RJ in North America• Elmira, Ontario – 1974 – Victim/Offender Reconciliation, link.• Minnesota leads the nation, link.• 1990’s Nancy Riestenberg, link
“Restorative justice is a process toinvolve, to the extent possible, those who have a stake in a specific offense and to collectively identify and address harms, needs, and obligations, in order to heal and put things as right as possible.”
Restorative Justice*• Conflict understood as a wound in relationships and fabric of the community• Changing hearts and minds requires human encounter, acknowledgement of each other’s story, and tolerance of differences• Focus is on humanizing the conflict and repairing the harm
• Creation of a safe place where people can speak and listen from the heart• Suspension of judgmental attitudes• Openness to hearing the life context of the other person *Mark S. Umbreit, Ph.D. Center for Restorative Justice & Peacemaking University of Minnesota, School of Social Work
• respect for all involved• rooted in deeper values –equal worth of all people –appreciation for diversity –belief in interconnectedness• Problem Solving/Empowering
Restorative Process• Return to a Balance• Restore Harmony• Make things Right• Plan for the future• Teaches self-governing Blog Post on September 24 Minnesota Restorative Services Coalition Resources
Accountability• Acknowledging that you caused harm• Understanding the harm from other viewpoints• Recognizing that you had a choice• Taking steps to make amends• Taking action to change
Healing• Addressing what thwarts your good• Honoring the Harm• Coming full Circle or around the spiral• Working towards wholeness• Becoming a better person
Besides attending to the needs of the victims, restorative practices usually generates some level of personal change for all those involved:• Greater sense of understanding• Compassion• Increase of self-respect• Increase of respect for others - M.Farley 4/27/10 ppt
Restorative Measures is NOT• A specific program• Forced upon• Suitable for all settings• Saying “sorry”• New or only in Wisconsin• A replacement for all discipline process
Wrongdoingerror lack of skill or ability malice
Relationship and Respect – These are values and behaviors we carry into the process.Responsibility – This R speaks to our ability to listen to anothers story and fully tell our own story with complete honesty.Repair – We agree to repair the harm we caused to the extent possible, even if we didnt intend the harm.Reintegration – This R requires a willingness to open our hearts door to let another back in once they have demonstrated their integrity by accepting responsibility and repairing the harm to the extent possible.
When you plant lettuce, if it does not grow well, you dont blame thelettuce. You look into the reasons it is not doing well. It may need fertilizer, or more water, or less sun. You never blame the lettuce. —Thich Nhat Hanh
Guiding questions• Who has been hurt?• What are their needs?• Whose obligations are these?• Who has a stake in this situation?• What is the appropriate process to involve stakeholders in an effort to put things right?
The Five Magic Questions• What happened?• What were you thinking?• How were you feeling?• Who else has been affected by this?• What do you need now so that the harm can be repaired ?
In relationships we are broken and in relationships we are healed. Judge Ed Wilson Rondo to Rwanda
Restorative Measures . . .The building of social capital and achieving social discipline through participatory learning and decision making - M.Farley 4/27/10 ppt
Restorative measures build on the premises:• From coercion to healing• From solely individual to individual and collective accountability• From primary dependence on the state to greater self reliance within the community• From justice as “getting even” to justice as “getting well” - M.Farley 4/27/10 ppt
Connectedness• Equals responsibility• Harming Others, harm yourself• Awareness of this responsibility creates our value system.
Values• Goals & ways of behaving despite objects or situation.• Standards & Principles that guide our actions.• Should do, rather than want or have to.
