Thesis
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Like this? Share it with your network

Share
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
1,173
On Slideshare
1,170
From Embeds
3
Number of Embeds
2

Actions

Shares
Downloads
14
Comments
0
Likes
0

Embeds 3

http://www.linkedin.com 2
http://www.slideshare.net 1

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. - : - - -"
  • 2. "-
  • 3. , , , " . . , , ,. . , , , .
  • 4. - ................................................................................................... 1 .................................................................................................................... 2 .......................................................................................... 9 ............................................................................................................. 14 ........................................................................ - 21 ......................... ................................................................ 30 ............................................................. 38 ............................................................................................. 38 ............................ ................................ ................................ 38 ............................ ................................ ................................ 40 ................................. ................................ 41 ........................................................................................... 42 .............................. ................................................................ 42 ............................................................................................. 43 ....................................... : 46 .................................................................... : 50 ............ ................................................................ : 53 ............................................................................................... 56 ........................................................................................... 58 .................................................................... : 64 ...........................................................................................104 ......................................................................................................................129 ..................................... ................................ ................................132 .......................................... ................................ ................................i-iv .......................................... ................................ ................................
  • 5. , . – , . , , , ., , .(Campbell, 2005a; Kong, 2001) -. .Campbell 2005b; ) . , .(Fernback, 2002Luckmann,1967 in ) " "- . ,(Krueger, 2004 , - - .. , : , , . .- - . - , . - , ,Fernback, 2002; Klassen, 2002; McIntosh, 2004; Pearson, 2002; Strmiska, ) .(2005
  • 6. : - ? - •? - • : . . - - , , . , : .(2003) , ,(Campbell, 2005a) ., ., , , , : . , , - , . . - , . . - , , . . . - - - : . .1
  • 7. .2 .3. ., , . , ..
  • 8. 1 " " , . ". , . , . " , . – . ., , .(Campbell, 2005a) . ? ? ? , , , , - " : , , : , , .Wertheim, 1999: 21 ) ".edu - .net - ,.com .(as cited by Campbell, 2005a - , . .
  • 9. 2Campbell ) , .(2005b , , , - . . , , - , . : , . ", , . . . ., , ."Pesce, 1994 as cited in Davis, 1998, p. ) .(229 - , . . - , . , . . , , . , . . - , : , , . . ,
  • 10. 3Bell, Loader, Pleace & Schuler, ) .(2004; Burnett & Marshall, 2003 ,Computer Mediated Communication ) - (" " " , , , - - . - "- " ( ) " , . " , , .( , - ) . ) " , :Herring, 2002; Soukup, ) ,( , , , .(2000, : " , ".(Reduced Cues) " " , " , . - " , . , " " .( , ) " .(Herring, 2002; Soukup, 2000) . " " . , " - . , . , .( , ) – " , . " , " "
  • 11. 4 . " .(Herring, 2002; Soukup, 2000) " . " . " . . " , " . . , , , - . , , " . . - " . . , . " , " - ,. - " " " . , . , , ,- - " . . " (Turkle, 1995)Burnett & Marshall, ) , .(2003; Castells, 2001; Herring, 2002; Soukup, 2000 " .
  • 12. 5 . . , . , , , . ,Bell et al., 2004; ) .(Castells, 2001; Chadwick, 2006; Herring, 2002; Soukup, 2000 . , , ) ARPA ,ARPANET - ARPA .1969 (Advanced Research Projects Agency . " "- . " , . , ARPANET .Chadwick, ) , ARPANET- (2006 , . , .Bell et al., 2004; Castells, 2001; Chadwick, 2006; Ince, ) .(2001; Wood & Smith, 2001Packet ) " " ARPANET .(Switching . , " . . , " , : .
  • 13. 6 , :Bell et al., 2004; Castells, 2001; Chadwick, ) .(2006; Wood & Smith, 2001 60- - . . 1972 ARPANET- - (Robert Kahn) 1972 . . (Vinton Cerf) ,: . ,.(TCP/IP : ) Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol-. .Bell ) .(et al., 2004; Chadwick, 2006 ARPANET .90- , . , . , :Bell et al., 2004; Castells, 2001; ) - .(Chadwick, 2006; Ince, 2001; Wood & Smith, 2001 90- .CERN – - , - , .World - 1990 .Wide Web . ,60- ,1969
  • 14. 7Bell et al., 2004; Castells, 2001; Chadwick, 2006; Ince, ) 90- .(2001; Klopfenstein, 2002 " " ,IRC ,Usenet , - : " " FTP- , .(Klopfenstein, 2002) , . , , . .( ) ( , ) , , ) ( , ). .( , . , - , ( ) ,( , ) . . (visibility) , " " ., ." " " " . . . . . . ,Burnett & Marshall, 2003; ) , .(Chadwick, 2006
  • 15. 8 . (cyber) ., , . , (cybernetics) . ,1984 . . . (Rheingold, 1993) . . . " " .Bell et al., 2004; Wood & ) .(Smith, 2001 , . " . , , . (Rheingold, 1993). , :, , . , . . , -
  • 16. 9Castells, 2001; Herring, ) - - .(2002; Wood & Smith, 2001 . " ? , , " " . ,Jones, 1997 as cited by ) . (Wood & Smith, 2001 , : , , . . .(Bell, 2004; Herring, 2002) , " . . , .(Castells, 2001) . ? – ? ? ? ? , . .: , " " .
  • 17. 10Aldridge, 2000; ) " " .(Christiano, Swatos & Kivisto , 2002; Hunt, 2002 , : .. , ,,19- " , ." – , , , , . , - . . . . . , :: . . - , , ,Aldridge, 2000; ) .(Christiano et al., 2002; Cipriani, 2000 (Tylor, 1903 as cited in Hunt, 2002) ., . " " . , - . , , ,Robertson, 1970 as cited in Hunt, ) , . - - (2002 .(Bowie, 2000; Hunt, 2002)
  • 18. 11 (1864-1920) . . - . .., - : , , ,( )" " . , , - , . . .(Aldridge, 2000; Christiano et al., 2002; Cipriani, 2000) ,(1858-1917) , ., ,Durkheim, ) , .(1965 in Christiano et al., 2002 . - ,. , , . , . , . . , , ,. : - . - . . .
  • 19. 12 . . , , , .(Aldridge, 2000; Christiano et al., 2002; Cipriani, 2000) . , . , (liminal) - . -. , .(Turner, 1969 as cited in Fernback, 2002) , . . . . (situational) , . , . , . ." "- , , , .(Aldridge, 2000; Christiano et al., 2002; Cipriani, 2000) . . . , , , , , , - . . . . , . ,, . - . ,
  • 20. 13 – . . – . . .(Aldridge, 2000; York, 2003) ,? , – , - , . ,. ,, . -, , , .(Hunt, 2002) . . . . . , ," " . , . , . - .
  • 21. 14 . . , , .(Fernback, 2002) - ,, - - . - . , , . , .(Kong, 2001) ? , (Giddens, 1992 as cited by Kruger, 2005a) .. . , . , , .(Kruger, 2005a; Larsson, 2005) , - . ,. – :, , ,. , , " . , ,, . , , , . , , , , , - ,
  • 22. 15 - . , , : . –Campbell, 2005a; Dawson, 2005; Kong, ) .(2001; Lovheim, 2005; Larsson, 2005, . - . - : ? , ? ? ? - , - ? ? ? , .(Dawson, 2000; Kong, 2001; Kruger, 2005b; Larsson, 2005) (Campbell, 2005b), . . , . , , , , , .? " "- . .
