gnignahC l I n d o .stsallab ro/dna spmal gnicalpeR o r L gi :sdohtem gniwollof eht fo erom ro eno ylno ni deifidom eb llahs h t ni smetsys gnithgil ,ecalP-ni-noitacifidoM erianimuL a sa yfilauq oT g snoitaretlA snoitaretlA
    • 021 N o n r e s di e n t ai l I n d o o r L gi h t ni g snoitaretlA snoitaretlA
    • sngiS ● selbaT ecnanidrO ● rewoP gnithgiL snoitacilppA cificepS ● rewoP gnithgiL epacsdraH ● lareneG ● gnithgiL roodtuO laitnedisernoN gnithgiL roodnI laitnedisernoN gnithgiL laitnediseR lacinahceM laitnedisernoN lacinahceM laitnediseR esir-woL epolevnE laitnedisernoN epolevnE laitnediseR esir-woL noitacilppA dna epocS ni segnahC llarevO emocleWgnithgiL roodtuO laitnedisernoNgnithgiL roodtuO laitnedisernoN
    • 221 N o n r e s di e noitalubat n t i gnithgil ni serutxif eseht tnuoc tsuM a l O detpmexe regnol on serutaef retaw dna u t d o o sloop gnimmiws dnuora ro ni desu gnithgiL r L gi h sttaw 051 naht t retaerg spmal no deriuqer serianimul ffotuC ni g lareneG lareneG
    • 321 rehtegot dellortnoc eb llahs rewop gnithgil fo sttaw 005,1 fo mumixaM ytilanoitcnuf no-otua yolpme llahS gnimmid suounitnoc edivorP N o RO n r e s di e tnecrep 08 gnideecxe ton n t i tub tnecrep 04 tsael ta yb erianimul a l hcae fo rewop gnithgil ecudeR O u t d o o deriuqer rosnes noitoM r L gi h dnuorg eht evoba ’42 naht ssel t sthgieh gnitnuom hti w serianimul llA ni g srosneS noitoM srosneS noitoM
    • 421 erianimul fo toof raenil rep sttaw 4 =< gnithgil raeniL sttaw 03 =< serianimul detnuom elop-noN sttaw 57 =< serianimul detnuom-eloP gniniD N o n r epacsdraH latnemanrO e s di e sedacaF gnidliuB n t ai l seiponaC selaS O u t d stoL selaS o o r L egatnorF selaS gi h t srosnes noitom ot snoitpecxE ni g srosneS noitoM srosneS noitoM
    • 521 .thgin eht hguorht yaw flah ffo yletelpmoc pmal eht nruT N o .stnemeriuqer etummoc gninrom sserdda ot dedeen n r e fi nwad erofeb emitemos tuptuo lluf ot pu kcab pmal s di eht nrut dna ,thgin eht hguorht yawflah pmal eht miD e n t ai :selpmaxE l O u t d .thgin eht o o fo noitrop a rof erianimul roodtuo na ot rewop gnithgil eht ffo r L gi h snrut ro secuder taht metsys ro ecived lortnoc gnithgil desab t -ycnapucco ro emit a si lortnoC gnithgiL roodtuO thgiN-traP ni g eciveD thgiN traP eciveD thgiN traP
    • 621 .ytilanoitcnuf no-otua evah hcihw dna ,%08 gnideecxe ton tub %04 tsael ta yb rewop gnithgil gnicuder yllacitamotua fo elbapac srosnes noitoM RO N o n r ecived thgin-trap detubirtsid A e s di :stnemeriuqer gniwollof e n t eht steem taht lortnoc gnithgil citamotua na seriuqeR ai l O u t seiponaC selaS d o o r stoL selaS L gi h t egatnorF selaS ni g saerA selaS saerA selaS