Restorative Measures• Change in language, why to what happened.• Responding to harm vs rule broken.• Empowering community (classroom) resolution.• Involving students/others in outcomes• Build restorative skill-sets before resolving conflict• Clear expectations/baseline behaviors
Restorative Measures in Schools• Based in Indigenous wisdom and modern restorative justice philosophy plus: – positive youth development, social emotional learning, psychology of affect, cognitive psychology• Consists of principles and practices• Focuses on relationships and fair practices• Whole school approach: re-affirm, repair, rebuild – Peaceable schools/social emotional learning – Affective statements/questions; mediation – Collaborative problem solving/repair of harm – Pranis, Stuart & Wedge; Thorsborne & Vinegrand; Stutuzman Amstutz & Mullet; Morrison; Hopkins; Schiff & Bazemore; McColl & Wachtell
A Whole School Restorative approach can contribute to:• Emotional Literacy• Addressing bullying behaviours• Reducing staff turnover and burnout• Raising morale and self-esteem• Culture of inclusion and belonging
A Whole School Restorative approach can contribute to:• Happier and safer schools• Mutually respectful relationships• More effective teaching and learning• Reducing exclusion• Raising attendance
Good relationships need to be at the heart of everything a school does if effective teaching and learning are to take place. 4 Key Relationships in School Buildings: • Teacher to Teaching • Teacher to Student • Student to Student • Student to Learning
Interactions 1:1Restorative ConferenceRestorative Circle
Discipline ReferralRestorative As part of Instead of Measures
“Peacemaking Circles bring together the ancient wisdom of community and contemporary value of respect for the individual in a process which honors the presence and dignity of every participant, values their contributions, emphasizes the connectedness of all things, supports emotional and spiritual expression, and gives equal voice to all.” Kay Pranis 2001
Circle Process• Method for providing Restorative Justice• Advanced Training strongly recommended• Four Stage format• Based on values• Effective for elementary youth – college age• Brain-based & SEL based
Tertiary Prevention:POSITIVE BEHAVIORAL SpecializedIntervention & IndividualizedSUPPORT Systems for Students 5% with High-Risk Behavior Secondary Prevention: 15% Specialized Group Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior Primary Prevention: School-/Classroom- Wide Systems for All Students, Staff, & Settings 80% of Students
Restorative PracticesTriangle Intensive Intervention Few Re-Build Relationships Some Early Intervention Repair Relationships All Prevention & Skill Building Re-Affirm Relationships
Restorative Practices CirclesFew Rebuild – Tier III Some Repair – Tier II All Re-affirm – Tier I
Using Circles Issue• Classrooms • Violation of• Culture • Seasonal Rules • Behaviors • Re-Entry Community Incident
Types & Examples of Circle• Community-Connection Building – RJ Class/Culture – Classroom connections• Centered around a risk/behavior – Boxer shorts as pajama’s• Centered around an incident/In response to a wrong-doing – Fight, vandalism
Effective School-based Circles•Circles as climate & culture•Tier I, II & III•Open & Close•Values•Talking Piece•Four Stages •Getting Acquainted •Building Relationships •Addressing Issues •Taking Action
Tier II• “I smell a Circle!”• Circumstance in the Center Tier III• Role Models and those who • Incident of Harm struggle • Prepare harmed & harmer• What could we do better • Strong community• Plan of action for members community • What can be done to repair • Plan of action for harmer to make things right
Effective School-based Circles“Wide” Topics: •Community Building •Addressing Culture •Planning Circles •Educational Use •Sharing, promoting inclusion“Narrow” Topics: •Concerning behavior •Incidents of harm •Reintegrating a student •IEP meetings •Problem Solving
Circles WORK when each person has a sense of belonging.
Outcomes• Victims & Offenders – prefer over formal justice process• Offenders are more compliant• Victims are more satisfied• Reduces Victim PTSD• Saves money• Reduces recidivism• Provides for community input
IIRP comparisonIssue – students report before afterstudents will make fun of 70 % 29%youYou get picked on 49% 16%experienced theft 47% 24%Wrecked property incident 31% 8%
Zero Evidence of Zero Tolerance working. B. Morrison ABA & the APA Chicago Public Schools -Summer ‘072/3/2013 63
Outcomes Cass Lake-Bena ElementaryIn school suspensions• ’01 61 suspensions a month all year long• ’02 13 suspensions a month (first 3 months) Last Quarter First Q 97 Noise or swearing 40 54 off task 20 10 inappropriate physical contact 1
Pattengill Middle School, MI• 15% drop in suspensions (other schools increased)• Averted 2 expulsions• 93% of students participated• 90% new skills, 86% used those• 1 Elem/3 MS/1 HS saved Lansing students 1,500 days of suspension.
Practitioner Check-list Understand the Philosophy Knowledge of the intended outcomes Experience and comfort w/healing Understanding of accountability to community Knowledge of the Circle Process Experience in a Restorative Justice Circle Support and team members Knowledge of the stages, role of keeper, tips & techniques of Circle-keeping
Circle-keeping is not a position of power. Circle-keeping is a position of love. - M.Farley 4/27/10 ppt
5 stage model1. Own develop the vision2. Steering group3. Training team4. Support the team5. Plan organization & policy review
A School’s JourneyChange changes people• As many as possible to ‘walk the talk’• Utilize the circle process• Establish a strong working enviornment