  • 23. 16 . " " . , . " ,Campbell, 2005a; Campbell 2005b; Cowan, 2005; Helland, 2002; )Helland, 2005; Kong, 2001; Krueger, 2004; Kruger, 2005a ; Kruger, 2005b; .(Larsson: 2005 - .(Cowan, 2005; Helland, 2005) . - –, , . , ? – .. , . ." " ,Campbell, 2005b; Lovheim, 2005; OLeary, ) , . - . (1996- . . , .. (Helland, 2005) . - , . .
  • 24. 17 . - , , , , . , - , , , " " . (Kong, 2001; Lovheim, 2005) . – (religion online) " " 1999 " "– .(online religion) " " . . ?. . , -, - . . , . , . " " , . .Helland, 2002; ) .(Helland, 2005 .(Campbell, 2005a) . , , . ,
  • 25. 18 . , , , - , . , : – – , . , , ., . , . . , .(Campbell, 2005a) . – – . " " , " " , . ." " . - .(Campbell, 2005a) – – . . , . " " , . , , - - , , , . - - , .(Campbell, 2005a)
  • 26. 19 – – . .(Campbell, 2005a) . - - – , , , . , . - . , . . , , .(Campbell, 2005a) . , . . , , ) . ,( . - . , . , . , . . , . , ,.
  • 27. 20Campbell, ) .(2005b“spiritualizing the ) " " . .(internet” " . , " . . - " " , . " " .(Campbell, 2005b) , . . – . . , . " " . .(Campbell, 2005b) (Zimmerman-Umble, 1992 as cited by Campbell, 2005b) - - ., ., . , , . " " .
  • 28. 21 . - ,Livio & Teneboim, 2004; Barzilai & Barzilai-Nahon, 2005 as ) .(cited by Campell, 2005b , ,Campbell, 2005a; Campbell 2005b; Krueger, 2004; Kruger, ) .(2005a ; Kruger, 2005b; Larsson, 2005 . - , . . : , , . / , , , . , - , .Fernback, 2002; McIntosh, 2004; Pearson, 2002; ) .(Strmiska, 2005 (Pagan) " " . : "Paganus" . , - . .. ,
  • 29. 22 .;Strmiska, 2005) " " ." " " " , .(Chryssides, 1999.(Militia christi) " " " " ."Pagani" " " -" " .(Pearson, 2002; Strmiska, 2005) 18- , ,19- . , . , . " , . (Starhawk, 1979) " . .(McIntosh, 2004 ; Strmiska, 2005) " - " .(Neo) " " ,(Paganism) " " , . , " - " . .- - , , , . " " , ,
  • 30. 23 : " "19- , " " , , . ( ,heathen) " "- " " .(Pearson, 2002; Strmiska, 2005 ) " " ," - " . - . , . . - . , .(Strmiska, 2005) , : . . , , : ,( 30) ,( ) ,( 31) - . –( ) , .(equinoxes) (solstices) . , ., - " " .Fernback, 2002; ) .(Pearson, 2002
  • 31. 24 , : – (Witchcraft Religions) . . – (Reconstructionist) .: . - –Asatru) ,(Celtic Recon) ,(Druidism) (Religio Romana) , - ,( ) ,( - ) . ,( – . Wren, 2005, "Intro: ;2003 , ," : ") .(Pagans, Heathens and Recons"; York, 2004 . , , : , . - – , .. – , , - . , - , , . - , . . .Strmiska, ) , " , . ,(2005
  • 32. 25 - . ,(The Craft ) " " " " (1884-1964) . . 50- , . , . , , ,(Rosicrucian) . . , . . .Chryssides, 1999; Klassen, ) , .(2002; Krueger, 2004; McIntosh, 2004; York, 2004 ,(1926-1988) . . , " . - " . (visibility)(Starhawk, 1979) ,( ) . - 1971 " .(Klassen, 2002; Krueger, 2004; McIntosh, 2004),( ) , , ,NROOGD ,( ) , , .(Chryssides, 1999; York, 2004) (Goffman, 1967 in Krueger, 2004) .
  • 33. 26 . . ,(Covens) 12 . ) . ( . , . , , ( )Krueger, 2004; McIntosh, 2004; Pearson, 2002; ) (Sabbats) .(York, 2004 . , , " " "- . . . ,Chryssides, ) .(1999 . " .." " " . , . , " .(Berger & Ezzy, 2004; Krueger, 2004) . " " " ," " -" "- " " , ," - , , .(Klassen, 2002; Krueger, 2004; Schutten, 2006)
  • 34. 27 . . ., , ,. , , :. - , , , . -" , , . . . . . :( , ) ,( , ) , .( , , ) ."Grooves" "Chryssides,1999; McIntosh, 2004; Pearson, 2002; ) .(Wren, 2005, "Intro: Pagans, Heathens and Recons" - - . - . , . . . . .(York, 2004)
  • 35. 28 - . , , , , ,, , . ., ., .,York, ) .(2004 .(Ásatrú) " " .- ."Heathen" ," " . Heathen , . -McIntosh, 2004; Strmiska, 2005; Wren, 2005, "Intro: Pagans, Heathens and ) .(Recons"" " , , New Religious Movements) " " (New Age) - .(NRMs . , . , . , ", . ,60- 50- ( ) . " , :, " " , .
  • 36. 29 . .(Chryssides, 1999; Pearson, 2002; York, 2004) , . , , . , - , . , . , - . ,, " "- .(Chryssides, 1999; Pearson, 2002; York, 2004) ,, - " " . . , . , , , , , . ,(1865-1923) , , " " :(cult) ,(sect) " ",, - " " . . . , , , " " , . ." "
  • 37. 30 :.(Daschke & Ashcraft, 2005 ;2007 , )Wallis, ) , - :(2007 , 1976 , , - . , , . ,(" " ) . , , , - , - , ,(Branch Davidians) . , Aum Shinrikyo ,(Heavens Gate), , , . .Daschke & ) . (Ashcraft, 2005 - . , ., , . (Luckmann,1967 in Krueger, 2004) . "- , - ." ,
  • 38. 31 , , .(Krueger, 2004) , 90 - " "- . - .(Krueger, 2004)– – . , ( , ) .Krueger, ) , , , , .(2004 . , . - .- . .(McIntosh, 2004) , . , - , . , - . . - . " "
  • 39. 32 - , . , . , , . ." " - - - . .(Fernback, 2002; Klassen, 2002) - . - , – .,(sabbats) " " , , . , , : .(Klassen, 2002) - (Fernback, 2002; Klassen, 2002) - . . , . . - - , . (Fernback, 2002; Klassen, 2002) , - . . ,- .(Technopagans) - (Zippies) - , , . .
