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  • 1. Classification of Organisms
  • 2. I.I. ClassificationClassification A. Arrangement in classes or groups to improve communication between scientists. B. Four factors used to classify 1. They have similar structures 2. They have similar behaviors 3. They eat the same kinds of things 4. They have the same chemical make up.
  • 3. II.II. Five Kingdoms of LivingFive Kingdoms of Living ThingsThings A. Moneran KingdomA. Moneran Kingdom 1. Simple single celled Example: Bacteria 2. Helpful types a. Decomposers b. Yogurt 3. Harmful types a. Pathogens – cause disease b Strepthroat
  • 4. II. Five Kingdoms contII. Five Kingdoms cont.. B. The Protist Kingdom 1. Complex , single celled organism a. Euglenas- make their own food b. Protozoans – depend on getting food from other sources. c. Examples of common protists are as follows
  • 5. Trypanosoma use flagellum to move
  • 6. Paramecium have hair like structures called cil
  • 7. Here is an Amoeba with its pseudopods
  • 8. II.II. Five Kingdoms cont.Five Kingdoms cont. C. The Fungi Kingdom 1. Many celled organisms a. Sprophytes- eat dead things 2. Depend on others for food b. Parasites – attack living tissues 3. Examples of a. Yeasts b. Mushrooms
  • 9. A picture of Bread Mold
  • 10. And here is a Mushroom
  • 11. II.II. Five Kingdoms contFive Kingdoms cont.. »D. The Plant KingdomD. The Plant Kingdom1.1. Many celled organismMany celled organism 2.2. They make their own food.They make their own food. –a. Process called photosynthesisa. Process called photosynthesis –b. Examples:b. Examples: –Trees, flowers, and grassTrees, flowers, and grass
  • 12. E. The Animal KingdomE. The Animal Kingdom
  • 13. The Animal Kingdom cont.The Animal Kingdom cont. 1. Many Celled Organisms 2. Consume other Organisms for food 3. The Subdivision of this Kingdom a. Naming Organisms b. Common names – house cat c. Scientific Names – Felis catus Genus Species
  • 14.  4. How Kingdoms are subdivided4. How Kingdoms are subdivided Let’s look at how we would scientifically name the Columbine. a. Phylum Tracheophyta b. Class Angiospermae c. Order Dicotyledon d. Family Ranunculaceae e. Genus Aquilegia f. Species cearulea
  • 15. 1. Phylum: Porifera – The Sponges a. Sessile (permanently attached as adults.) b. Pores c. Two cell layers d. Both marine and fresh water e. Respiration- Oxygen absorbed by inner cells. f. Digestion- Food absorbed by inner cell layer. g. Circulation- 1. Flagellum create a water current. 2. No Blood
  • 16. 2.Phylum: Coelenterata Jellyfish and Coral a. They have tentacles. b. They have stinging cells. c. Some are sessile/ some free-living
  • 17. 2. Phylum: Coelenterata cont. Jellyfish and Coral cont. d. Respiration – Oxygen absorbed by inner cell layer e. Digestion – 1. Food absorbed by inner cell wall 2. Single opening mouth f. Circulation – water current distributes gas/food
  • 18. 3. Phylum: Platyhelminthes – The Flatworms a. Parasites live off host b. They can regenerate if broken. c.Respiration – Oxygen absorbed through the skin d. Digestion - 1. Nutrients absorbed into the skin 2. Single opening mouth e. Circulation – Nutrients/ gas circulated by host
  • 19. 4. Phylum Nematoda - Roundworms a. Many are parasites / some free - living b. Respiration – Oxygen absorbed through the skin d. Digestion 1. Nutrients absorbed by inner cell layer. 2. Complete system ( Two Openings) D. Circulation - Food / gas absorbed through cells
  • 20. 5. Phylum Annelida - The Segmented Worm a. Segmented body b. Respiration – Gas exchange through the skin. c. Digestion – 1. Specialized organs 2. Complete System 3. Nutrients absorbed through inner cell layer.