    • 721 %05 tsael ta yb rewop gnithgil gnicuder yllacitamotua fo elbapac lortnoc gnithgil enoz desab-emit dezilartnec A .ytilanoitcnuf no-otua evah hcihw dna ,%08 gnideecxe ton tub %04 tsael ta yb rewop gnithgil gnicuder yllacitamotua fo elbapac srosnes noitoM N o n r ecived thgin-trap detubirtsid A e s di :stnemeriuqer gniwollof e n t eht fo eno steem taht lortnoc gnithgil citamotua na seriuqeR ai l O u t gniniD d o o r epacsdraH latnemanrO L gi h t edaçaF gnidliuB ni g saerA rehtO saerA rehtO
    • 821 W 0301 W 077 W 015 W 043 )AWI( ecnawollA egattaW laitinI fl/W 58.0 fl/W 06.0 fl/W 54.0 fl/W 52.0 )AWL( ecnawollA egattaW raeniL ²tf/W 511.0 ²tf/W 090.0 ²tf/W 540.0 ²tf/W 530.0 )AWA( ecnawollA egattaW aerA 4 enoZ 3 enoZ 2 enoZ 1 enoZ ecnawollA rewoP fo epyT gnithgiL gnithgiL gnithgiL gnithgiL N o n r e s di e n t ai l )der ni nwohs( O u t secnawollA gnithgiL ni snoitcudeR d o o r secnawollA epacsdraH L gi h t A-7.041 elbaT ni g rewoP gnithgiL epacsdraH rewoP gnithgiL epacsdraH
    • 921 .gninid roodtuo fo aera epacsdrah eht fo sthgieh gnitnuom 2 nihtiw eb llahs serianimul gniyfilauQ .segareveb dna doof emusnoc dna evres ot desu saera epacsdrah era saera gninid roodtuO .gninid roodtuo fo epacsdrah detanimulli latot ²tf/W 004.0 ²tf/W 042.0 ²tf/W 531.0 ²tf/W 410.0 eht rof ecnawollA .gniniD roodtuO N .yponac eht rednu detacol o eb llahs ecnawolla siht rof gniyfilauq n r serianimuL .yponac eht fo enil pird e s eht nihtiw aera latot eht rof ecnawollA di ²tf/W 002.2 ²tf/W 003.1 ²tf/W 500.1 ²tf/W 415.0 seiponaC noitatS ecivreS elciheV e n .rood eht fo tf 02 nihtiw t ai eb llahs ecnawolla siht rof gniyfilauq l serianimuL .rood rep ecnawollA O W 09 W 09 W 06 W 03 .stixE ro secnartnE gnidliuB u t d 4 enoZ gnithgiL 3 enoZ gnithgiL 2 enoZ gnithgiL 1 enoZ gnithgiL noitacilppA gnithgiL o o r L gi h t )der ni nwohs( secnawollA gnithgiL ni snoitcudeR ni g rewoP gnithgiL snoitacilppA cificepS rewoP gnithgiL snoitacilppA cificepS
    • 031 N o n r e s di e n t ai l O u t d o o r .ecnawollA epacsdraH cisab htiw ylpmoc tsuM L gi h t sdradnatS morf devomer selbaT ecnanidrO ni g selbaT ecnanidrO selbaT ecnanidrO
    • 131 .sruoh emitthgin N o n gnirud %56 fo muminim a yb rewop r e s gnithgil ngis ecuder yllacitamotua di e ot ytiliba eht sedivorp taht remmid n t ai a htiw dellortnoc eb llahs thgin dna l O yad htob no era taht sngis roodtuo llA u t d o o hctiws emit lacimonortsa r L gi h dna lortnocotohp a htiw dellortnoc t eb llahs gnithgil ngis roodtuo llA ni g sngiS sngiS
    • 231 .stneve erutuf nalp nac ew os steehs noitaulave ruoy etelpmoc ot erus eb esaelP .gniniarT sdradnatS 42 eltiT eht sedulcnoc sihT ?snoitseuQ ?snoitseuQ