  • 40. 33 - . , – – .- . (Krueger, 2004, Kruger, 2005a) . ,-- . ,– . . , . , ( ) .– . ,- , , – , . .(Krueger, 2004, Kruger, 2005a) . , , , , . , . , ,, . .(Krueger, 2004, Kruger, 2005a)
  • 41. 34- . . , ,, " , -Krueger, 2004, ) - 15 .(Kruger, 2005a (Fernback, 2002) , - , . - - ., , . . , - . - . . -" " - . , -. . . , : , - - , , .(Fernback, 2002) ,
  • 42. 35 (chat) . : . " " , . , .(Fernback, 2002) (Klassen, 2002) , Cybercoven - . . , . 23 Cybercoven- . .. , . Cybercoven -: . ,61 - 16 . , , " , - , .- , . , . , -., , .(Klassen, 2002) ,Cybercoven - : , , , , - , , , , , ,
  • 43. 36- Cybercoven - . , , , . - " " , , , . - , , : ? . ,Cybercoven, . . ,, . , . , , .. - , , . ? - . ." " ,- , .- , . , , . . . , , Cybercoven
  • 44. 37 , , . Cybercoven , .(Klassen, 2002)Southwest- .Summerland. - , , . . , , , . . , - . - . Fluffy Bunny - ."Fluffy Bunny" - - - - ) , . ,( , . , - - , . " " , " " .(Coco and Woodward, 2007) - .
  • 45. 38 - , . - . , , . . , . , , - . , , . - . - - . , - : . ? - • ? - • : , , : –. – , , , . .
  • 46. 39 ? - ? ? ? - . . - . .( , ) . . . , - , .(McIntosh, 2004) , , . - - . - - , .- , . . - (1998) (2004) . (2007) . - - .(De Wever, Valcke, Schellens, & Van Keer, 2006)
  • 47. 40-. , , - : , .(Campbell, 2005a) . ,1 " " " " ) ,2001 .( , . . , , , - , . " ,2" " . , , , 3" . -- " " . (2001-2006 ) , . .2001 . 12.12-18.12 , - . -. . 1 http://www.tapuz.co.il/tapuzforum/ main/forumpage.asp?forum=337 : 26.04.06 2 http://www.tapuz.co.il/TapuzForum/main/forumpage.asp?id=122 : 30.05.06 3 http://www.tapuz.co.il/Communa/userCommuna.asp?Communaid=18429 : 05.11.06
  • 48. 41 , . . . . .Cutcliffe, 2000; ) . .(Horsburgh, 2003 . . - , , . - , , . (visibility) , . " " , . ., , . ,, - . – . , - , ) " , .. - ( - . . . ,
  • 49. 42 . - . . - -, , . , ,, , . , . ,, .4 , – - . . , , . - 5 - , .. - . . , ..(2003 , ) 4 18.01.08 /http://www.behindthename.com/random : . . - 5 . . -
  • 50. 43 :Wired - " " ," " .(Davis, 1995) , ,1998-2007 , . -. , ,- - ,90 -.( " ) " ".. , - - . . " " . , - . . - , , , . ., . . , . , , : ., .
  • 51. 44 , , , , – , .;2001 , ) , .(Creswell, 2003; Ritchie & Lewis, 2003 ;1995 , - . ., ) . ( , , ? : ? ?, : .Creswell, 2003; ;1995 , - ) , , .(Ritchie & Lewis, 2003, . , . . - . . , . , . , . .(Creswell, 2003 ;2003 , ) , . . . . .(Creswell, 2003 ;2003 , )
  • 52. 45 . .. , . . , . . .(Creswell, 2003 ;2003 , ;1995 , - ;2001 , ) . . . , ,Creswell, 2003; Glaser & ;2003 , ;2001 , ) (Strauss, 1967 ., . . , ,, ., ) .(2001. " ", , ., - , . . ,;2003 , ) .(Creswell, 2003; Glaser & Strauss, 1967 . , ,
  • 53. 46 , . , ., ) , , , .(Creswell, 2003; Glaser & Strauss, 1967 ;2003 , ;2001 , ,(Creswell, 1998; Creswell, 2003) . , : ) , (, , . , , . . , , . - . . , - . - , , . . . ,(Kruger, 2005a; Kruger, 2005b) , . -
  • 54. 47 , . . , . -. , . - . , .(1995 , - ) .. , . , , , . .(Creswell, 2003 ; 2003 , ) .(Berelson, 1952). , (Holsti, 1969) , . (Krippendorff, 1980) . . (Guba & Lincoln, 1981) , , " " , (2003) .(2002 , ). . , : (1995) -
  • 55. 48 . : . ,, . ,. , , .(2001 , ) . , : . , , , , , .(1995 , - ;2001 , ) , , , . . . ,. , ., : . . . .(2003 , ;1995 , - ) . .. , . (1995 , - ) ., ) . , (2003
  • 56. 49 . , . / . : , .( ): . , - - , , , . , , . , .- .(2003 , ) , , , . , , - . , , , .(De Wever et al., 2006 ;2001 , ) , : , ,( : ) , , , .(Creswell, 2003) , - , - . . (2003) ." : "
  • 57. 50 ,(2003) . . , , . , ., . , . . , , . . , .. . .(2003 , ;1995 , - ) : , , . , . , - . , . , . . - , , . .
  • 58. 51 ., . , - , .(2003 , ;1995 , - ) .,, .(2003 , ), , , , . . . . , , , , .(2003 , ) : . • ( , , ) • - • • • • . - – • • • , . . . - -
  • 59. 52 , , . . , - , , , . , . . . . , . : . , 29 – • . , . . . . . , 28 – • . . . , 23 – •- . , 29 – • . Wiccan Seeker . . , 26 – • . , . . , . . – • . , . - • . . - . – •
  • 60. 53 . , . - -.(2003), , , , . :6 ,– " "– . , , , . . , .. , , . , . . , ., , , , . , . - - . . – – .(2003 , ) , –" " – . ,. 6 " " " " (2003) . , ,
  • 61. 54 , , . : . , , . , . . . , . . - . , . . , .(2003 , ) " " . . , ,: . . . , .(2003 , ) . " ". - , - . - . - , , .
  • 62. 55, ) .(2003 , . , , . , , , . – - – ., ,. -, . , - . - . . , . - . , . . . , . , - .
  • 63. 56 , . ,. , . , . . , , . .(Creswell, 2003 ;2003 , ;2001 , ) : –. , , , " "- , : . , , , -, . , . .(2003 , ;1995 , - ) , , . , . .(Lombard, Snyder-Duch, and Bracken, 2002) . , , , . , . , ,
  • 64. 57 511 51 . .( 10% - ) : . , , . ," " . , , . . : . . , – .,1 : . – .0 : N=51 78.43% 40 1 80.39% 41 2 80.39% 41 1 68.62% 35 2 64.7% 33 3 74.5% 38 4 86.27% 44 5 76.19% :
  • 65. 58 80% , (Lombard et al., 2002) , . 70% -, . , - , . , . . . , : . 511 . , , : ) , , , , , , , ,( , . , , . , . : . . :.? - - , , . - . . ( 828 ) . . , .
  • 66. 59 , . . . ,( ) . :? - - (Campbell, 2005a) . ,, " . . - . . ., , . . , , , : . , , - , , . . : . .1 . – – . . –, , – .
  • 67. 60 , , : - . , , : – - / , , . -, , – ., , , – , . , , . , – , , . . –, , - , – ., – - , . , , – .( / ) , . – – . ( ) .2 – , , . . - , , . ., –
  • 68. 61 . – / . .3. , , , –. , - . - , – . , - . , – - . – - . - –( ) ., – / , . .4 – , - . - – . , - .5 , / – / . / , / , , – . . –, , – .