  • 21. d. Circulation – Pairs of “hearts” circulate blood 5. Phylum Annelida - The Segmented Worm cont e. Example : Earthworm - Nightcrawlers
  • 22. 6. Phylum: Mollusca – The Mollusks a. Mostly Shell-builders b. Mantle – Fleshy covering that secretes the shell. c. Well developed sense organs
  • 23. 6. Phylum: Mollusca – The Mollusks d. Respiration – Gills for gas exchange e. Digestion – complete with specialized organs. f. Circulation – hearts for pumping blood. g. Mostly aquatic h. Examples Octopus ,squid, Snails and clams
  • 24. 7. Phylum - Arthropoda
  • 25. 7. Phylum Arthropods a. Exoskeleton (outside) b. Jointed legs c. Segmented body d. Circulation – open, hearts for pumps e. Respiration - 1. Vents and spiracles ( land arthropods) 2. Gills (aquatic arthropods) f. Digestion – complete with specialized organs g. Five classes of arthropods
  • 26. g. Arthropods five classes cont. 1. Class Crustacea ( crabs, lobsters) a. Mostly marine (salt water) b. Cephalothorax and abdomen (two body regions) c. Five pair of legs
  • 27. g. Arthropods five classes cont. 2. Class Arachnida (spiders, ticks, mites) a. Many are poisonous b. Two body regions c. Four pairs of legs
  • 28. g. Arthropods five classes cont 3. Class Insecta ( grasshoppers, bees) a. Many fly b. Three body regions c. Three pairs of legs
  • 29. g. Arthropods five classes cont 4. Class Chilopoda ( centipedes) a. Many segments b. One pair of legs per segment c. Poisonous
  • 30. g. Arthropods five classes cont 5. Class Diplopoda ( millipedes) a. Many segments b. Two pairs of legs per segment c. Not poisonous
  • 31. 8.Phylum: Echinodermata starfish A. Spiny skin B. Radial design C. Examples: sea stars
  • 32. 9.Phylum Chordata ( vertebrates with spinal cords) A. Circulatory system 1. Closed (veins and arteries) 2. Multi chambered heart B. Digestive System – Complete system with specialized organs C. Respiratory System 1. Lungs on land 2. Gills in most cases in water
  • 33. Let’s take a look at 7 classes of vertebrates
  • 34. Phylum: Chordata cont. 1. Class: Cyclostomata a. Cold blooded b. Cartilage skeleton c. No true Jaws d. Example: The lamprey
  • 35. Phylum: Chordata cont 2. Class: Chondrichthyes a. Cold blooded b. Sharp teeth c. Cartilage skeleton d. Example: sharks, rays, skates
  • 36. Phylum: Chordata cont 3. Class: Osteichthyes 1. Cold blooded 2. Bone skeleton 3. Two chambered heart 4. Scales 5. Example: perch, bass
  • 37. Phylum: Chordata cont 4. Class: amphibia a. Live in water and on land b. Smooth moist skin ( exceptions: toads) c. Cold blooded d. Breathe through gills as babies
  • 38. e. Breathe through lungs and skin as adults f. Lay eggs in water g. Three chambered heart h. Metamorphisms (tadple to frog) i. Examples newts, salamanders, frogs and toads 4. Class: amphibia cont.
  • 39. Phylum: Chordata 5. Class: Reptilia a. Cold blooded b. scales c. Lay eggs on land
  • 40. Phylum: Chordata 5. Class: Reptilia cont. d. Incomplete four chambered heart e. Breath with lungs from birth f. Example: snakes, lizards, turtles
  • 41. Phylum: Chordata 6. Class: Aves The birds a. Warm blooded b. Complete four chambered heart c. Streamlined (aerodynamic) body d. Feathers
  • 42. Phylum: Chordata 6. Class: Aves The birds cont. e. Lay eggs on land f. Light weight skeleton g. Examples: Eagles, Seagulls, Turkeys
  • 43. Phylum: Chordata 7. Class: Mammalia a. Warm blooded b. Hair c. Live birth (placentals) Placenta- nourishes baby while developing in mom
  • 44. Phylum: Chordata 7. Class: Mammalia cont. d. Mammary glands - produce milk - nurse young e. Two pairs of limbs f. High functioning brain and sense organs