  • 69. 62 , - – . , , , , . - . - . – / .6 , , – . , , , , , – . . – . – .7 – , / .( ) –, , , : , . . – – . –, : . , . , , – . .8 , – . -- , – . ,
  • 70. 63 . , – , – . , . – , – . .( ) –, – . , : ,(Campbell, 2005) – .1 , . – .2 , . . , , . – .3 . , – .4 , . – - .5 , .
  • 71. 64 : , , . . , 2003 . 76 2002 . 184 2001 . 62 2004 ,100 -. 34 - 2005- , ,2006 , .55 . , : , . . . , . . (Lovheim, 2005) , . . , , .. , . " " .(Lovheim, , (Larsson, 2005) , .(2005 . , .9/11 - , .
  • 72. 65 (Klassen, 2002) . . , 66 , . 100 - , 511 . 828 , ." " . 100 , , . ." "- , , :2005 , , , , , - (Fernback, 2002) . . , , - 83 . , , ,(Epona) : . 83 ? , ? , ? . ", . . ? , ., ) , , , .( 7 ". . 83 . , . , , . , , , , , 7 , , . . " "-
  • 73. 66 . , .- , ,, . 377 . , ) 125 ., : 9 .( , / . . 4 ,46 : , .( – ) , . , . - 511 363, .( , , ), ." "– , , ) , : ,( , .( , , , ) . , , . . , .2003 - ,27 2008 , .25 2005 - ,22
  • 74. 67 , .. , . , : . (37) (30) (29) (27) (28) (24) - (17) (17) (15) (13) (13) (12) (7) (4) (4) 277 : " (102) (69) (64) / (23) 259 : "
  • 75. 68 (73) - (53) / (47) (14) - (11) (9) (7) (4) 218 : " (19) (15) 34 : " - (46) (35) (26) / (16) (10) (9) (7) / (4)153 : - " (41) (12) (8) (5) 65 : " (14) (14)
  • 76. 69 (8) (7) (4) (3) 50 : " (19) (10) (9) (8) (9) (7) (6) (5) 73 : ",(277) :,(153) - , (218) ,(259) .(34) ,(50) ,(65) ,(73) , . - ,: ) - ) ,( .( , , . . , , . – , . – .
  • 77. 70 , . , . , , . . , , - , . , , , . , , , . , . , : ) - :( , . , . , . , , , , . , . . , .Helland, )
  • 78. 71 (2002; Helland,2005 , , . , . . :, , , - , ) ,( , ,,( , , , ), , ) .( , , , . ,2001 . , , , . , , . , . , ( ) " " , . . : , . , , "" " , , ( - ) ... , . (1987) " " " , . . ´ .
  • 79. 72 , , ". , , . , . , . , . ". "- - : ( - , ) "( - ) . . ( ) - ... )" , " ( )- . , , .( ". , – " :83 , - , , ??? - , , , , , ., , , ". , : , , ) , : ,(. , . " . ., . , , " " . . , , – .
  • 80. 73, ... – , ". , , , . , . . 83 . 83 . :... , " !!!! , , , . , , , . ".( ) .... : . " ? : ." - " , , , ." –, , , . : . , .. : , 58 , . , . ,
  • 81. 74 4 . :, " - " " : . . , . " " , ,. - , , " - , ": ." "- ,( ) ". . .(12 ) "!! ,90 : , ..." ... , , - , , " ,. " . - - ". " , ." ", . . . , : . " . , -" " , / ." " ". " , . , , .65 88 -. , , , 88 ). , "
  • 82. 75 ".( , " ,65 , , " " ... , ." . . , " " , " , 65 .. , , ,. ,, , . , , , 42 : , : " ... ? , ? ? . ? ? . "? - ? ? 42 . , , . . . , :89 " " , ", . .( , , ) ... .. ). , . ."( . , " , " - . ": , ,
  • 83. 76 ". .( " - ). . - - ": ". . : 93... ?... ... . " " :))) ? ... , 18 , , : : . " . - , . . , ... ". ,– , ., – , , . , , – , , . . . , . - , . , .. , . . ,
  • 84. 77 , . , . , . :- . . - , , . , , . ), .( ) . : ( , , , " , ". . 38 : , " (- : ". . ": 83 3 ."!!!! , 65 ." ":: 13 ." " " .,
  • 85. 78 . , :9 , 14.5 ( )9 " , , , "???" " : " " , " ... , ? . ? ? ? ? ,9 . , ., , " . ," , , . -. . - . , , . , . , , -? , . , : , - ". , -Fluffy Bunny - . , ," - " . , 9 . . , , :(2005 )
  • 86. 79 " ... ... ... "... ... ... ... , , , . . , . : , . " ) - -( ) .( " , ,( , ") - . .(´ , , , ) ". " . - . . ,. " " 22 : " , . . ", " , . . , ..... " . 83 - 18 : 83 . 10 . , " . , , .....7 . , , , ..... .....
  • 87. 80 .( ) , - , .7 , .5- ". . 83 83 . : , "4- ." " " .3 ... .2 ... .1 : ". " 18- ... , " . 3 , , ". , : - (4 : " , , (6 ... ,( , ) . . ". , . - , : . , , , , / ) ,(, - ) - . .( , , -
  • 88. 81 -, , ,. , , , , : , , . ... " . ,( ) " , ( ) . ". , - : - ,77 . ( ) " "... . . . , ": - ... ( ) . , . "? , , . ,42 . " ": ." , 42 . ": . , , 42 ." , ": ." . -
  • 89. 82 : .,( / , , / , ), , ) - .( ,, , . , , , - 83 . : 86 ) , ". . ,(, . , ? , , "? " 83 : , ..." . ( ) . , .( ) . , "., . , : , " . , -( )- ) , , . -( ) ,, . -( -
  • 90. 83". : . . " ) . .( " . (12.12-18.12) , , , , : -. , :3 " " . -21.12.2001 . . , ...... , , . " ,,42 . : ,( ) " "?( - ) - . " : . - " 4 ". " . ": , - ". - , . .. " :48
  • 91. 84 .. ? "? .. , , , : 2 . . : " . ." " ., ." " . : , , , , ". , -. , , 13 65 , : . , " ". . , . - :" - "8 1990- ,Old Path - " ) , ( ") ,.(... ) , ( , " , , , , . .( ) , , - . - , . -
  • 92. 85 , . : " ... , ". . / ": . ". , . , , ., " : . (!) ( ) " . - 78 , 18 13 , : , " -? ? - - , ? - - , . ". - , . . . ,40 :
  • 93. 86 .. " .".. . 44 83 . ": ) , ".( , , . ) , . - (. " " , . : , , : ": " - ... " . .... , , , .( , ) , , . ?". , , . , - , ., , , . - . , 27 . : ,44 -? , , " , . ,( ) , , "? , ,
  • 94. 87 " ": ." , , , " . :- " "- , " , ... ... ,44 . ... ". (York, 2001) . (Commodication) . , , . , . , " " , . - , . . . , , 65 . : , , " . , , ".(The Wiccan Rede) - , , . : . , ,
  • 95. 88 . , , , : 90 ? " ? , , ? to dwell . , . ,. , . , "Wassail, friends. - ": " - . - - - . , . - . , - . .. . , . ." " ," "- , " ? ( ) . ? ". , . - ,, 51 . ": , " , ) .( , ) .( 17 ". , ? . ":"? ? ? . , ,:48 . 79 " ... " (!!! ) ... !
  • 96. 89 ( ) ... 4 ."... .. ... ... ; ": ". , - . , - . , , , , , ,. , . 83 . - : " , ,17 . .( 9) , Bandarach Collage of Druids , , .OBOD - , Online ". OBOD . , , . . " " "(:... .(: . " :94 ... , . ! " :20 . ," ... , , . , . :
  • 97. 90, . , ) , - , " , , ? - -(, " ( ) . ? " " " " ( ) , , . , . .´ , ". , , : . , , " , . . , " . ,( )´ ,, , Newbie . ) . ". , (, . . ( ) , : . "- israwicca . , .. ,( ) , - ) . ,( , , , , - ". , ( ) ,
  • 98. 91 , . , , . , : . " . . " , ,, . ,, . - - , . , . . " . " ". , , . ,(Campbell, 2007) . .. (Kruger, 2005b) . . . , , .(Burnett & Marshall, 2003; Chadwick, 2006 ) "Krueger, 2004, Kruger, ) .(Helland, 2005, p. 13) " (2005a .
  • 99. 92 , . - . . - , , . , . - , 27 : . " " ." " " , ,, " " , 5 .. , , . , , ". , . , . " " : , . , , " ( ) , . . * * . . , ". , , ,27 , : , , , ", , , , . , , .
  • 100. 93 ... , , ," " , . , ," " ". . " " : ... ? , " , . ,, . , . , . ". , 87 , . , : . ... " ,( ) , ,( ) , , ": ". ´ . . ".... , ": , , ". , . . - , , , , . - . (Preece, 2000) .
  • 101. 94 (243) (211) - (173) (122) (22) , . - . , : ., .(Campbell, 2005a) . . , , , . , ? - . . , . : , . , – , – " . , , , . , , . ". ,
  • 102. 95 , : . , . " ... , . , : . , "... ? , , : . - , ", . ... ,- . , , . ... . Witchvox . . . ". . , . : , . , . "... , search . . , – . . . , . , . , , . – . ". volume , : . " , ... .... . ... - . , . ? ,
  • 103. 96 , ... ., brains - ... . . - , .- . . , . ? , " " .Tool user . ". ? . , , , , . , - - ,, " "- - . - , , , . -,(Campbell, 2005a) . - , , , , . . : . . " . , , . ... . "., . . .
  • 104. 97 : , , . , , . " . . . , . , ". , . . , ,- . , . . , . : . , , , " , . . ... . ... ... . . . , ". . ? - . , . : 15 . ... " , , , , . ... , . . . . . . .
  • 105. 98 . . ... ". . , , . . , .. - , . " " . . - -, . - . : , , . , ": , . , , , , , ( ) ... ? , .You dont know what you gonna get . ,( ), " . ... , , ,, . " . ."! .consistently " , , , , , " ... , "... . "
  • 106. 99 , , . . : . . " ". , , IsraWicca : . . ". , ,. , ... . . "! , , , - , . : - " . ? . . . ... . . ". – , - :, . , , . " . . ... , . , . ... ... ". : . . , .
  • 107. 100 - . , , . , , , . . , , - . , , . , , : , , , , " , . " , " , , , , , , , , , , , , ? ? , ,witchcraft ,wicca. , , , , ... , , ". ... , , ., , ,
  • 108. 101 . : , ": , ." " ."... : . . . " . . . , ": , "- ." : ... " ". : , , " . , , ,, , , . ,... . .". ? , , . . , - . , : . - . , :
  • 109. 102 . " : ... . . - ? ? ? ". . . . , ": , . . . . , ... ". , " " . , , : ." , " . " . , . ? ? . ... ". . : , . ." . . . " , , . :WitchSchool . : , . " . . , ... .. ... customize
  • 110. 103 . " ". . " WitchSchool - : , ... . . ".WitchSchool , . . , .Witchschool.com . . . ... ". , . , - – , . . , - . , : "... ... " " ... " ": - " . ." ", ," , . ... . . . , , ... ... ... ". . , , . . , , ,
  • 111. 104 , . , , , . , . , . , - , , . . ." " : , , , , . .- . : , - . . ,. ,, - . . - . (Campbell, 2005a) . - . ,
  • 112. 105,(Campbell, 2005b; Helland, 2002; Helland, 2005) - . , , - , . - . , , - - . - , - " "- .(Zimmerman-Umble, 1992 as cited by Campbell, 2005b) . , . " . - , , .Herring, 2002; ), .(Soukup, 2000Campbell, 2005b; Fernback, 2002; Klassen, 2002; Lovheim, 2005; O’ leary, ) (Helland, 2005) , .(1996, . - , (Cowan, 2005) . . . --
  • 113. 106. - : .1 .2 .3. .,- . . , ,. - . . . , . (Campbell, 2005b) , . : - -. , , , , .. - ,. -
  • 114. 107 - - - , ,Chase, 2003; Hervieu-Leager, 2001; ;2007 , ) , , .(York, 2003 - , , .Livio & Teneboim, )2004; Barzilai & Barzilai-Nahon, 2005; Zimmerman-Umble, 1992 as cited by - ,(Campell, 2005b . . , , . , " " : " , . , , . , , , ... . . . . ... ,... , , . ? , " . ". . ." " " . , : . ... " ... .British Traditional ... , .Witchcraft
  • 115. 108- , Wiccan Seeker British Traditional Witchcraft ... ... ". : . . - . , , . . . : . , ": ". , - ... . " : ." ... . - " " . . , , – - . : , . ? . " . . , ... . , , , ,witchcraft ) . ... , ". , ,(
  • 116. 109 : , : ... " ,Wiccan Rede - . ? , .[. . . ] ... ! . , , , : . . . , ". . , : . " ... , . .... " " ...: , ., . ! , – , , . ,core belief- ". , - . ." , , ": : ,, ? - - ... , - , " , " ... , . ? , " " " " ( ) , , , .
  • 117. 110 . .´ ". , . , - . , : . , ": , , . , .as it were ... . . . , . - ,, - ,, , . . -per ... . ". ... ... .se , , .. - , ,- , . . , , , : 65 . , , " . , ,. ... (The Wiccan Rede) " "." " ,
  • 118. 111 "! , - , , , - . .(Berger & Ezzy, 2004; Krueger, 2004; York, 2004)Berger & Ezzy, 2004; Fernback, 2002; Klassen, ) , " (2002; Krueger, 2004; Kruger, 2005a , . . ,, - . .(Goffman, 1967 in Krueger, 2004; Kong, 2001) . ,- . . , , . -, - . . ,( ) , - . , - , : , , ,83 .
  • 119. 112 !!!!!! , ": , , , , . ."... ICQ, , ,: , .".... " . : , -- " . ", , . ,E- Cauldron - ,Pagan Path . , , ... ". . . : , " . . , , ... "... , (Krueger, 2004, Kruger, 2005a) , . . , . - - . . , . , ,( ) , , . - .
  • 120. 113 , , . - - . - . . - , . - , - , , . . - , , . ,. - . - , , - . . " , . , ) . ,( . - , , : . . - , . " : " " . ("Fin de siècle") " . 19 - . , , , , - ,
  • 121. 114 .20- "- ,(Occult) " " ," . - , , : . ,( )- , , , . . , " " , . 8 , : ,- , , .(Pearson, 2002) , . . , , . . - . , ,, - . , . - . - . . - , , 8 .(Pearson, 2002) . ,
  • 122. 115 .(Pearson, 2002) 1951. - : , - , . " . ! . , . . ? . . . ... , , ". . , , . .- , . , , , . " - " , - . - . , . , - . , , , - -.. , - " " ,( , , ) - . , , . ,- .(Helland, 2002; Helland, 2005) ,. ,
  • 123. 116 , , : . - " , , . . . . ... , : , ... . . " , ., - ,. ,, . : -- ?" "- ? . ? ? , - , . - , . . , – ," " " " ," " " " , . . - . , ," " - , . : -
  • 124. 117 .( ) " : . ... ". , - . . , ": , , , , , , , , " ": ... , , . , , , ... , , ": . . ."? ". . - -- , , , " " , - . - . , " " , , , . : . : . " . . ... ."" " . : " , , , . , ... . . . , . ? . .
  • 125. 118 ... ... ". ., " " - : 83 , , , , " , , , ) , , ," " , . (. , , , ". " " . , - , : , : . ... , ... , . . . , . . . ... . .Esoteric Archives , ". - , . , , . ,, , , , ,, - .
  • 126. 119, , . : , , , " . , .? , . ? ... ." ? - , . - -, . . , , , - , , . . , .." "- ,(Raymond, 2000) . , , . , ., . . , , , .
  • 127. 120 , , , .- . , , . . . , , , " " . , . - . " " . , . . - ,,(Helland, 2002; Helland, 2005) . , . , . - . , - - . , , . -, , , " " . - " " . . -
  • 128. 121 - , . - , - ., , , , . , . ," " , , , . , . , . , -. . , , .. ,, :- , , , . .(Brauchler, 2007;Ess, 2006) - . ., , , , , . "Witch Wars" . ,(Friedman, 2001) . - . . , ,
  • 129. 122 , . ., , . , Witch Wars - . , . : , . Witch Wars - , " Witch Wars ... . ., . , Witchvox . , ... , " , , ... Witchvox , ,Witchvox ". ... . . , . : . . " ... . .. ". . , , : . ... , " .- ," ": . ... . . ... " " . .
  • 130. 123. .weariness . ? , ". .. , . , .(Fernback, 2002) , . . . , , , , . . ,. , : , . ... , " . , ... , . . ... ... ... , ? ," " ...? , . , ". , . , , ., , . , . , . " : 91
  • 131. 124 42 , ." , " : , " , ? ". - , . : . " , " . , .. ... . . , ... ? . ... . , . . ". , , , . . - .(Fernback, 2002) - , . . , , , . .
  • 132. 125 . . - . : , , ... " . – , , . - . . .... ! ! ... ". - . , . , , - . . , - ." "- (Reid, 1999 as cited by Friedman, 2001) , . : - , . , , . ,- . , , : ? ? .? - ,
  • 133. 126 , . . -, , . . , .- . - . , . : , ... . . " . . , , – . -. : ... , , , ... . ... ".- : , . " .Meet-up ... ,Meet-ups Meet-up , , , , ... Meet-up , , ? , , : ... . . , , . ... . ". . Meet-ups - , - : . ": ... . , ... , , . , ". , ,
  • 134. 127 . . , . " " :" "- . " " "" " . ... . ." " " " . .. . ". , " " : - . , " ... . Reclaiming- ... . . " . , ."... – ...., . , ".Fernback, ) (2002 . , . , : " "- , ... " . , ... . ": . . ,"! " ."! ."! ", .
  • 135. 128 , , ". , . . , . . , . , , . . , , . : ,New York Times nrg- - - " , , ., " .word - , ," " . , , ". , " " , . : . , " " " . , . . , . " , ". , , , , . " - " .
  • 136. 129 , . , . , - . .(Kong, 2001) , . - , . , . , , , . . , , . . , ,. - , ,. , , , . , - . -Luckmann,1967 in Krueger, ) , " "- - . ,(2004. - (Campbell, 2005a) , - .
  • 137. 130 . ,, , : , .- , , , . . . . , ., (Larsson, 2005) , . - . , - -. , , . , .. , , . - - ,- . , . , , , . -
  • 138. 131 . , , : , : : ) " • ( - ? - - • , ? ? - - . , , • ?, - • ?- • ?
  • 139. 132 : .(2007) , . - ," " . (Wicca) : .(2001) , .( ) , – . . : .(195-228 ) . , .(2004) , . - ," " . (CONTENT-ANALYSIS) .(2002) , : .( ) , , . - , - : - . . - .(1998) , . - ," " . : . - : .(2003) , . : .(2007) , . : .(7-27 ) ,( )Aldridge, A. (2000). Religion in the contemporary world: A sociological introduction. Cambridge: Polity Press.Bell, D. (2001). An introduction to cybercultures. New York: Routledge.Bell, D., Loader, B.D., Pleace, N. & Schuler, D. (2004). Cyberculture: Thekey concepts. London: Routledge.Berelson, B. (1952). Content analysis in communication research. Illinois:Free Press.Berger, H. & Ezzy, D. (2004). The internet as virtual spiritual community: Teenwitches in the United states and Australia. In: L.L. Dawson & D,E. Cowan(Eds.), Religion Online: Finding Faith on the Internet. New York: Routledge.Bowie, F. (2000). The anthropology of religion. Oxford: Blackwell.Brauchler, B. (2007). (Electronic version). Citizenship Studies, 11 (4), 329-347.Burnett, R., & Marshall, P. (2003). Web theory: An introduction. London:Routledge.
  • 140. 133Campbell, H (2005a). Considering spiritual dimensions within computer-mediated communication studies. (Electronic version). New Media andSociety, 7, 110–134.Campbell, H. (2005b). Spiritualizing the internet: Uncovering discourses andnarratives of religious Internet use. Online-Heidelberg Journal of Religions onthe Internet, 1 (1). Retrieved May 5, 2006 from http://archiv.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/volltextserver/volltexte/2005/5824/pdf/Campbell4a.pdfCampbell, H. (2007). Who’ Got the Power? The Question of Religious sAuthority and the Internet. Journal of Computer-mediated Communication,12(3). Retrieved June 15, 2008 from:http://jcmc.indiana.edu/vol12/issue3/campbell.htmlCastells, M. (2001). The Internet galaxy: Reflections on the internet, businessand society. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Chase, P. (2003). Neopaganism: A twenty-first century synthesis of spiritualityand nature. (M.A. dissertation, University of Florida). Retrieved March 10,2008 from: http://etd.fcla.edu/UF/UFE0000660/chase_r.pdfChadwick, A. (2006). Internet politics: States, citizens and newcommunication technologies. New York: Oxford University Press.Christiano, K. J., Swatos Jr., W. H., & Kivisto, P. (2002). Sociology of religion:contemporary developments. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press.Chryssides, G. (1999). Exploring New Religions. London: Cassell,.Cipriani, R. (2000). Sociology of religion: An historical introduction. NewYork: Aldine de Gruyter.Coco, A. & Woodward, I. (2007). Discourses of authenticity within a pagancommunity: The emergence of the ’ fluffy bunny’sanction. (Electronic version).Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 36(5), 479–504.Creswell, J. W. (1997). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosingamong five traditions. Thousand Oaks, CA: SageCreswell, J.W. (2003). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixedapproaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Cutcliffe, J.R. (2000). Methodological issues in grounded theory. (Electronicversion). Journal of Advanced Nursing, 31, 1476–1484.
  • 141. 134Cowan, D.E. (2005). Online u-topia: Cyberspace and the mythology ofplacelessness. (Electronic version). Journal for the Scientific Study ofReligion, 44 (3), 257-264.Daschke, D. & W.M. Ashcraft (Eds.). (2005). New religious movements: Adocumentary reader. New York: New York University Press.Davis, E. (1998). TechGnosis: Myth, magic, and mysticism in the age ofInformation. New York: Random House.Dawson, L. (2000). Researching religion in cyberspace: Issues and strategies.In: J. Hadden & D. Cowan (Eds.), Religion on the Internet: ResearchProspects and Promises (pp. 25–54). New York: JAI Press.Dawson, L. (2005). The mediation of religious experience in cyberspace. In:M. Højsgaard & M. Warburg (Eds.), Religion and Cyberspace (pp. 15–37).London: Routledge.De Wever, B., Schellens, T., Valcke, M. & Van Keer, H. (2005). (Electronicversion). Content analysis schemes to analyze transcripts of onlineasynchronous discussion groups: A review. Computers & Education, 46 (1),6–28.Ess, C. (forthcoming). War and peace, east and west— online: A comparisonof how different world religions use the Internet. In: G. Wohlfart & H.G. Möller(Eds.), War and Peace: East and West. Berlin: Parerga Verlag. RetrievedSeptember 20, 2008 from:http://www.hf.ntnu.no/cofu/content/charles_%20ess.pdfFernback, J. (2002). Internet ritual: A case study of the construction ofcomputer-mediated neopagan religious meaning. In: S.M. Hoover & L.S. Clark(Eds.), Practicing religion in the age of the media (pp. 254-276). New York,NY: Columbia University Press.Friedman, C. E. (2001). As Above, So Below: A System of Value-basedEthics for Wiccan Clergy. (M.A. dissertation, City University Seattle,Washington). Retrieved September 15, 2008 from:http://unicorntrad.org/PDF/As_Above_So_Below.pdfGlaser B. & Strauss A.L. (1967). The Discovery of Grounded Theory:Strategies for Qualitative Research. Chicago: Aldine.
  • 142. 135Guba, E. G., & Lincoln, Y. S. (1981). Effective evaluation: Improving theusefulness of evaluation results through responsive and naturalisticapproaches. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Helland, C. (2002). Surfing for salvation. (Electronic version). Religion, 32,293-302.Helland, C. (2005). Online religion as lived religion: Methodological issues inthe study of religious participation on the internet. Online-Heidelberg journal ofreligions on the internet, 1(1). Retrieved May 25, 2006 fromhttp://archiv.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/volltextserver/volltexte/2005/5823/pdf/Helland3a.pdfHerring, S.C. (2002). Computer-mediated communication on the Internet. In:B. Cronin (Ed.), Annual review of information and science technology (pp.109-168). Medford, NJ: Information Today, Inc.Hervieu-Leger, D. (2003). Individualism, the validation of faith and the socialnature of religion in modernity. In: R. K. Fenn (Ed.), TheBlackwell Companion to Sociology of Religion (pp. 160–172). Oxford:Blackwell.Holsti, O. (1969). Content analysis for the social sciences and humanities.Don Mills: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.Horsburgh, D. (2003). Evaluation of Qualitative Research. (Electronicversion). Journal of Clinical Nursing, 12(2), 307-312.Hunt, S. J. (2002). Religion in western society. New York: Palgrave.Ince, D. (2001). A dictionary of the Internet. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Klassen, C. (2002). Cybercoven: Being a witch online. (Electronic version).Studies in Religion/Sciences Religieuses, 31(1), 51-62.Klopfenstein, B. (2002). The Internet and web as communication media. In C.A. Lin & D. J. Atkin (Eds.), Communication technology and society: Audienceadoption and uses (pp. 379–407). Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.Kong, L. (2001). Religion and Technology: Refiguring Place, Space, Identityand Community. (Electronic version). Area, 33.4, 404-413.Krippendorf, K. (1980). Quantitative content analysis: An introduction to itsmethod. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications.Krueger, O. (2004). The internet as distributor and mirror of religious and ritual
  • 143. 136knowledge. (Electronic version). Asian Journal of Social Science, 32 (2), 183-197.Kruger, O. (2005a). Discovering the invisible internet: Methodological aspectsof searching religion on the internet. Online-Heidelberg journal of religions onthe Internet, 1(1). Retrieved May 25, 2006 from http://archiv.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/volltextserver/volltexte/2005/5828/pdf/Krueger3a.pdfKruger, O. (2005b). Methods and theory for studying religion on the internet:Introduction to the special issue on theory and methodology. Online-Heidelberg journal of religions on the internet, 1(1). Retrieved May 25, 2006from: http://archiv.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/volltextserver/volltexte/2005/5822/pdf/Introduction1.pdfLarsson, G. (2005). The death of a virtual muslim discussion group: Issuesand methods in analysing religion on the net. Online-Heidelberg journal ofReligions on the Internet, 1(1). Retrieved May 25, 2006 fromhttp://archiv.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/volltextserver/volltexte/2005/5825/pdf/Larsson3a.pdfM. Lombard, J. Snyder-Duch & C.C. Bracken. (2002). (Electronic version).Content analysis in mass communication: assessment and reporting ofintercoder reliability. Human Communication Research, 28, 587–604.Lovheim, M. (2005). Young people and the use of the internet as transitionalspace. Online-Heidelberg journal of religions on the internet, 1(1). RetrievedMay 25, 2006 from http://archiv.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/volltextserver/volltexte/2005/5826/pdf/Loevheim3.pdfMcIntosh, C. (2004). The pagan revival and its prospects. . (Electronicversion). Futures, 36, 1037-1041.OLeary, S. (1996). Cyberspace as sacred space: Communicating religion oncomputer networks. (Electronic version). Journal of the American Academy ofReligion, LXIV (4), 781–808.Pearson, J. (2002). Introduction. In: Pearson, J. (Ed.), Belief BeyondBoundries: Wicca, Celtic Spirituality and New Age (pp. 1-12). Aldershot:Ashgate Publishing Ltd.Pearson, J. (2002). The history and development of wicca and paganism. In:Pearson, J. (Ed.), Belief Beyond Boundries: Wicca, Celtic Spirituality and NewAge (pp. 15-54). Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing Ltd.
  • 144. 137Preece, J. (2000). Shaping communities: Empathy, hostility, lurking,participation. Proceedings of CPSR DIAC2000, Shaping the Network Society:The Future of the Public Sphere in Cyberspace, Seattle, 25-34.Retrieved December 17, 2006 from:http://www.ifsm.umbc.edu/~preece/Papers/DIAC2000.pdfRaymond, E. (2000). The cathedral and the bazaar. Sebastopol, CA:O’ ReillyPress.Rheingold, H. (1993) The Virtual Community: Homesteading on the electronicfrontier. New York: HarperPerennial.Ritchie, J.& Lewis, J. (2003). Qualitative research practice: A guide for socialscience students and researchers. London: SAGE Publications Ltd.Schutten, J. K. (2006). Invoking practical magic: New social movements,hidden populations and the public screen. (Electronic version). WesternJournal of Communication, 4, 331-354.Soukup, C. (2000). Building a theory of multimedia CMC: An analysis, critiqueand integration of computer-mediated communication theory and research. .(Electronic version). New Media & Society, 2, 407–425.Starhawk. (1979). The Spiral Dance: A rebirth of the ancient religion of thegreat goddess. New York: Harper Collins Publishers.Strmiska, M. (2005). Modern paganism in world cultures: Comparativeperspectives. ABC-Clio Ltd..Turkle, S. (1995). Life on the screen: Identity in the age of the internet. NewYork: Simon and Schuster.Wood, A. F. & Smith, M. J. (2001). On-line Communication: LinkingTechnology, Identity, and Culture. Mahwah , NJ : Lawrence ErlbaumAssociates.York, M. (2001). New Age Commodification and Appropriation of Spirituality.(Electronic version). Journal of Contemporary Religion, 16 (3), 361–72.York, M. (2003). Pagan theology: Paganism as a world religion. New York:New York University Press.York, M. (2003). Historical Dictionary of New Age Movements. Lanham, MD:Scarecrow Press.
  • 145. 138 :, 30 . : .(2003) . , [ ] http://www.witchcraft.co.il/paganism.htm : 2008 :/http://www.behindthename.com/random :http://www.tapuz.co.il/TapuzForum/main/forumpage.asp?id=122 :http://www.tapuz.co.il/tapuzforum/main/forumpage .asp?forum=337 :http://www.tapuz.co.il/Communa/userCommuna.asp?Communaid=18429Davis, E. (1995). Technopagans: May the Astral Plane Be Reborn inCyberspace. Wired 3.07, Retrieved April 15, 2000, from:http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/3.07/technopagans.htmlWren. (2005). Intro: Pagans, Heathens and Recons. Retrieved April 15, 2008,from http://www.witchvox.com/va/dt_va.html?a=usfl&c=basics&id=4575
  • 146. i Abstract This research explores the intersection between two key elements thathave accompanied human society since almost the dawn of history –technology and religion. Until the last decade of the twentieth century,religious communities were characterized by means of their belonging to amutual geographic space and execution of collective rituals in physical holycenters. Recently, with the growth and expansion of the web, we witness theformation of virtual religious communities in online space, and thetransformation of this space to a unique religious sphere. In the virtual age,religious believers use computer-mediated communication for variouspurposes that range from locating information about religious customs andbeliefs, creating discourse and social relationships with believers that holdsimilar or adverse world views, and even in order to perform virtual rituals(Campbell, 2005a; Kong, 2001). Most of the research literature in the field of spiritual-religiousexpressions on the internet examined the religious use of the internet bybelievers of institutionalized and monotheistic religions. Research findingsshow that believers belonging to these religious communities have a need tojustify their religious use of the internet through various narratives anddiscourses. Traditional Religious communities negotiate over the use of theinternet technology because technology is often perceived as modern,secular, and contradictory to religious creed. The Internet has opened new and unique opportunities for researchersfor the inquiry of religious expressions of un-institutionalized and "invisible"religions, as named by Thomas Luckmann (1967 in Krueger, 2004) due topaucity of empirical findings in regard to them. The current research studiesthe study of internet usage patterns among Israeli neo-pagan believers, andwishes to contribute to the forming body of research knowledge concerningreligious expressions on the internet. Neo-pagan believers hold a variety ofbeliefs, practices, and religions that belong to the modern paganismmovements. The mutual characteristics of the modern paganism movementsare: reference to nature as sacred and as object of worship, reliance on theancient pagan religions, focus on ritual and myth and a tendency towardspolytheism or pantheism rather than monotheism. Today, there are many
  • 147. iisites dedicated to modern paganism on the web. Although there is anescalation in the belief in witchcraft and paganism in the modern age it stillisnt perceived as a legitimate religious belief by wide sectors worldwide. Theneed for secrecy makes it hard for neo-pagans to form a local-geographicalcommunity in which to acquire religious and ritualistic knowledge. Therefore,many neo-pagan believers turn to the web in order to find a spiritual-religiouscommunity that is otherwise difficult to find in their near environment and alsoto locate religious, ritualistic and spiritual information that helps mold theirreligious identity (Fernback, 2002; Klassen, 2002; McIntosh, 2004; Pearson,2002; Strmiska, 2005). Within the framework of the current research, we examined tworesearch questions aiming to determine the internet usage patterns of Israelineo-pagan believers: • What are the types of internet usage among Israeli neo-pagan believers? • What are the perceptions about internet usage among Israeli neo- pagan believers? These questions were examined in the context of a specific virtualpagan space: The "paganism in Israel" forum, which has exists since thebeginning of the new millennium. The research relied on the qualitativeparadigm and the ground theory method in order to perform a contentanalysis of the online discourse in the forum. Additionally, in-depthhalf-structured interviews were conducted with prominent neo-pagan believersselected from the forum’ participants. The content analysis process of the smessage sample from the "paganism in Israel" forum, as well as the analysisof the transcripts of the interviews content, was conducted according toShkedis four stages of content analysis (2003). The content analysis of theforum and interviews discourse was divided into two kinds: A thematicalanalysis illustrating types of internet usage among research participants, anda typological analysis based upon the five conceptual models offered byCampbell (2005a), illustrating the perceptions of the participants about thisusage.
  • 148. iii Fifty-seven secondary thematical variables were established during thethematical analysis that represent the context of the online discourse in thePaganism in Israel forum. These variables were arranged in 8 primarythematical variables: religious definitions, information sharing, socialinteractions, authority, religious-spiritual practices, nature, the pagancommunity and society and culture commodities. The most commonlyappearing primary variable was that of religious definitions, which is inaccordance with the theological and philosophical character of the forum. Thetypological analysis reveals that the most common conceptual models amongthe research participants are "The internet as information space" and "Theinternet as a sacramental space". These results helped determine the maincategory that characterizes the discourse in the forum and interviews aboutinternet usage, which is the attempt to form the identity of the Israeli pagancommunity. The thematical analysis and the typological analysis have been provenas useful analytical tools for the examination of the types of uses andperceptions about internet usage of religious believers. Results of the currentresearch indicate that as opposed to believers from other religions, neo-paganbelievers have no substantial religious or ideological aversion to religioususage of internet technology. However, they hold certain perceptions thatdefine the internet as appropriate for use only as means of serving limited andconstricted purposes. This research offers a theory that attempts to explain the internetusage patterns among Israeli neo-pagan believers as reflected in the researchresults. The theory presents a few key characteristics of the neo-paganbelievers and the neo-pagan community that affect the way they use onlinespace. The theory is divided into three axises: 1. Individualism Vs. community cohesion. 2. Hidden knowledge Vs. explicit knowledge 3. Religious struggle Vs. cooperation. The first axis refers to needs of the individual in regard to the pagancommunity to which he belongs. The second axis refers to the information andknowledge needs of the pagan community members. The Third axis refers tothe needs of the pagan community as a whole, which are needed for its
  • 149. ivpersistence, stability and development. In the discussion chapter, we describeeach of these axises in detail and their effect on the online Israeli-pagandiscourse. To conclude, we suggest a few research directions for future studyof the subjects presented in the current research.
  • 150. This work was carried out under the supervision ofDr. Dan Bouhnik, Department of Information Science,Bar-Ilan University.
  • 151. Bar-Ilan University Cyber-Paganism: Internet usage patterns among Israeli Neo-Pagan believers Korbet Rinat Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Masters Degree in the Department of Information Science, Bar-Ilan UniversityRamat Gan, Israel 2008